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Full text of "Book of Bruce; ancestors and descendants of King Robert of Scotland. Being an historical and genealogical survey of the kingly and noble Scottish house of Bruce and a full account of its principal collateral families. With special reference to the Bruces of Clackmannan, Cultmalindie, Caithness, and the Shetland Islands, and their American descendants"

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5,1    !i  -^ 

)arlington  Memorial  Library 

..„i.c.s.iii _ „...,^ 

tok &3..a..?.i^. 










*^m^  -^  0.Mt 

iSook  of  Bruce 


liing  %ohttt  of  g)cotlantJ 

Being  an  Historical  and  Genealogical  Survey  of  the  Kingly  and 

Noble   Scottish   House  of  Bruce  and  a  Full  Account  of 

Its  Principal   Collateral   Families.       With   Special 

Reference  to  the  Bruces  of  Clackmannan, 

Cultmalindie,  Caithness,  and  the 

Shetland   Islands,   and 

Their  American 




Author  of  Prominent  Families  of  New  York 



Copyright,    1907,  by 


New    YoKic 

<\   J 


Dedicated  to  the   Memory  of 

daieorge  Tsmct 

whose  genius  contributed  substantially  to  the 
advancement  in  America  of 

"The  Art  Preservative  of  All  Arts" 











NESS,           91 






























INDEX 337 





Opposite  pagb 

BR0OE  ARMS Frontispiece 


ELGIN  BRUGES,  ARMS  OF  THE •        .        .  29 




GISBURN  PRIORY,  RUINS  OF,      .        .  ' 58 























Opposite  pack 






BRUCE  COLLATERAL   FAMILIES,  ARMS   OF 260,    313,  318 








CASTLE  CAMPBELL,        .  276 

lONA 281 








MAR  ARMS 313 
















UPON  the  pages  of  Scottish  history  no  name  shines 
brighter  than  that  of  Bruce.  The  family  has  been 
a  large  part  of  all  that  is  great  and  glorious  in  the 
achievements  of  its  native  land  and  has  contributed  in  no 
small  measure  to  the  ennobling  activities  of  other  countries. 
In  war  and  in  peace;  in  government  and  in  diplomacy;  in 
the  church  and  in  the  world  of  letters;  in  the  broad  field  of 
industrial  effort;  its  representatives  have  ever  been  conspicu- 
ous and  preeminently  successful.  In  popular  estimation  the 
name  belongs  particularly  to  the  period  of  the  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries  that  was  crowded  with  events  that  changed 
forever  the  destiny  of  the  Kingdom  of  the  North.  Then  the 
great  heads  of  this  house  in  successive  generations  were  bril- 
liantly and  patriotically  identified  with  the  development  of 
their  country  into  a  nation  of  power  and  its  achievement  of 
independence  from  English  misrule.  But  before  that  time 
the  Bruces  had  been  famous  and  powerful;  and  in  the  subse- 
quent centuries,  in  all  walks  of  life,  they  have  been  worthy  of 
their  antecedents. 

Students  of  history  know  that  the  Bruce  stock  gave  to 
Scotland  its  last  and  greatest  dynasty;  that,  ever  since,  it  has 
transmitted  its  Scottish  blood  to  the  ruling  families  of  Great 
Britain  and  that  it  has  been  allied  to  other  royal  houses  of  the 



old  world.  Antiquarian  research  shows  that  the  family,  cen- 
turies before  its  more  modern  appearance  in  Scotland,  had  a 
record  that  harks  back  to  the  dawn  of  history,  and  even  into 
the  mists  of  tradition  and  mythology. 

In  considering  this  family  genealogically  and  historically. 
King  Robert  Bruce— THE  BRUCE  as  Scottish  history  desig- 
nates him — takes  his  place  as  the  central  figure  of  such  a  sur- 
vey. That  great  and  beloved  monarch  was  descended  in 
direct  male  line  from  the  most  powerful  Saxon  and  Danish 
lords  of  the  early  years  of  the  Christian  era  and  he  gave  that 
splendid  heritage  to  the  many  modern  families  that  bear  the 
name  in  England,  Scotland,  Europe,  and  America. 

Originally  of  Scandinavian  origin  the  line  is  traced  through 
the  dominant  lords,  princes,  and  nobles  of  Sweden,  Norway, 
and  Denmark,  and  by  frequent  matrimonial  alliances,  to  the 
ruling  families  of  Germany,  Russia,  and  other  principalities. 
The  heads  of  the  house  in  successive  generations  in  that 
period  were  among  the  strong  men  of  Denmark  and  Norway. 
They  were  vikings  of  the  North  and  played  their  parts  well 
in  that  heroic  age  when  they  and  their  countrymen  were  mas- 
ters of  the  seas ;  overran  the  islands  and  the  mainlands  of  that 
portion  of  the  world;  subjugated  the  rude  peoples  of  Northern 
Europe,  and  laid  the  substantial  foundations  of  consolidated 
government  upon  which  has  been  built  the  structure  of  mod- 
ern nationality.  Some  of  them  sailed  across  the  stormy 
waters  to  Orkney,  Shetland,  and  the  Hebrides,  taking  posses- 
sion of  those  islands  and  becoming  rulers  of  the  people  already 
there.     They  even  made  incursions  to  the  northern  mainland 



of  Scotland  and  from  time  to  time  held  sway  there,  little 
dreaming  that  four  hundred  or  more  years  later  their  greater 
descendants  were  to  come  again  and  hold  that  kingdom. 
Volumes  might  be  written  about  the  lives  and  adventures  of 
these  viking  ancestors  of  the  Bruces.  Their  names  gleam  in 
the  red  light  of  the  old  sagas;  their  achievements  are  related 
in  the  Latin  annals  of  the  ancient  historians,  in  the  records  of 
the  northern  kingdoms,  and  in  popular  traditions.  On  the 
following  pages  the  line  has  been  genealogically  traced,  gen- 
eration by  generation,  to  early  in  the  eighth  century. 

Nor  is  the  story  of  the  early  Bruces  limited  to  their  North- 
land careers  and  associations.  As  will  be  seen  presently,  Einar, 
Jarl  or  Earl  of  Orkney,  from  whom  the  Bruces  descended  in 
direct  male  line,  was  a  brother  of  Rollo,  the  first  Duke  of  Nor- 
mandy. This  allied  the  Bruces  to  the  great  ducal  house  of  Nor- 
mandy, and  to  William  the  Conqueror,  of  a  later  generation. 
Not  alone  that,  but  the  alliances  of  the  dukes  of  Normandy 
with  the  kings  of  France,  Spain,  and  Germany,  and  with  other 
princely  houses  of  Europe  is  well  known  and  this  Bruce 
connection  forms  another  striking  page  in  the  family  history. 

Still  pursuing  investigation  into  the  records  of  the  early 
centuries,  it  will  be  found  that  the  Bruce  forebears  married 
into  the  royal  family  of  Scotland  several  hundred  years  before 
their  name  became  indelibly  stamped  upon  the  pages  of  Scot- 
tish history.  Sigurd  the  seventh  Earl  of  Orkney  married 
Olith  or  Alice,  daughter  of  Malcolm  II.,  King  of  Scotland. 
He  was  the  ancestor  in  the  fourth  generation  in  direct  male 
line,  of  the  Bruces  who  came  into  Scotland  from  Normandy 



by  way  of  England  at  the  time  of  the  conquest  and  was  in  the 
ninth  generation  from  the  Robert  Bruce  who  married  Isabel 
of  Huntingdon,  also  a  descendant  of  Malcolm  II.  Thus  the 
modern  Bruces  trace  to  the  ancient  royal  house  of  Scotland 
through  two  lines  of  descent. 

An  examination  of  the  annals  of  the  Scottish  kings  is  of 
absorbing  interest  and  reveals  a  wealth  of  rich  genealogical 
and  historical  lore.  As  set  down  in  the  records,  Malcolm  III. 
(Malcolm  Canmore  or  Great-head)  great-great-grandfather 
of  Isabel  of  Huntingdon,  wife  of  Robert  Bruce,  was  the  eighty- 
sixth  king  of  Scotland.*  The  record  goes  back  through  Mal- 
colm, Kenneth,  Donal,  and  Constantin  to  Kenneth — son  of 
Alpin — who  united  the  Picts  and  Scots  and  became  king  of 
the  two  nations  or  tribes,  843-59.  Beyond  this  Kenneth  the 
line  extends  through  many  heroic  predecessors  whose  deeds 
are  matters  of  record,  to  Fergus  and  Eocha,  who  are  generally 
regarded  as  the  first  of  the  long  royal  line  and  who  ruled  be- 
fore the  beginning  of  the  sixth  century.  Beyond  Fergus  and 
Eocha  we  come  to  the  famous  Irish  kings  from  whom  the 
Scots  were  derived  and  whose  origin  has  been  traced  by  anti- 
quarians through  Spain,  Phenicia,  and  Egypt  to  Judea  and 
Babylon.  Into  such  a  far-away  period  of  ancient  history  the 
pursuit  of  the  ancestry  of  the  first  Scottish  kings,  ancestors  of 
the  Bruces,  leads  through  mazes  of  tradition,  myth,  secular 
and  sacred  history,  and  monumental  records. 

Before  the  close  of  the  eleventh  century  representatives  of 
the  Bruce  stock  in  the  principal   male  line  moved  from  the 

*  Caledonia,  by  Greorge  Chalmers,  Vol.  I,  pages  278  and  461. 


islands  of  Orkney  and  Shetland  back  to  the  mainland  of  Europe 
whence  their  ancestors  had  come.  Again,  they  were  influ- 
ential and  powerful  in  Norway  and  Denmark.  One  of  their 
ancestors  was  the  father  of  RoUo,  the  future  Duke  of  Nor- 
mandy, and  another  of  his  sons  was  the  head  of  the  branch 
which  produced  the  Bruces  of  Shetland  and  Orkney.  When 
RoUo  invaded  France  and  took  Normandy  to  himself,  setting 
up  his  great  dukedom,  several  Bruces  went  with  him.  In 
later  generations  marriages  between  these  families  brought 
them  into  more  intimate  association  and  gave  to  their  de- 
scendants common  blood  relationships.  Along  with  the  other 
nobles  who  helped  to  conquer  Normandy,  in  company  with 
RoUo  and  the  dukes  who  came  after  him,  the  Bruces  were 
leaders  in  the  warfares  of  the  day  and  took  large  part  in  the 
directions  of  affairs  at  Court.  They  grew  in  numbers  and 
power  and  the  name  figures  conspicuously  in  the  annals  of  the 
ancient  dukedom. 

Relating  to  this  period  of  the  history  of  the  family  there  is 
in  an  old  Statistical  Account  of  Scotland  a  copy  of  the  gene- 
alogy of  the  Bruces  which  is  very  curious  in  its  earlier  part. 

"Since  we  are  to  speak  of  the  genealogy  of  that  heroick 
prince,  King  Robert  Bruce,  take  notice  in  the  first  place  that 
this  surname  (whether  corruptly  pronounced  for  Le  Preux, 
the  Valiant,  as  in  the  old  records,  it  is  sometimes  written  Le- 
Breuse  or  a  tropical  surname  DeBruis,  from  a  castle  and 
town  of  that  name  in  the  Grisons  country)  hath  originally 
from  France  where  about  the  year  1145  lived  Peter  Brucie, 
famous  for  writing  against  the  Romish  errors  of  transubstan- 
tiation,  whose  followers  by  the  Popish  writers  are  styled  Petro 



Transferring  its  habitat  to  England  when  William  of  Nor- 
mandy conquered  that  country  the  stock  gravitated  gradu- 
ally to  the  north  where  was  the  earlier  home  of  its  race  on  the 
Scottish  Islands.  There  it  took  its  final  stand  in  the  eleventh 
and  twelfth  centuries  and  became  a  dominant  power  in  its 
new  home.  Ranking  with  the  foremost  and  most  distin- 
guished noble  houses  then  existing,  the  family  exercised  a  wide 
and  strong  influence  among  both  the  earlier  Scot  inhabitants 
and  its  Norman  emigrant  compeers.  In  less  than  two  cen- 
turies its  representatives  had  attained  a  position  that  gave 
them  royal  rights  and  honors  and  within  half  a  century  more 
they  had  mounted  to  the  throne. 

The  marriage  of  the  fifth  and  sixth  Robert  Bruces  into  the 
royal  family  of  Scotland  early  in  the  thirteenth  century  brought 
to  the  Anglo-Norman  house  the  heritage  of  the  Saxon  Kings 
of  England  and  the  Emperors  of  Germany.  The  wife  of 
Malcolm  III.  of  Scotland  was  Margaret,  sister  of  Edgar  Athe- 
ling  and  daughter  of  Edward  the  Outlaw.  From  this  Mar- 
garet the  line  of  ancestry  runs  through  Alfred  the  Great  and 
his  ancestors.  At  the  height  of  its  fortunes  and  power  no 
royal  or  noble  house  ranked  higher  than  that  of  Bruce.  Rob- 
ert, the  Bruce,  as  we  have  seen,  had  in  his  veins  the  blood  of 
the  most  powerful  and  the  most  ancient  ruling  families  of 
Europe,  and  his  children  and  grandchildren  were  joined  in 
marriage  to  other  noble  and  royal  houses  of  England,  Scot- 
land, and  Europe. 

On  the  male  line  the  Bruce  stock  produced  two  kings  of 
Scotland,  Robert  I.  and  David  II.  his  son.     It  also  gave  a 



king  to  Ireland,  Edward  I.  On  the  female  side  it  produced 
the  luckless  Stewart  dynasty  of  Scotland  and  England.  The 
marriage  of  Marjory  Bruce,  daughter  of  King  Robert  Bruce 
I.  to  Walter  Fitz  Alan,  the  High  Steward  of  Scotland,  was  the 
foundation  of  the  royal  house  of  Stewart.  The  descendants 
of  Robert  Bruce  in  the  Stewart  dynasty  maintained  themselves 
first  on  the  throne  of  Scotland  and  then  on  that  of  England 
for  more  than  three  hundred  years.  The  succession  on  the 
Scottish  throne  was  Robert  II.,  Robert  III.,  James  I.,  James 
II.,  James  III.,  James  IV.,  James  V.,  Mary  (the  unfortunate 
Queen  of  Scots),  and  James  VI.  On  the  death  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  of  England  iii  1603,  James  VI.  of  Scotland  united 
the  two  crowns,  becoming  James  I.  of  England.  His  dynas- 
tic successors  in  England  were  Charles  I.,  Charles  II.,  James 
II.,  Mary,  consort  of  William  of  Orange;  and  Anne.  From 
the  Stewart  line  was  also  derived  the  Hanoverian  dynasty 
through  Elizabeth  of  Bohemia,  daughter  of  James  VI.  of  Scot- 
land. Thus  Bruce  stock  by  female  derivatives  has  held  the 
thrones  of  Scotland  and  of  England  and  directed  the  affairs 
of  those  two  kingdoms,  alone  or  united,  to  the  present  day. 

Of  lesser  rank  but  not  always  of  lesser  power  or  distinc- 
tion, the  Bruce  stock  has  included  a  Cardinal  of  Rome;  Earl 
of  Huntingdon,  Carrick,  Ross,  Elgin,  Kincardine,  and  Ails 
bury;  Viscounts  Bruce;  Barons  of  Gower,  Brember,  Breck- 
nock, Abergavenny,  Skelton,  Annandale,  Bruce,  and  Kinloss; 
Lord  High  Chancellors  of  Scotland;  a  Chief  Justice  of  Eng- 
land; Archbishops,  Bishops,  Baronets,  a  Master  of  the  Rolls, 
Judges,   Privy   Councillors,   Ambassadors,   Envoys;  Knights 



of  the  Garter,  Bath,  Saint  Andrews,  and  St.  Michael;  Prin- 
cesses of  Wales,  Duchesses  of  Chandos,  Rutland,  and  Rich- 
mond; Countesses  of  Atholl,  Mar,  Ross,  Sutherland,  Cardi- 
gan, Perth,  Devonshire,  Hertford,  and  Airlie;  Baronesses 
Percy,  Beauchamp,  Maltravers,  Sayes,  Bothwell,  Mortimer, 
Brechin,  and  Cardross. 

A  viking  ancestor  gave  to  the  family  the  name  Brusee  or 
Brusi,  that  veas  later  transformed  into  Brus  and  Bruce.  He 
was  of  the  eleventh  century  and  it  was  his  grandson  who  es- 
tablished the  family  name  and  fame  firmly  in  the  annals  of 
Normandy.  In  the  old  writings  and  provincial  nomenclature 
Brus,  Bruse,  Brwyse,  Bruyce,  Brutz,  Broawse,  Brois,  and 
others  appear  to  have  been  one  name  spelled  differently. 
Drummond  in  his  monumental  work  on  British  families*  gives 
thirty-three  forms  of  the  name.  Modern  France  still  has 
Bruyce,  Broix,  and  Breux,  which  probably  have  the  same 
origin.  In  modern  dialect,  especially  on  the  borders  of  Eng- 
land and  Scotland,  the  name  has  been  corrupted,  at  least  as 
it  is  spoken,  into  Browis  and  Brewis.  In  the  Foedera  Angliae 
the  name  of  the  great  King  of  Scotland  is  uniformly  given  as 
de  Brus,  while  it  is  The  Brwyce  in  the  manuscript  copy  of  John 
Barbour's  famous  rhjined  history  of  King  Robert  now  in  the 
Edinburgh  Advocates  Library.f  Bruce  has  become  the  regu- 
lar modern  form  of  the  name. 

*  Histories  of  Noble  British  Families,  by  Henry  Drummond. 
t  Metrical  Life  and  Acts  of  Robert  Bruce,  by  John  Barbour. 







ON  the  Scandinavian  peninsula,  in  the  early  centuries 
of  the  Christian  era,  was  settled  a  race  whose  mas- 
tery of  the  countries  within  striking  distance  of  the 
Northland  was,  for  generations,  well-nigh  complete.  Tradi- 
tion and  mythology  commingle  in  the  story  of  the  semi-bar- 
barous Germanic  men  of  force  and  their  viking  descendants. 
The  sagas  of  Norway,  Denmark,  Iceland,  and  Orkney  tell  the 
tale  of  these  titanic  rovers  of  the  sea  and  conquerors  of  the 
land,  their  lives  and  achievements,  their  wild  freedom  and 
their  cruelties,  their  loves  and  their  hatreds.  From  these 
sources  are  derived  the  genealogical  records  that  make  pos- 
sible the  pedigrees  of  their  descendants  even  to  the  present 
day.  In  them  scholarly  research  has  found  the  earliest  dis- 
coverable ancestors  of  the  Bruces,  men  and  women  of  might 
who  had  a  large  and  influential  part  in  the  iron  life  of  that 
heroic  age. 

Before  the  seventh  or  eighth  century  the  Norsemen  found 
full  employment  for  their  fighting  passions  in  contending  with 
each  other  for  mastery  of  their  respective  domains.  Gradu- 
ally a  slight  sense  of  national  spirit  developed  among  them 
and  they  grew  more  and  more  inclined  to  be  at  peace  with 
their  immediate  neighbors  and  kinsfolk  and  to  exercise  their 
propensities  for  conquest  and  plunder  upon  other  peoples 
than  their  own.     Norway  became  the  fountain  head  of  one  of 



the  most  wonderful  conquering  and  colonizing  movements 
that  the  world  had  ever  known.  In  fast-sailing  ships  the 
vikings  and  their  followers  made  incursions  upon  Northern 
Europe  and  the  islands  of  Britain.  They  considered  war  the 
most  honorable  profession  and,  even  as  Tacitus  said  of  the 
Germans,  "they  deemed  it  a  disgrace  to  acquire  by  sweat 
what  they  might  obtain  by  blood."  Or,  as  another  ancient 
historian  quaintly  wrote,  they  were  "people  desperate  in  at- 
tempting the  conquest  of  other  realms,  being  very  sure  to 
finde  warmer  dwellings  anywhere  than  in  their  own  homes." 
They  harried  England,  Denmark,  and  Europe,  plundering 
cities,  devastating  countries,  and  carrying  away  spoils  by  the 
ship-load.  Of  such  mettle  were  these  progenitors  of  the  royal 
house  of  Bruce. 

On  the  direct  male  line  the  Bruce  pedigree  goes  to  Sveide, 
a  viking  who  lived  in  the  middle  of  the  eighth  century.  On 
the  distaff  side  the  pedigree  is  traced  through  various  lines, 
male  and  female,  to  the  founders  of  the  several  principalities 
or  kingdoms  that  finally  became  the  nation  of  Norway. 

In  the  most  ancient  chronology  Odin,  a  prince  who,  in  the 
fourth  or  fifth  century  of  the  Christian  era,  was  driven,  by  the 
Romans,  from  his  domains  on  the  border  of  the  North  Sea, 
led  his  Germanic  tribes  to  the  Northland.  He  was  a  famous 
warrior,  always  victorious,  and  when  he  died  he  divided  his 
new  kingdom  between  his  sons  and  companions  in  arms. 
His  son  Skioldr  established  himself  at  Lethra  upon  the  island 
of  Zeeland  and  founded  the  kingdom  of  Denmark.  In  the 
course  of  time,   sacrifices  were  made  to  Odin,  he  received 



divine  honors,  and  was  worshiped  as  the  creator  of  the  uni- 
verse. Some  authors  regard  him  entirely  as  a  mythological 
personage,  while  others  believe  in  his  historical  existence. 
But  the  list  of  Scandinavian  kings  who  claimed  descent  from 
him  is  accepted  by  historians  without  reserve,  after  the  seventh 

Beginning  with  Skioldr,  son  of  Odin,  the  fourteenth  king 
of  Lethra  was  Half  dan  II.,  son  of  Frode  III.  The  kingdom 
was  divided  between  the  two  sons  of  Halfdan  into  Lethra  and 
Roeskilde,  but  in  a  later  generation  was  reunited  by  Ivar  Vid- 
fami  of  Roeskilde,  the  son  of  Halfdan  III.  Sniale  by  his  wife 
Alfo.  Halfdan  III.  was  a  son  of  Olaj,  the  Sharp-eyed,  of  the 
Rurik  line  of  kings  who  were  foremost  among  those  eastern 
princes  whose  territories  and  powers  were  ultimately  merged 
in  the  Russian  empire. 

With  Ivar  Vidfami,  or  Widefathom,  we  are  on  firmer  his- 
torical ground.  His  father  Halfdan  III.  was  murdered  by 
Gudrod,  King  of  Scandia,  and  the  son  went  forth  to  Sweden 
with  an  army  to  avenge  the  death  of  his  parent.  King  In- 
giald,  whose  daughter  Asa  had  instigated  her  husband  Gud- 
rod to  kill  Halfdan,  was  so  hard  pressed  that  he  burned  him- 
self and  all  his  court  in  a  big  banqueting  hall.  After  this  Ivar 
acquired  "all  the  Swede  land,"  Denmark,  a  "great  part  of 
Saxon-land,"  all  the  East-realm,  and  part  of  England.  From 
him  came  the  early  kings  of  Sweden  and  of  Denmark. 

Auda  Diuphaudza,  daughter  of  Ivar  Vidfami,  married  Rad- 

*  Manuel  d'Histoire,  de  Genealogie  et  de  Chronologic  de  tous  les  Etats  du  Globe,  by 
A.  M.  H.  J.  Stokvis,  Vol.  II,  p.  320. 



bard  or  Robert  King  of  Holmgard,  and  their  son  King  Randver 
married  Asa.  In  the  next  generation  came  Sigurd  Hringr,  a 
famous  king  of  Sweden,  son  of  Randver  and  Asa.  He  was 
living  in  735  and  his  queen  was  Alfhilda.  In  750  a  daughter 
of  the  preceding  married  Thrond  or  Hoerk,  King  of  Trond- 
heim,  who  was  a  son  of  Harold  Hilditur.  Eystein,  King  of 
Trondheim  in  780,  was  the  son  of  Thrond  or  Hoerk;  Half- 
dan.  King  of  Trondheim  in  810,  was  his  grandson  and  Ey- 
stein Glumra,  King  of  Trondheim  in  840,  was  his  great-grand- 
son. A  daughter  of  Eystein  Glumra  marrying  Ivar,  son  of 
Halfdan  the  Aged,  son  of  Sveide,  the  viking,  brought  to  the 
direct  male  Bruce  line  a  pedigree  reaching  back  through  the 
several  royal  lines  that  have  just  been  indicated,  of  early 
Sweden,  Trondheim,  Holmgard,  Rurik,  and  Lethra  to  the 
stock  that  derived  from  Odin  the  divine. 

Instead  of  Ivar,  Earl  of  Upland,*  some  genealogists  give  as 
the  father  of  Eystein,'\  Thebotau,  Duke  of  Sleswig  and  Stor- 
man,  who  is  said  to  have  lived  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  ninth 
century;  to  have  served  under  Gudrod,  King  of  Norway,  in 
821,  and  to  have  married  Gandella,  daughter  of  Vitellan, 
Lord  of  Ballenstedt  and  Bernburg  in  Germany,  from  whom 
the  Ursini  family  of  Italy  is  descended.  This  origin  of  the 
Bruce  family  was  first  advanced  by  Gabriel  Surrene,  the 
famous  antiquarian  and  genealogist  of  half  a  century  ago,  in 
his  researches  for  material  for  a  history  of  the  Bruce  family. 
Among  English  genealogists  Henry  Drummond  has  almost 
alone  endorsed  the  opinion  of  Surenne. 

*  III  on  page  33.  t  IV  on  page  34 



On  the  other  hand,  the  pedigree  making  Ivar,  son  of  Half- 
dan  the  Aged  and  grandson  of  Sveide,  the  father  of  Eystein, 
is  presented  by  J.  H.  Wiffen,*  who  gives  a  genealogical 
chart  tracing,  as  has  been  shown  on  the  preceding  pages, 
the  pedigree  of  Ivar  through  ten  generations  to  Olaj  the 
Sharp-eyed,  King  of  Rurik.  This  pedigree  is  on  the  authority 
of  Suhnf  and  Snorre.J  Stokvis  in  his  Manuel  gives 
the  same  pedigree  from  Rognvald^  father  of  Torf  Einar  and 
of  Rollo,  Duke  of  Normandy,  back  to  Olaj  the  Sharp-eyed  and 
then  beyond  him,  generation  by  generation,  to  Odin  the  first 
great  monarch  of  the  Scandinavian  kings.  In  the  Lakdaela 
Saga  and  the  Landnama  Saga,  included  in  the  Origines 
Islandicse;  in  the  Heimskringla,  the  Norwegian  sagas  of 
Snorre  Sturlason,  and  in  the  Orkneyinga  Saga,  to  all  which 
frequent  reference  is  made  in  the  following  pages,  the  stories 
of  these  Norsemen,  their  ancestors,  and  their  descendants  are 
related,  often  with  much  of  detail  and  with  full  confirmation 
of  the  genealogical  lines  here  adopted. 


Sveide  of  Upland,  a  viking,  760-800. 


Halfden  the  Aged,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  ruler  of 
Upland  in  800. 


Ivar,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  a  jarl  or  earl  of  Upland  in 
830.     He  made  proud  boast  of  his  descent  from  the  deified 

*  History  of  the  House  of  Russell.  f  Histoire  Critique  du  Denmark. 

X  Historia  Regum  Septentrionalium.  If  V  on  page  35. 

3  33 


hero  Thor.     In  850  he  married  a  daughter  of  Eystein  Glumra 
who  was  King  of  Trondheim  in  840. 


Eystein,  or  Euslin,  named  Glumra  of  Vors,  son  of  the 
preceding,  fled  into  the  kingdom  of  Norway  about  870  to 
escape  Danish  tyranny.  He  married,  first,  Jocunda,  daugh- 
ter of  Hunthiof ,  King  of  North  Mere  and  South  Mere,  two 
provinces  of  Norway;  second,  Ascrida,  daughter  of  Rognvald, 
son  of  Olaf  or  Olaus,  an  independent  king  of  Norway,  who 
kept  his  court  at  Geirstead. 

Issue : — 

1.  Sigurd,  the  first  Earl  of  Orkney.  He  married  Jocunda, 
daughter  of  Olaf  Hviti,  the  White,  King  of  Dublin.  Olaf  was 
descended  from  the  same  stock  as  Harald  Harfagra,  the  first 
king  of  all  Norway.  He  led  an  invasion  of  the  Northmen  into 
Ireland  in  838,  and,  capturing  the  city  of  Dublin,  held  the 
Celtic  race  in  that  part  of  the  island  in  subjection,  and  founded 
the  most  powerful  and  most  permanent  Norse  kingdom  in 
Ireland.  He  was  a  son  of  Ingiald,  who  was  a  son  of  Helgi, 
and  his  wife  was  the  famous  Queen  Auda. 

The  islands  of  Orkney  were  subdued  by  Harald  Harfagra 
soon  after  the  year  875,  and  Sigurd  was  placed  in  possession, 
being  created  the  first  Earl  of  Orkney.  The  Norwegian  race 
of  earls  of  Orkney  continued  in  the  male  line  until  Magnus, 
Earl  of  Orkney,  who  married  the  Countess  of  Caithness,  died 
without  male  issue  in  the  fourteenth  century,  his  granddaugh- 
ter, Isabel  of  Caithness,  transmitting  the  right  of  the  earldom 
to  her  son,  Henry  Sinclair,  of  the  Scottish  Sinclair  or  St.  Clair 
family,  the  claim  being  acknowledged  by  Hakon  VI.  of  Nor- 
way in  1379. 

Sigurd  in  his  new  possessions  had  much  trouble  with  his 
neighbors  on  the  Scottish  mainland.     The  sagas  relate  that 






he  and  the  Scottish  earl  Melbrigd  Tonn,  or  Tooth,  made  an 
arrangement  to  meet  in  a  certain  place  with  forty  men  each 
to  discuss  their  differences.  Sigurd  mounted  eighty  men  on 
forty  horses.  When  Earl  Melbrigd  discovered  this  treachery 
he  accepted  the  gage  of  battle  and  in  the  fighting  was  killed 
"and  all  his  men  wnth  him."  But  Sigurd  did  not  long  enjoy 
the  fruits  of  his  victory.  An  ancient  account  of  the  battle 
says:  "he  gained  the  victory  in  a  foray  over  the  Scotch  jarl 
Melbrigd,  and  cut  off  his  head,  which,  in  the  overweening 
pride  of  his  triumph,  he  hung  at  his  saddle;  but  a  sharp  tooth 
that  projected  from  the  head  chafed  his  leg  and  caused  a  wound 
which  proved  his  death."  Sigurd  was  buried  at  Eckialdsbakki. 
2.  Rognvald,  of  whom  below. 


Rognvald,  son  of  the  preceding,  by  his  wife  Ascrida,  was 
one  of  the  great  men  of  the  Northland.  He  was  an  independ- 
ent king  of  an  important  section  of  that  country  and  was 
powerful  enough  to  make  himself  a  leader  of  other  rulers. 
He  belonged  to  the  same  family  as  Harald  Harfagra  and  was 
fully  equal  in  rank  with  that  earl.  When  Harald  planned 
the  subjugation  of  the  independent  jarls  or  earls  of  Norway 
and  the  unification  of  that  country  into  a  nation,  Rognvald 
joined  forces  with  him  and  became  his  most  valued  supporter 
and  councillor.  He  assisted  Harald  throughout  the  long 
struggle  with  the  other  Norwegian  chiefs  until  his  kinsman 
was  established  on  the  throne  as  the  first  king  of  all  Norway. 
When  Harald  began  his  warring  against  the  other  earls  he 
swore  never  to  cut  his  hair  until  he  had  conquered  and  had 
won  the  hand  of  the  ambitious  maiden  Gyda  whom  he  loved 
and  at  whose  instigation  he  had  undertaken  this  task.     AVhen 



he  had  finally  achieved  his  purpose  he  had  his  long  shining 
yellow  hair  cut  for  the  first  time  in  his  life  and  to  perform  this 
oflBce  he  called  upon  Rognvald — so  the  sagas  tell — because 
"that  lord  was  the  most  valiant  and  best  beloved  of  all  his 

Harald  appointed  Rognvald  Earl  of  North  Mere  and 
Raumsdale  in  885  after  the  victory  at  Solskel  when  Hunthiof 
of  Mere  and  his  father-in-law  Nockvi  were  defeated  and  slain. 
After  the  second  naval  victory  at  Solskel  where  he  particu- 
larly distinguished  himself  he  was  made  Earl  of  South  Mere. 

"Rognvald,  the  Mere  Earl,  son  of  Eystein  Glumra  had 
become  King  Harald's  man  that  summer,  and  him  King  Har- 
ald made  lord  over  the  two  folks.  North  Mere  and  Raums- 
dale, and  strengthened  his  hands  thereto  both  with  lords  and 
franklins;  and  ships  he  gave  him  withal  that  he  might  ward 
the  land  against  war;  he  was  called  Rognvald  the  mighty,  or 
the  Keen-counselled,  and  as  folk  say  it  was  good  sooth  of 
either  name."* 

Among  his  many  famous  exploits,  told  in  the  sagas,  was  a 
winter  expedition  against  King  Vermund  of  the  Firths. 

"And  so  he  came  a  night-tide  to  a  certain  stead  hight  Naust- 
dale  whereat  was  King  Vermund  a-feasting.  There  took 
Earl  Rognvald  the  house  over  their  heads,  and  burned  King 
Vermund  therein  with  ninety  men." 

When  his  son  Ivar,  fighting  under  Harald  in  Scotland  in 
870,  was  killed,  "to  boot  the  loss  of  him  King  Harald  when 
he  sailed  from  the  west  gave  Earl  Rognvald  the  Orkneys  and 
Shetland."     But  fate  had  it  that  Rognvald  should  meet  his 

*  Heimskringla  of  Snoire  Sturlason,  Vol.  I,  pp.  100  and  103. 

S  C  AN  D I N  A  V I A  N     ORIGIN 

death  in  890  at  the  hands  of  the  sons  of  his  friend  and  king. 
Halfden  High-leg  and  Gudrod  Gleam,  sons  of  Harald,  were 
dissatisfied  with  their  lot  and  sought  the  possession  of  more 
land  and  the  exercise  of  more  power.  So  with  bands  of  fol- 
lowers they  went  forth  fighting.  They  "came  unawares  on 
Rognvald,  the  Mere  Earl,  and  took  the  house  over  him,  and 
burned  him  therein  with  sixty  men." 

Rognvald  married,  first,  Hilda  or  Helinda,  daughter  of  Rolf, 
surnamed  Nefia  Grosshertz,  a  great  herrse  or  baron  of  Raums- 
dale ;  second,  Groa,  daughter  of  Wrymund,  King  of  Trondheim. 

Issue : — 

1.  Rolf,  or  RoUo,  who  led  an  army  across  seas  to  France, 
conquered  the  province  of  Neustria,  and  founded  there  the 
Dukedom  of  Normandy. 

2.  Thorir,  surnamed  Thegiandi  the  Silent.  He  was  made 
Earl  of  Mere  by  King  Harald  after  the  death  of  his  father. 
He  married,  in  885,  Alof  Arbot  who  was  called  the  Year's- 
heal,  daughter  of  King  Harald. 

3.  Halladur,  the  third  earl  of  Orkney.  He  married  Tora, 
daughter  of  Find  the  Squint-eyed,  a  great  lord  in  Norway. 

4.  Einar,  of  whom  below. 

5.  Hrollaugur  or  Drogo.  He  married  Ermina  and  was  the 
ancestor  of  the  Barons  of  Briquebec  and  other  noble  families 
of  Normandy. 

6.  Helinda.  She  married  Sigurd,  surnamed  Rice,  son  of 
King  Harald.  In  900  he  was  Governor  of  the  province  of 
Ringrace  in  Norway. 

7.  Ivar,  who  was  killed  in  battle  in  Scotland  in  870, 


Einar,  surnamed  Torf  Einar,  son  of  Rognvald  and  his  wife 
Groa,  was  the  fourth  Earl  of  Orkney.     Upon  the  death  of 



Sigurd,  the  first  Earl  of  Orkney,  his  son  Guthrom  succeeded 
him,  but  died  without  issue  a  year  later,  in  875.  The  earl- 
dom reverted  to  Rognvald  who  sent  his  son  Halladur  there. 
But  Halladur  does  not  seem  to  have  had  much  in  him  of  the 
fighting  spirit  of  the  age  and  was  soon  wearied  of  defending 
his  possessions  against  the  never-ending  attacks  of  the  plun- 
dering vikings.  Therefore  he  returned  to  Norway,  much  to 
the  disapproval  of  his  father.  When  Earl  Rognvald  heard  of 
this — 

"  he  was  ill  content  with  Halladur's  journey,  and  said  that 
his  sons  would  become  all  unlike  their  forefathers.  Then 
spake  Einar;  'I  have  had  little  honor  of  thee,  and  but  little 
love  have  I  to  part  from.  I  will  fare  west  to  the  isles  if  thou 
wilt  give  me  some  help  or  other;  and  then  I  will  promise  thee, 
what  will  gladden  thee  exceedingly,  never  to  come  back  again 
to  Norway.'  Earl  Rognvald  said  he  should  be  well  content 
if  he  never  came  back;  'For  small  hope  have  I  that  thy  kin 
will  have  honor  of  thee,  whereas  all  thy  mother's  kin  is  thrall- 
bom.'  So  Earl  Rognvald  gave  Einar  a  long-ship  all  manned, 
and  in  the  autumn-tide  Einar  sailed  West-over-sea;  but  when 
he  came  to  the  Orkneys  there  lay  before  him  two  ships  of  the 
vikings,  Thorir  Wood-beard  and  Kalf  Skurva.  Einar  fell  to 
battle  with  them  straightway,  and  won  the  victory,  and  they 
both  fell.     Then  was  this  sung : 

'Tree-beard  to  the  trolls  he  gave  there, 
Scurva  there  Turf  Einar  slaughtered.' 

"Thereafter  Einar  became  earl  over  the  isles  and  was  a 
mighty  man  there.  He  was  an  ugly  man,  and  one  eyed,  how- 
beit  the  sharpest-sighted  of  men."* 

His  rule  in  the  islands  was  beneficent  and  all  people  were 
devoted  to  him.     It  is  said  that  he  discovered  the  deposits  of 

*  Heimskringla  of  Snorre  Sturlason,  by  William  Morris  and  Eri'kr  Magnusson,  Vol.  I,  p.  122. 



peat  with  which  the  islands  abounded  and  taught  the  inhab- 
itants how  to  use  it  for  fuel.  To  show  their  gratitude  the 
people  gave  him  the  name  Torf  or  Turf. 

After  Halfdan  High-leg  and  Gudrod  Gleam  had  slain  hi? 
father  Rognvald,  Torf  Einar  was  forced  by  Halfdan,  who 
came  to  Orkney  with  an  army,  to  take  refuge  in  Cathanes,  or 
Caithness,  on  the  mainland  of  Scotland.  Gathering  reinforce- 
ments he  returned  to  Orkney  in  the  autumn  and  fell  upon 
Halfdan  High-leg  and  defeated  him  and  his  forces.  Halfdan 
was  captured  and  Einar  in  person  tortured  him  before  putting 
him  to  death,  after  the  manner  of  that  time.  The  sagas  give 
this  song  that  Einar  sang  after  he  had  accomplished  his  ven- 
geance : 

"Wreaked  have  I  Rognvald's  slaying, 
I  for  my  fourth  part  fully. 
For  the  stay  of  hosts  is  fallen; 
The  Norns  have  ruled  it  rightly. 
Heap  stones  then  upon  High-leg, 
High  up,  brave  lads  of  battle. 
For  we  in  strife  were  stronger. 
And  a  stony  scat  I  pay  him." 

But  Einar's  triumph  was  short-lived.  When  King  Harald 
heard  of  the  fate  of  his  son  he  sailed  to  the  Orkneys  and  the 
earl  again  "got  him  over  to  Caithness,"  singing  as  the  sagas 
put  it: 

"For  the  slaughtering  of  the  sheep-kind 
Are  some  with  beards  made  guilty; 
But  I  for  a  king's  son's  slaying 
Amid  the  sea-beat  island. 
Comes  peril,  say  the  franklins, 



From  the  wrath  of  a  king  redoubted, 

And  surely  of  my  shearing 

Is  the  shard  in  the  shield  of  Harald." 

In  the  end  the  affair  was  settled  by  Einar  paying  a  fine  of 
sixty  marks  of  gold  to  the  king  in  return  for  which  he  was 
left  in  undisputed  possession  of  the  islands. 

Issue : — 

1.  Thorfinn,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Arnkel  who  followed  King  Eric  Bloodaxe,  son  of  Harald 
Harfagra,  into  England  and  was  killed  in  battle,  950. 

3.  Erland  who  also  accompanied  King  Eric  and  was  killed 
in  battle,  950. 


Thorfinn  Hausklifr,  the  Headcleaver,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, was  the  fifth  Earl  of  Orkney,  and  the  Earl  of  Shetland 
in  942.  In  the  latter  years  of  his  life  he  submitted  to  the  rule 
of  Queen  Gunnhild,  widow  of  King  Eric  Bloodaxe,  and  her 
sons  who,  driven  out  of  Norway,  seized  Orkney;  but  he  re- 
sumed the  earldom  when  Gunnhild  and  her  sons  went  over 
to  Denmark. 

He  died  about  963. 

He  married  Grelad,  Greiland,  or  Grelota,  daughter  of  Dun- 
gad,  jarl  or  earl  of  Cathanes,  whose  wife  was  Groa,  daughter 
of  Thorstein  Rauda,  the  Red,  son  of  Olaf  Hviti,  the  White, 
King  of  Dublin,  by  his  wife  Aud,  the  Deep-rich  or  Deeply- 
wealthy.  The  story  of  Aud  or  Und,  the  Deeply-rich,  who 
married  Olaf  Hviti,  is  told  in  the  Icelandic  sagas.  She  was  a 
conspicuous  figure  in  her  time  and  country,  and  a  queen  who 



exercised  a  powerful  control  and  widespread  influence  through- 
out a  long  and  active  life. 

"Beorn  Buna  was  the  name  of  a  mighty  and  noble  herse 
in  Norway.  He  was  the  son  of  Werther-grim,  herse  or  lord 
of  Sogn.  Grim  had  to  wife  Her-ware,  daughter  of  Thor- 
gerde,  daughter  of  Ey-laug,  the  herse  of  Sogn.  Beorn  had  to 
wife  We-laug,  sister  of  We-mund  the  Old.  They  had  three 
sons.  One  of  them  was  Cetil  Flat-neb,  the  second  Holgi,  and 
the  third  Hrapp.  They  were  noble  men  and  from  them  is  the 
greatest  race  that  is  told  of  in  this  book  and  from  them  are 
come  well-nigh  all  the  gentle-folk  of  Iceland."* 

"There  was  a  man  named  Cetil  Flatneb,  the  son  of  Beorn 
Buna,  the  son  of  herse  Grim,  Halbeorn  Half  troll's  son.  He  was 
a  mighty  lord  or  herse  of  Norway  and  of  high  family.  He 
dwelt  in  Reams-dale,  in  Reamdale-folk,  that  is  between  South- 
mere  and  North-mere.  Cetil  Flatneb  had  to  wife  Yngwhild, 
daughter  of  Cetil  Wether,  a  man  of  good  birth.  Their  chil- 
dren were  five.  .  .  .  Und  (Aud)  Deeprich  was  a  daughter  of 
Cetil's  whom  Anlaf  (Olaf)  the  White  had  to  wife,  the  son  of 
Ingiald,  the  son  of  Frode  the  Gallant  whom  the  Swertlings 

"In  Cetil's  latter  days  arose  the  rule  of  Harald  Fairhair,  so 
that  no  folk-king  could  thrive  in  the  land,  nor  other  great 
man,  save  he  himself  settled  what  their  power  or  rank  should 
be.  And  when  Cetil  found  out  that  King  Harald  meant  to 
give  him  the  same  terms  as  to  the  other  mighty  men,  namely 
to  have  his  kin  slain  bootless  (without  weregild),  or  else  be- 
come a  vassal  or  leige-man  himself,  he  summoned  a  moot  of 
his  kinsmen  and  took  up  his  speech  thus :  '  Ye  are  acquainted 
with  what  hath  taken  place  between  us  and  King  Harald, 
wherefore  there  is  no  need  to  go  into  it.  ...  I  know  of  a 
truth  the  hatred  that  King  Harald  bears  us,  and  it  seems  to 
me  that  we  shall  not  find  much  backing  in  that  quarter,  and 

*  The  Landnama  Book  or  Book  of  Settlements,  in  Origines  Islandicae,  by  Gudbrand 
Vigfusson  and  F.  York  Powell,  Vol.  I.  p.  25. 



methinks  there  are  two  choices  before  us, — either  to  fly  the 
land,  or  be  slain  every  man  in  his  own  place.'  .  .  . 

"Then  Cetil  said  that  he  was  now  minded  to  go  west  over 
sea  (to  the  British  Isles),  for  he  said  there  was  good  land  there 
and  that  those  lands  were  known  to  him  far  and  wide,  because 
he  had  harried  far  and  wide  there.  .  .  ,  Afterwards  Cetil 
makes  ready  for  his  journey  out  of  the  country  west  over  the 
sea.  His  daughter  Und  went  with  him  and  more  of  his  kin. 
Cetil's  sons  sailed  for  Iceland  the  same  summer  and  Helge, 
the  Lean,  their  brother-in-law.  .  .  .  Cetil  Flatneb  made 
Scotland  in  his  ship  and  gat  good  welcome  from  men  of  wor- 
ship because  he  was  a  man  of  renown  and  of  a  great  family. 
And  they  offered  him  to  settle  thereon  what  terms  he  liked. 

"  Cetil  fixed  his  abode  there  and  the  rest  of  the  company  of 
his  kinfolk,  save  Thorstan,  his  daughter's  son.  He  took  to 
sea  roving  at  once  and  harried  far  and  wide  over  Scotland  and 
gat  ever  the  victory,  and  afterwards  he  made  peace  with  the 
King  of  Scots  and  got  half  of  Scotland  for  himself  and  became 
king  thereof.  He  had  to  wife  Thurid,  daughter  of  Eywind, 
and  sister  of  Helge,  the  Lean.  The  Scots  did  not  keep  the 
peace  well,  but  betrayed  him  to  death  in  time  of  truce.  Are 
Thorgilson,  the  historian,  says  of  Thorstan's  slaying  that  he 
fell  in  Caithness. 

"Und  Deeprich  was  in  Caithness  when  her  son  Thorstan 
fell  and  when  she  heard  that  Thorstan  was  slain  and  her 
father  dead  she  thought  that  there  would  be  no  bettering  to 
be  got  where  she  was.  And  so  she  had  a  merchant  ship  built 
secretly  in  the  wood  and  when  the  ship  was  finished  she  fitted 
out  the  ship  and  took  much  riches  in  chattels  with  her.  She 
took  aboard  with  her  all  the  company  of  her  kin  that  were  yet 
alive.  And  men  thought  that  it  was  scarcely  ever  known 
that  one  person,  and  a  woman,  should  have  been  able  to  get 
away  out  of  such  perils  with  so  much  chattels  and  such  a  fol- 
lowing. And  it  may  easily  be  marked  thereby  what  a  para- 
gon she  was  among  women.  Und  also  had  with  her  at  thai 
time  men  of  high  rank  and  of  great  families.  .  .  .  Und  sailed 







a,   O 

I  !^' 


her  ship  to  the  Orkneys  as  soon  as  she  was  ready.  There 
she  abode  for  Httle  while.  There  she  gave  Groa,  daughter  of 
Thorstan  the  Red,  in  marriage.  She  (Groa)  was  the  mother 
of  Greiland,  whom  Earl  Thorfinn  had  to  wife,  the  son  of  Earl 
Turf-Einar,  the  son  of  Rognwald,  Earl  of  Mere.  Their  son 
was  Hlodwe,  father  of  Earl  Sigurd,  father  of  Earl  Thorfinn, 
and  hence  is  come  the  house  of  the  Orkney  earls."* 

The  family  to  which  Groa  belonged  was  one  of  the  most 
powerful  in  the  islands  of  Northwestern  Europe,  and  by  his 
marriage  to  her  Thorfinn  greatly  strengthened  himself  and  his 
descendants  in  their  hold  upon  Orkney  and  Shetland.  With 
the  exception  of  his  successor  in  the  earldom,  his  sons  met  tragic 

Issue : — 

1.  Hlodver  or  Lodver,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Arnfinn.  He  married  Ragnhild,  daughter  of  King  Eric 
Bloodaxe  of  Norway,  and  was  slain  by  her  in  Cathanes. 

3.  Haavad.  He  married  Ragnhild,  his  brother's  widow, 
and  was  killed  at  Stennis  in  a  fray  with  his  nephew  Einar 
Klining  who  had  been  instigated  by  his  wife. 

4.  Liot.  He  married  Ragnhild,  his  brother's  widow,  and 
was  slain  in  battle  with  the  native  chief  Magbiod  at  Skid 
Myre,  Cathanes. 

5.  Skuli.  He  received  the  title  of  Earl  of  Cathanes  from 
the  King  of  Scots ;  was  slain  in  battle  with  his  brother  Liot. 


Hlodver  or  Lodver,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  sixth 
Earl  of  Orkney. 

He  died  about  980  and  was  buried  at  Hofu  in  Cathanes. 
He  married  Audna,  daughter  of  Kiarval,  King  of  Ireland. 

*  Origines  Islandics,  by  Gudbrand  Vigfusson  and  F.  York  Powell,  Vol.  II,  pp.  141-145. 



Kiarval  was  the  Cearbhal  or  Carrol  of  the  Irish  annals,  King 
of  Dublin  872-87;  he  was  descended  from  Ivar  the  Bone- 
less, son  of  Ragnor  Lodbrok.  Some  authorities  say  that 
Lodver  also  married  Africa,  daughter  of  Somerlid,  Prince  of 

Issue : — ■ 

1.  Sigurd,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Gerleota  who  married  Baldwin  Clapham,  son  of  King 
Edmund  of  England. 


Sigurd,  surnamed  Digree  the  Corpulent,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, was  the  seventh  Earl  of  Orkney.  Beside  holding 
Cathanes  or  Caithness  against  Kenneth  III.,  King  of  Scot- 
land, he  ruled  other  parts  of  the  Scottish  mainland.  Be- 
tween the  years  969  and  995  he  was  challenged  by  the  Earl 
Finnleic,  father  of  Macbeth,  to  battle  on  a  certain  day.  Re- 
ceiving from  his  mother  a  charmed  standard  he  went  forth 
and  in  the  ensuing  combat  defeated  his  adversary.  Some 
time  after  995  he  embraced  Christianity.  The  circumstances 
of  his  change  from  paganism  to  Christianity  are  told  in  the 
Orkneyinga  Saga.  It  appears  that  he  yielded  to  the  energetic 
ministrations  of  King  Olaf  Tryggvison  of  Norway  who  made 
an  expedition  to  Orkney.  Olaf  received  Earl  Sigurd  on 
board  his  ship  and  exhorted  him  to  embrace  the  new  faith 

"you  may  have  certain  hope  of  honor  from  me  and  will 
gain  what  is  much  more  important,  to  reign  in  eternal  joy  in 
the  Kingdom  of  Heaven.  The  other  alternative  is  that  you 
shall  be  slain  on  the  spot  and  after  your  death  I  will  send 



fire  and  sword  throughout  the  Orkneys.  You  and  they  who 
put  their  trust  in  idols  shall  speedily  die,  and  shall  thereafter 
be  tormented  in  hell  fire  with  wicked  devils,  without  end."* 

Sigurd  held  out  against  these  urgings  and  finally  King 
Olaf  seized  the  earl's  young  son  Hundi  and  making  ready  to 
slay  him  said: 

"Now  I  will  show  you,  Earl  Sigurd,  that  I  shall  spare  no 
man  who  will  not  serve  Almighty  God  or  listen  to  my  preach- 
ing of  the  blessed  message.  Therefore  I  shall  kill  your  son 
before  your  eyes  this  instant,  with  the  sword  now  in  my  hand, 
unless  you  and  your  men  will  serve  my  God.  For  I  shall  not 
leave  these  islands  until  I  have  completely  fulfilled  his  blessed 
commission,  and  you  have  been  baptized  along  with  this  son 
of  yours  whom  I  now  hold."* 

Naturally  Earl  Sigurd  deemed  it  wise  to  yield  to  this  vigor- 
ous missionary  effort.  He  conceded  the  superiority  of  King 
Olaf  and  his  God  and  was  baptized  with  all  his  people  of  the 
Orkneys.  But  even  then  King  Olaf  failed  to  keep  entire  faith 
with  his  convert,  for  he  carried  Hundi  away  to  Norway  as  host- 
age, having  first  baptized  him  by  the  name  Hlodver.*  And 
Hundi  never  saw  home  and  parents  again,  for  he  died  in  Norway. 

Notwithstanding  this  enforced  conversion  Sigurd  contin- 
ued to  fight  vigorously  for  the  old  paganism.  Before  1014 
he  went  to  Ireland,  leaving  his  elder  sons  to  rule  his  do- 
minions and  entrusting  his  younger  son,  Thorfinn,  to  the  care 
of  the  boy's  grandfather,  King  Malcolm.  Engaging  in  war 
with  the  Irish  king  Brian  Boroimhe  (Boru),  he  was  killed  in 
the  great  combat  at  Clontarf  April  23,   1014.     This  battle, 

*  The  Orkneyinga  Saga. 


fought  at  Cluaintarbh,  now  Clontarf,  near  Dublin,  was  the 
most  celebrated  of  all  the  conflicts  in  which  the  Norsemen 
were  engaged  on  that  side  of  the  North  Sea.  "It  was  there," 
says  an  ancient  commentator,  "that  the  old  and  new  faiths 
met  in  the  lists  face  to  face  for  their  last  struggle." 

Norwegian  legends  tell  that  before  he  set  out  on  this  ex- 
pedition to  Ireland,  Sigurd  received  from  his  mother  a  stand- 
ard, made  by  her  own  hand,  on  which  was  woven  the  image 
of  a  raven,  the  bird  sacred  to  Odin,  the  Scandinavian  god  of 
war.  The  raven  was  represented  with  outspread  wings  and 
in  the  act  of  soaring  upwards.  On  accepting  the  banner  the 
earl  was  assured  by  his  mother  that  it  had  the  remarkable 
property  of  bringing  victory  to  whoever  had  it  carried  before 
him,  but  that  the  standard  bearer  himself  was  doomed  to  fall. 
In  the  battle  of  Clontarf,  two  of  Sigurd's  bearers  were  killed. 
After  this  none  of  the  officers  would  take  up  the  fatal  colors; 
thereupon  the  earl  wrapped  them  around  his  body  and  gal- 
lantly fought  until  he  fell  pierced  with  innumerable  wounds.* 

Thormod  Torfeson,  whose  Latinized  name  was  Torfseus, 
the  celebrated  historiographer  to  Christian,  King  of  Den- 
mark, in  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  recorded 
much  of  the  history  and  tradition  of  ancient  Orkney.  He 
tells  the  story  of  a  very  remarkable  apparition  in  Cathanes 
preceding  the  battle  of  Clontarf.  On  Christmas,  the  day  of 
the  battle,  a  man  saw  several  persons  on  horseback  who  were 
riding  at  full  speed  toward  a  small  hill,  and  seemingly  entered 
into  it.     He  was  led  by  curiosity  to  approach  the  spot,  when, 

*  Orcades,  seu  rerum  Orcadiensium  Historiae,  by  Thormod  Torfeson. 



looking  through  an  opening  in  the  side  of  the  hillock,  he  ob- 
served twelve  gigantic  figures,  resembling  women,  employed  in 
weaving  a  web.  As  they  wove  they  sang  a  mournful  song  or 
dirge  descriptive  of  the  battle  in  Ireland,  in  which  they  fore- 
told the  death  of  King  Brian  and  that  of  the  Earl  of  Orkney. 
When  they  had  finished  their  task,  they  tore  the  web  into 
twelve  pieces.  Each  took  her  own  portion  and,  once  more 
mounting  their  horses,  six  galloped  to  the  south  and  six  to  the 
north.*  This  legend  is  the  subject  of  Gray's  ode  The  Fatal 
Sisters,  which  is  a  paraphrase  or  translation  of  a  Norwegian 
poem  found  in  the  Thormodus  and  other  Norwegian  collec- 
tions. In  the  ode  the  sisters  are  the  valkyries,  who,  in  Norse 
mythology,  chose  the  slain  and  are  the  special  ministers  of 
Odin  to  conduct  the  fallen  heroes  to  Valhalla. 

"Now  the  storm  begins  to  lower 
(Haste  the  loom  of  hell  prepare), 
Iron  sleet  of  arrowy  shower 
Hurtles  in  the  darken' d  air. 

Glitt'ring  glances  are  the  loom. 
Where  the  dusky  warp  we  strain, 

Weaving  many  a  soldier's  doom, 
Orkney's  woe,  and  Randvar's  bane. 

Ere  the  ruddy  sun  be  set 

Pikes  must  shiver,  javelins  sing, 
Blade  with  clattering  buckler  meet. 

Hauberk  crash,  and  helmet  wring. 

Weave  the  crimson  web  of  war, 
Let  us  go,  and  let  us  fly, 

*  History  of  Caithness,  by  James  T.  Calder. 


Where  our  friends  the  conflict  share, 
Where  they  triumph,  where  they  die. 

Low  the  dauntless  earl  is  laid, 

Gor'd  with  many  a  gaping  wound; 

Fate  demands  a  nobler  head, 

Soon  a  king  shall  bite  the  ground. 

Long  his  loss  shall  Erin  weep. 

Ne'er  again  his  likeness  see; 
Long  her  strains  in  sorrow  steep; 

Strains  of  immortality! 

Horrors  cover  all  the  heath, 

Clouds  of  carnage  blot  the  sun; 
Sisters!  weave  the  web  of  death, 

Sisters!  cease — the  work  is  done. 

Hail  the  task,  and  hail  the  hands! 

Songs  of  joy  and  triumph  sing! 
Joy  to  the  victorious  bands; 

Triumph  to  the  younger  king. 

Mortal,  thou  that  hear'st  the  tale. 

Learn  the  tenour  of  our  song. 
Scotland,  thro'  each  winding  vale 

Far  and  wide  the  notes  prolong. 

Sisters,  hence  with  spurs  of  speed; 

Each  her  thundering  faulchion  wield; 
Each  bestride  her  sable  steed. 

Hurry,  hurry  to  the  field!" 

Sigurd  married  for  his  first  wife,  a  woman  whose  name  is 
unknown.  He  married,  second,  Olith,  Alice  or  Thora,  daugh- 
ter of  Malcolm  II.,  King  of  Scotland. 



Issue : 

1.  Hundi,  or  Whelp,  who  died  in  captivity  in  Norway  be- 
fore 1014. 

2.  Sumerlid,  or  Somereld,  or  Sumarlis,  who  died  about  1015. 

3.  Bnisi,  of  whom  below. 

4.  Einar  Wrongmouth,  who  died  in  1026. 

5.  Thorfinn,  eighth  Earl  of  Orkney.  He  married  Ingi- 
biorg,  daughter  of  Earl  Finn  Arnason. 

6.  Ellen.  She  married  Duncan,  son  of  Malcolm  II.,  King 
of  Scotland. 


Brusi,  or  Brusee,  son  of  Sigurd  by  his  wife  Alice,  although 
he  was  a  man  of  peace  for  those  days  of  warfare  was  the 
center  of  storms  during  his  life  and  bequeathed  an  inheritance 
of  bloodshed  to  his  sons.  When  his  father  died  four  sons, 
Sumerlid,  Brusi,  Einar,  and  Thorfinn  were  left.  As  soon  as 
the  youngest  attained  to  maturity  he  demanded  from  his 
brothers  his  share  of  the  earldoms  of  his  father  and  was  sup- 
ported by  his  grandfather,  King  Malcolm. 

"Earl  Thorfinn  was  from  his  youth  up  speedily  wrought 
with  all  pith:  he  was  mickle  and  stark;  a  man  ill-favored: 
and  so  soon  as  he  waxed  in  years  it  was  easily  seen  of  him 
that  he  was  a  grasping  man,  hard  and  grim  and  exceeding 

Thorfinn  began  his  career  when  he  was  only  fourteen  years 
of  age,  going  forth  on  sea  excursions  for  plundering.  His 
skald,  Arnor,  thus  sang  of  him: 

*  Heimskringla  of  Snorri  Sturlason,  Vol.  11,  170. 


"By  the  prince  in  storm  of  helmets 
Was  the  sword's  edge  deeply  crimsoned. 
Scarcely  fifteen  the  great  hearted 
Sought  renown  on  fields  of  battle, 
Ready  to  defend  his  own  land, 
Or  to  ravage  in  another's. 
Under  heaven  a  braver  leader 
Ne'er  was  found  than  Einar's  brother." 

In  the  struggle  that  Thorfinn  made  for  Orkney  Brusi  was 
always  the  peacemaker.  He  conceded  Thorfinn's  claim  and 
contented  himself  with  a  third  part  of  Orkney,  where  he  ruled 
well  beloved.  At  a  great  feast  that  was  given  by  Thorkel 
Fosterfather  at  Sandwick  to  celebrate  the  peace  between 
Einar  and  Thorfinn,  Thorkel,  acting  under  the  advice  of  King 
Olaf  of  Norway,  slew  Einar  as  he  sat  at  the  hearth  stone. 
After  that,  by  the  support  of  King  Olaf,  Earl  Brusi  held  two- 
thirds  of  Orkney  for  a  time  until  finally,  about  1030,  Thorfinn 
again  wrested  from  him  all  but  his  original  one-third  "  whenas 
Knut  the  Rich  had  laid  Norway  under  him,  and  King  Olaf 
was  gone  out  of  the  land." 

"Brusi  was  meek  and  peaceful,  wise,  deft  of  speech  and 
well  beloved.  Einar  was  stubborn,  sullen  and  gruff,  grasp- 
ing and  griping  and  a  great  warrior.  Sumerlid  was  like  to 
Brusi  in  his  ways."* 

Brusi  was  converted  to  Christianity  in  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury. He  became  privy  councillor  to  King  Olaus  the  Holy 
and  was  made  Earl  of  Cathanes  and  Sutherland. 

He  died  in  1031. 

*  Orkneyinga  Saga. 


He  married  Ostrida,  daughter  of  Regenwald  Wolfson,  Earl 
of  Gothland. 


1.  Rognvald,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Ingreda.  She  married  Turbrand,  son  of  Galbrand,  a 
noble  of  Norway,  who  was  murdered  by  Alfred,  son  of  Uchtred, 
Earl  of  Northumberland. 

3.  Margarita,  who  married  Thurbrand  the  Bald,  a  Danish 

4.  Olaf,  a  monk  of  Clareveux. 


Rognvald,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  early  in  life  held  in 
hostage  at  the  court  of  King  Olaf  the  Holy,  of  Norway.  He 
became  a  general  in  the  army  of  Olaf  and  when  the  king  was 
compelled  to  flee  from  Norway  Rognvald  shared  his  fortunes. 
On  the  battlefield  of  Stickelstead,  where  Olaf  was  slain,  he 
distinguished  himself  and  saved  the  life  of  Harald,  the  brother 
of  the  king.  Subsequently  he  was  made  governor  of  the 
Castle  of  Oldegorburg  in  Russia  by  Duke  Waldamar. 

After  the  death  of  his  father  Rognvald  waged  ineffectual 
warfare  against  his  uncle  Earl  Thorfinn  for  the  recovery  of 
Orkney.  In  the  end  in  1046  Thorfinn  subdued  all  Orkney 
and  made  the  islands  his  principal  home.  Rognvald  escaped 
to  Norway  but  soon  returned  and,  discovering  the  home  of 
his  uncle,  set  fire  to  the  house  to  destroy  him.  Thorfinn,  tak- 
ing his  wife  Ingibiorg  in  his  arms,  broke  through  the  vaulted 
roof  of  the  house  and,  escaping,  fled  to  Cathanes.  Rognvald, 
supposing  that  Thorfinn  had  perished  in  the  flames,  took  pos- 
session of  Orkney  and  proclaimed  himself  ruler  of  all  Thor- 



finn's  dominion  in  Cathanes  and  Hebrides.  For  a  time  Thor- 
finn,  undiscovered,  lived  quietly  among  friends  in  Cathanes, 
but  about  Christmas  1046  he  went  secretly  to  the  island  of 
Papa  Stronsay,  where  his  nephew  was  and  set  fire  to  the  house 
in  which  Rognvald  dwelt.  Although  Rognvald  then  es- 
caped he  was  soon  after  taken  prisoner  and  put  to  death  by 
Thorkell  Fostri,  the  follower  of  Thorfinn,  who  years  before 
had  also  killed  Earl  Einar,  his  father.  It  was  said  of  Rogn- 
vald that — 

"he  was  the  goodliest  to  look  upon,  his  hair  thick  and  yellow 
as  silk;  he  was  of  early  days  big  and  strong,  and  of  all  men 
was  he  the  likeliest,  both  by  reason  of  his  wits  and  his  courte- 
ous manners." 

He  married,  first,  Arlogia,  daughter  of  Duke  Waldamar; 
second,  Felicia,  daughter  of  Robert,  Duke  of  Normandy, 
who  was  father  of  William  the  Conqueror. 

Issue : 

1.  Waldamar  of  Russia. 

2.  Brusi,  or  Robert  de  Brusee,  of  whom  below. 

3.  Hamilliana.  She  married  Ottala  the  Brisk,  Prince  of 
Russia,  nephew  of  Waldamar. 

4.  Arlogia,  who  married  Thurstan  du  Beck. 







BRUSI,  or  Robert  de  Brusee,  son  of  Rognvald,  found 
Orkney  little  to  his  liking.  Norway,  the  original 
home  of  his  ancestors,  attracted  him  more  and 
shortly  he  attached  himself  to  the  fortunes  of  the  house  of  his 
maternal  grandfather,  going  over  to  Normandy  where  he 
established  the  Bruce  stock.  There  he  became  eminent  and 
powerful  in  the  court,  being  councillor  to  Robert  I.,  Duke  of 
Normandy,  the  father  of  William  the  Gonqueror.  He  built 
the  castle  of  la  Brusee  or  Bruis,  now  Brix,  in  Normandy, 
which  became  "the  cradle  of  the  royal  house  of  Scotland." 
Brusee  castle  or  the  Ghateau  d'Adam  near  Valognes  in  the 
diocese  of  Gonstance  was  situated  on  the  declivity  of  a  hill, 
on  the  top  of  which  was  the  village  of  Bruis,  while  at  the  foot 
flowed  the  river  Douve.  Located  nearly  five  hundred  feet 
above  the  river  the  castle  commanded  a  beautiful  panoramic 
view  of  the  country  for  miles  away.  Long  ago  the  buildings 
were  demolished  by  the  inhabitants  of  Bruis  to  build  their 
houses,  so  that  only  the  foundations  with  a  few  remnants  of 
the  walls  have  been  left  to  the  curiosity  of  later  generations. 
The  chateau  had  three  ramparts,  the  foundations  of  which 
appear  to  have  been  three  hundred,  six  hundred,  and  eight 
hundred  yards  from  the  main  structure.  The  ditches  were 
about  forty-five  feet  wide  and  about  fifteen  feet  deep,  which 



showed  that  the  Brusee  castle  must  have  been  a  fortress  of 
the  first  order.  On  the  whole  it  was  a  defense  which  only  a 
large  army  could  successfully  invest,  but  it  appears  to  have 
been  many  times  besieged. 

He  married  Emma,  daughter  of  Alain,  Earl  of  Brittany. 


1.  Alan  or  Alain  de  la  Brusee.  He  married  Agnes  Mont- 
fort,  daughter  of  Simon  Montfort,  Earl  of  Evreux.  He  was 
Lord  of  Brusee  castle  and  became  head  of  the  great  Nor- 
mandy family  bearing  his  name. 

2,  Robert  de  Brusee,  of  whom  below. 


Robert  de  Brusee,  second  of  the  name,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, followed  the  standard  of  William,  Duke  of  Normandy, 
when  that  prince  went  to  conquer  England  in  1066.  With 
him,  as  appears  from  the  roll  of  the  knights  who  came  over 
with  William,  were  many  others  of  the  same  name.*  He  had 
a  contingent  of  two  hundred  men,  the  only  contingent  that 
is  specifically  set  down  in  the  ancient  document.  He  seems 
to  have  been  a  man  of  distinguished  character  and  stood  high 
in  the  regard  of  his  royal  master.  He  shared  generously  in 
the  favor  and  munificence  of  the  Conqueror,  from  whom  he 
received  extensive  estates  in  remuneration  of  his  services. 
Some  authorities  say  that  he  possessed  no  fewer  than  forty- 
three  manors  in  the  east  and  west  ridings  of  Yorkshire  and 
fifty-one  in  the  north  riding. f 

*  Role  de  ceux  veignont  in  Angleterre  ovesque  Roy  Wm.  le  Conquereur. 
t  Caledonia  by  George  Chalmers,  Vol.  I,  p.  569;  Baronage  of  England  by  Sir  William 
Duedale,  Vol.  I,  p.  447. 



He  died  about  1094. 

He  married  Agnes,  daughter  of  Walderne,  Earl  of  St.  Clair. 
Walderne  of  Santo  Claro  came  from  Normandy  with  William 
the  Conqueror.  He  was  of  the  household  of  Richard,  Duke 
of  Normandy.  His  son,  William  de  Santo  Claro  or  St.  Clair, 
was  one  of  the  many  Anglo-Norman  barons  who  settled  in 
Scotland  in  the  reign  of  King  David  I,  and  he  received  from 
the  King  of  Scots  a  grant  of  the  barony  of  Roslin  in  Mid- 
lothian. From  his  fair  and  gracious  deportment  this  son  was 
called  "the  fair  St.  Clair." 

Issue : 

1.  William  de  Brusee,  who  came  into  England  with  his 
father  and  was  Lord  of  Brember  in  Sussex. 

2.  Adelme  de  Brusee,  of  whom  below. 

3.  Hortoliana. 

4.  Philena,  who  married  Wolstan,  Lord  of  Paston. 

5.  Amicia,  who  married  St.  Aylmer  de  Tours. 


Adelme  or  Adam  de  Brusee,  son  of  the  preceding,  came 
into  England  in  1050,  in  attendance  upon  Emma  of  Nor- 
mandy, who  was  a  daughter  of  Richard  I.  of  Normandy  by 
his  wife  Gonnor,  and  became  the  Queen  of  Ethelred,  King  of 
England.  After  the  death  of  Queen  Emma  he  went  to  Scot- 
land, to  which  country  he  was  naturally  attracted  by  the 
family  connection  that  existed  through  his  ancestors  of  six 
and  seven  generations  before,  the  earls  of  Orkney,  Shetland, 
Gathanes,  and  Sutherland.  When  William  the  Conqueror 
came  to  England  de  Brusee  joined  the  army  of  the  invader, 
and  after  the  conquest  he  received  the  barony  of  Skelton  and 



the  lordship  of  Cleveland  as  a  reward  for  his  services.  Of 
all  the  Yorkshire  manors  the  chief  was  that  of  Skelton  in 
Cleveland,  near  Whitby.  This  became  the  seat  of  the  elder 
or  English  branch  of  the  Bruce  family. 

Adam  de  Brusee  died  before  the  fourteenth  year  of  the 
reign  of  William  I.,  1080. 

He  married  Emma,  daughter  of  Sir  William  Ramsay. 


1.  Robert  de  Brusee,  of  whom  below. 

2.  William  de  Brusee,  who  was  the  first  prior  of  Guisburn. 
He  died  in  1155. 

3.  Duncan.     A  lord  in  Scotland. 

4.  Rosselina,  who  married  Walter  Moreville,  constable  of 


Robert  de  Brusee,  third  of  the  Jiame,  son  of  the  preced- 
ing, was  born  about  1078  and  was  the  head  of  the  barony  of 
Bruce  and  the  first  Baron  of  Skelton  and  Annandale.  He 
assisted  Edgar,  son  of  Malcolm  Canmore,  against  'Duncan, 
his  base  brother,  who  had  usurped  the  crown.  At  the  in- 
stance of  Pope  Honorius  II.  he  gave  the  church  of  Middle- 
burgh  and  some  lands  to  the  monks  of  Whitby  to  establish  a 
cell  of  the  Abbey  of  Guisburn  in  Cleveland.  His  brother, 
William  de  Brusee,  was  the  first  prior  of  the  abbey.  He  also 
granted  the  manors  of  Appleton  and  Hornby,  with  other  lands, 
to  the  monks  of  St.  Mary  of  York  and  he  generously  endowed 
the  hospital  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem.  He  held  by  grant  the 
lands  of  Strathannan  or  Annandale  and  by  his  first  wife  ac- 
quired the  lands  of  Carleton  and  Camelford,  and  Hart  and 









Hartnesse  in  the  bishopric  of  Durham,  "the  maritime  key  of 
the  palitinate." 

The  early  years  of  Robert  de  Brusee  were  passed  at  the 
court  of  King  Henry  I.  of  England.  At  the  same  time  Earl 
David  of  Scotland  resided  there  and  a  close  friendship  sprang 
up  between  the  two  young  nobles.  When  David  came  to  the 
throne  he  granted,  by  charter  to  his  friend,  the  land  of  Annan - 
dale,  which  embraced  the  largest  part  of  the  county  of  Dum- 
fries. He  had  also  been  associated  with  David  in  military 
adventures,  serving  with  him  during  t'he  conquest  and  part 
of  the  period  of  his  government  of  Cumbria,  the  district  com- 
prising the  Lothians  and  'Galloway  that  had  been  bestowed 
upon  David  after  the  death  of  his  brother  Prince  Edgar. 

The  time  came,  however,  when  these  two  friends  were 
parted.  King  David  I.,  supporting  the  cause  of  Maud  the 
Empress,  his  niece,  declared  war  against  King  Stephen  of 
England,  and  advanced  with  a  great  army  to  Northallerton 
in  Yorkshire  to  meet  the  forces  of  the  English  monarch. 
Thurstan,  the  aged  and  infirm  Archbishop  of  York,  although 
he  could  not  personally  take  the  field  against  the  invader, 
summoned  the  nobles  of  his  diocese  to  repair  to  the  support 
of  the  standard  with  all  their  powers. 

"Amongst  the  rest  Robert  de  Brusee,  notwithstanding  he 
had  a  very  great  kindness  for  the  King  of  the  Scots,  yet  with 
his  son,  Adam,  a  young  nobleman  of  great  worth,  brought  a 
great  company  with  him  which  not  only  in  force  of  arms,  but 
in  splendour  and  vigour  of  youth,  much  adorned  the  whole 

*  ^thelredus  de  bello  standard!. 


"This  Robert,  an  old  man  of  great  wealth,  slow  of  speech, 
yet  who  expressed  himself  with  great  readiness  of  words,  from 
his  youth  having  been  a  great  follower  of  the  King  of  Scots 
and  very  familiar  with  him,  obtained  leave  from  his  compan- 
ions in  arms  to  pass  over  to  David,  either  to  persuade  him  to 
desist  from  his  enterprise,  or,  as  he  was  bound  to  him  in  fidel- 
ity and  fealty,  by  holding  the  lands  of  Annandale  and  others 
of  that  King,  to  disoblige  himself  by  renouncing  his  fealty. 
In  his  speech  to  David  he  represented  to  the  King  that  the 
English  and  Normans,  against  whom  he  was  arrayed,  had 
repeatedly  restored  the  power  and  authority  of  the  Scottish 
monarchs  when  driven  out  by  disloyal  subjects,  and  that  they 
were  more  faithful  to  the  royal  family  than  were  the  Scots 
themselves.  He  begged  his  friend  and  patron  to  withdraw 
from  the  contest  and  concluded  in  the  following  affectionate 
strain :  '  It  wrings  my  heart  to  see  my  dearest  master,  my  pa- 
tron, my  benefactor,  my  friend,  my  companion  in  arms,  in 
whose  service  I  have  grown  old,  thus  exposed  to  the  dangers 
of  battle  or  to  the  dishonor  of  flight.'"* 

"As  an  old  acquaintance  and  liegeman  he  was  sent  to  the 
Scottish  King,  on  his  invasion  of  England  in  1138,  to  offer 
terms  of  peace  and  it  is  curious  to  note  that  he  was  associated 
in  this  embassy  with  Bernard  de  Baliol.  On  the  king's  re- 
fusal these  two  barons,  whose  descendants  were  destined  to 
be  such  deadly  rivals,  fought  side  by  side  in  the  battle  of  the 
Standard  and  were  also  soon  after  ranged  under  the  same 
banners  as  partisans  of  the  Scotch  intruder  Cumin."f 

In  the  battle  of  the  Standard  that  followed,  August  22,  1138, 
Robert  Bruce  was  a  conspicuous  figure,  being  in  command 
of  a  large  part  of  the  army  of  the  English  king.  The  battle 
was  so  called  from  the  standard  that  was  carried  on  the  field 
of  combat,   and  about  which  the   army  was  rallied.     This 

*  Histories  of  Noble  British  Families,  by  Henry  Drummond. 
t  The  Battle  Abbey  Roll,  by  the  Duchess  of  cieveland,  Vol.  I,  p.  102. 



standard  was  in  the  form  of  the  mast  of  a  ship,  having  on  its 
top  a  cross  whereon  was  the  consecrated  host  in  a  silver  pix, 
and  the  banners  of  St.  Peter,  St.  John  of  Beverly,  and  St. 
Wilfred  of  Rippon  waving  below.  It  was  erected  on  the  b^am 
of  a  great  chariot  and  around  it  and  upon  it  were  the  more 
aged  of  the  English  barons.  Before  the  battle,  Ralph,  Bishop 
of  Orkney,  deputed  by  Archbishop  Thurstan,  assured  the 
knights  and  the  soldiers  that  by  fighting  bravely  they  would 
secure  remission  of  their  sins,  and  upon  receiving  from  them 
expressions  of  contrition,  he  pronounced  their  absolution  and 
added  his  benediction.  At  the  same  time  the  priests  in  their 
white  vestments,  carrying  crosses  and  relics,  went  among 
the  ranks,  encouraging  the  soldiers  by  their  exhortations  and 

"  Where  the  Kings  Standard  being  erected  they  all  Rende- 
voused  upon  notice  and  exhortation  from  the  venerable  Thurs- 
tan, Archbishop  of  York;  who  had  likewise  caused  all  the 
Clergy  of  his  Diocese  to  repair  personally  thither,  with  their 
Crosses,  Banners  and  Relicks  of  Saints  carried  before  them, 
to  defend  the  Church  of  Christ  against  the  rage  of  that  bar- 
barous people.  And  beholding  the  English  army  formally 
drawn  up  for  Battle;  as  also  the  Priests  in  their  sacred  Vest- 
ments, with  their  Crosses  and  Relicks,  walking  about  and 
encouraging  the  soldiers;  being  then  a  very  aged  person,  ex- 
ceeding wealthy,  likewise  of  grave  deportment  and  singular 
elocution;  he  made  a  speech  to  them  with  great  majesty  and 

Robert  de  Brusee  died  in  1141  and  was  buried  in  Guis- 
burn  Priory. 

*  Histories  of  Noble  British  Families,  by  Henry  Drummond. 
t  The  Baronage  of  England,  by  Sir  William  Dugdale. 


He  married,  first,  Agnes  Pagnel,  daughter  of  Fulk  Pagnel; 
second,  Agnes  of  Annandale. 


1.  Adam  de  Brusee,  second  lord  of  Skelton.  He  died  in 
1162.  He  married  Ivetha  or  Juletta  de  Archis,  daughter  of 
William  de  Archis  and  widow  of  Roger  de  Hamville;  she 
died  1167.  Skelton  and  other  Enghsh  lands  remained  in  the 
possession  of  the  descendants  of  Adam  de  Brusee  until  1271, 
when  Peter  Bruce,  head  of  the  house,  died  without  male  heirs. 

2.  Robert  de  Brusee,  of  whom  below. 

3.  Agatha  de  Brusee.  She  married  Ralph,  son  of  Ribald, 
Lord  of  Middleham  in  Yorkshire. 

4.  Pagan  de  Brusee. 


Robert  de  Brusee,  fourth  of  the  name,  known  as  Robert 
Le  Meschin,  or  the  cadet,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  by 
his  second  wife,  Agnes  of  Annandale,  was  the  second  baron  of 
Annandale.  Residing  in  Scotland,  he  adhered  to  the  cause 
of  King  David  and  became  the  head  of  the  Scottish  branch 
of  the  Bruce  family.  During  the  conflict  between  the  Scots 
and  the  English,  supposedly  at  the  battle  of  the  Standard,  he 
was  taken  prisoner  by  his  father  and  sent  to  England,  but 
was  pardoned  by  the  king  and  returned  to  Annandale  in  the 
custody  of  his  mother.  He  also  had  lands  in  England,  for 
his  father  gave  him  the  lordship  of  Hart,  in  the  bishopric  of 
Durham.  It  is  probable  that  he  was  the  De  Brusee  who 
gave  to  the  monks  of  St.  Cuthbert,  the  Chapel  of  Eden,  with 
this  proviso, — 

"  excepting  that  when  I  or  my  wife  or  my  household  abide 
at  Eden,  my  own  chaplain  shall  sing  mass  in  my  own  chapel 






in  my  castle  and  shall  receive  all  the  offerings  made  by  my- 
self, my  family  and  my  guests  hearing  the  mass." 

He  died  between  1189  and  1191. 

He  married,  first,  Judith,  daughter  and  co-heir  of  William 
de  Lancaster,  Lord  of  Kendall,  and  succeeded  to  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Lordship  of  Kendall.  He  married,  second,  Eu- 
phemia,  whose  family  name  is  not  known. 

Issue  by  wife  Euphemia: 

1.  Robert  de  Brusee.  He  married,  in  1183,  Isabella,  daugh- 
ter of  William  the  Lion,  King  of  Scotland.  He  died  before 
his  father  and  without  issue.  His  widow  married  Robert  de  Ros. 

2.  William  de  Brusee,  of  whom  below. 


William  de  Brusee,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  third 
baron  of  Annandale.  Some  authorities  say  that  he  died  in 
the  tenth  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Richard  I.,  1199,  while 
others  fix  the  date  of  his  death  in  the  sixteenth  year  of  the 
reign  of  King  John,  1215. 

The  name  of  his  wife  is  not  of  record.  He  succeeded  his 
elder  brother  Robert  in  the  fief  of  Annandale,  holding  that 
along  with  the  English  manors  of  Helt  and  Haltwhistle. 

Issue : 

1.  Robert  de  Brusee,  of  whom  below. 

2.  William  de  Brusee. 

3.  John  de  Brusee. 


Robert  de  Brusee,  or  Robert  Bruce,  sixth  of  the  name, 
son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  fourth  baron  of  Annandale  and 
one  of  the  great  personages  of  his  time  and  country.     His 



large  estates  and  his  royal  connections  assured  him  rank 
among  the  most  powerful  barons  of  southern  Scotland.  He 
was  liberal  to  religious  institutions  and  confirmed  to  the 
monks  of  Guisburn  the  patronage  of  the  churches  of  Annan- 
dale,  first  granted  to  them  by  his  grandfather.  When  King 
Alexander  II.  went  to  York  in  1221  he  was  one  of  the  retinue 
of  Scottish  magnates  or  barons  who  accompanied  the  king 
and  was  a  witness  of  the  endowment  that  Alexander  bestowed 
upon  his  wife  Joanna,  sister  of  King  Henry  III.,  of  England. 
He  died  in  1245  and  his  wife  died  in  1252.  Both  are  buried 
in  the  abbey  of  Saltre,  near  Stilton  in  Huntingdonshire. 
Stukely,  the  antiquarian,  visiting  the  place  of  their  burial, 
quaintly  wrote: 

"when  I  saw  the  ruins  of  the  church  in  which  lay  the  bones 
of  Robert  Bruce  and  his  wife  Isabel,  the  progenitors  of  kings, 
I  uttered  many  a  groan." 

He  married  Isabel,  daughter  of  David,  Earl  of  Hunting- 
don, who  was  the  son  of  Prince  Henry  of  Scotland  and  grand- 
son of  David  I.,  King  of  Scots.  The  Earl  of  Huntingdon 
was  brother  of  Malcolm  IV.,  King  of  Scots,  and  William  the 
Lion,  King  of  Scots.  Thus  the  legitimate  royal  blood  of 
Scotland  was  introduced  into  the  Bruce  family  and  gave  the 
descendants  of  this  Robert  Bruce  their  claim  to  the  throne. 
By  this  royal  match  the  Lords  of  Annandale  attained  to  high 
rank  among  the  richest  and  most  powerful  noble  families  of 
Scotland  and  England.  Through  his  wife  (as  co-heiress  with 
her  two  sisters,  of  her  father's  property)  Bruce,  exclusive  of 
his  personal  estates  in  both  kingdoms,  came  into  possession 



of  the  manor  of  Whittle  and  Hatfield  in  Essex,  together  with 
half  the  hundred  of  Hatfield.  She  likewise  brought  him  the 
castle  of  Kildrummie,  and  the  lordship  of  Garioch  in  Aber- 
deenshire and  the  manors  of  Connington  in  Huntingdoiishire 
and  Exton  in  Rutlandshire. 

Issue : 

1.  Robert  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Richard  Bruce,  who  died  in  1287. 


Robert  Bruce,  seventh  of  the  name,  son  of  the  preced- 
ing, was  born  in  1210.  He  was  called  the  Competitor  from 
his  claim  to  the  crown  of  Scotland  against  John  Baliol.  On 
the  death  of  his  father  he  became  Lord  Annandale  and  when 
his  mother  died  in  1251  he  came  into  possession  of  her  share 
of  the  earldom  of  Huntingdon.  Thus  he  was  a  powerful  sub- 
ject of  both  kingdoms,  England  and  Scotland.  In  1250  he 
was  a  justice  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  of  Henry  III. 
On  the  death  of  Alexander  II.  of  Scotland,  in  1255,  he  was 
one  of  the  regents  named  to  act  during  the  minority  of  the 
young  king,  Alexander  III.  He  was  made  sheriff  of  Cum- 
berland and  governor  of  Carlisle  by  Henry  III.;  between 
1257  and  1271  he  frequently  served  on  the  English  bench  and 
in  1268  he  was  appointed  capitalis  justiciarius,  being  the  first 
chief  justice  that  England  had.  He  sat  in  Parliament,  and  in 
the  Barons'  War  was  one  of  the  supporters  of  the  king,  march- 
ing with  his  sovereign  from  Oxford  to  Northallerton.  In  the 
battle  of  Lewes,  May  14,  1264,  he  was  taken  prisoner  but  was 
released  after  the  king  was  victorious  at  Eversham  in  1265. 

S  65 


During  the  lifetime  of  this  Robert  Bruce  began  the  great 
struggle  for  the  crown  of  Scotland  that,  after  more  than  a 
quarter  of  a  century  of  warfare,  resulted  in  the  seating  of  his 
famous  grandson  upon  the  throne.  This  Bruce  was  among 
those  who  at  the  convention  of  Scone,  in  February,  1283-4, 
recognized  the  right  of  succession  of  Margaret,  the  Maid  of 
Norway;  but,  on  the  death  of  King  Alexander  III.  in  1286, 
he  joined  the  league  of  powerful  nobles  who  met  at  Turn- 
berry  Castle  and  pledged  themselves  to  vindicate  the  claims 
of  whoever  should  gain  the  kingdom  by  right  of  blood,  accord- 
ing to  the  ancient  customs  of  Scotland.  In  the  civil  war  that 
ensued  Lord  Annandale  asserted  his  title  to  the  crown  against 
his  cousin  John  Baliol. 

As  neither  Bruce  nor  Baliol  was  able  unaided  to  attain 
his  ambitions  the  dispute  was  referred  to  King  Edward  I. 
of  England  as  arbitrator.  Edward,  it  is  said,  offered  to  de- 
cide in  favor  of  Bruce  if  the  latter  would  do  homage  to  him. 
Bruce  refused  these  conditions,  saying  that  he  preferred  the 
honor  of  his  country  to  his  own  personal  advantage  and  that 
as  his  country  always  had  been  free  he  would  maintain  it  so. 
Thereupon  Edward  offered  the  throne  on  the  same  condi- 
tions to  Baliol,  who  accepted  and  was  crowned  in  1292.  Being 
then  advanced  in  years  Bruce  felt  that  he  could  no  longer 
contest  for  his  rights.  He  even  refused  to  do  homage  to  the 
new  king,  exclaiming,  "I  am  Baliol's  sovereign,  not  Baliol 
mine,  and  rather  than  consent  to  such  homage,  I  resign  my 
lands  in  Annandale  to  my  son,  the  Earl  of  Carrick."  He 
then  retired  to  private  life  in  the  castle  of  Lochmaben. 




He  died  in  Loehamben  on  Good  Friday,  in  1295.  In  Dug- 
dale's  Monasticon  there  is  a  picture  of  the  tomb  of  this  Robert 
Bruce  at  Gisburn.  It  has  no  recumbent  figure  above  as  was 
customary  on  tombs  of  that  period,  but  five  upright  figures 
stand  in  niches  on  each  side  and  three  at  the  west  end,  the 
central  figure  being  a  king  with  his  crown  and  sceptre,  and 
the  royal  arms  of  Scotland  on  his  shield  and  over  his  head 
the  lion  rampant,  and  the  saltire  and  chief  on  different  shields. 

Robert  Bruce  married,  first,  in  1240,  Isabel  de  Clare,  second 
daughter  of  Gilbert  de  Clare,  Earl  of  Gloucester  and  Here- 
ford. She  was  born  in  1226  and  was  only  thirteen  years  of 
age  when  married.  She  died  in  1271.  He  married,  second, 
Christiana,  daughter  of  Sir  William  de  Ireby. 

Issue  of  Robert  and  Isabel  (de  Clare)  Bruce: 

1.  Robert  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  William  Bruce.  He  married  Elizabeth  de  Sully,  daugh- 
ter of  Raymond  de  Sully. 

3.  Bernard  Bruce,  who  held  the  barony  of  Connington  in 
Huntingdonshire.  He  married,  first,  Alicia  de  Clare;  second, 
Constance  de  Morleyn. 

4.  Isabella  Bruce,  who  married  John  Fitz  Marmaduke  and 
died  in  1300. 

5.  Alosia  Bruce,  who  married  Sir  Nigel  Graham,  Lord  of 

6.  Christiana  Bruce.  She  married  Patrick  Dunbar,  Earl 
of  March,  one  of  the  competitors  for  the  crown  of  Scotland. 


Robert  Bruce,  eighth  of  the  name,  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  the  first  earl  of  Carrick.  He  was  born  in  1253.  When 
a  mere  youth,  in  1269,  he  went  to  the  Holy  Land,  a  compan- 



ion  of  Prince  Edward,  afterwards  King  Edward  I.  of  England. 
In  1284,  as  Earl  of  Carriek,  he  acknowledged  with  other 
Scottish  nobles  the  right  of  Margaret  of  Norway  to  the  crown 
of  Scotland.  In  1292,  upon  the  death  of  his  wife,  he  resigned 
the  earldom  of  Carriek  to  his  son  Robert  Bruce.  About  the 
same  time  he  was  party  to  the  agreement  that  his  father  en- 
tered into  with  Florence,  Count  of  Holland,  another  com- 
petitor, against  the  claims  of  Baliol  to  the  crown  of  Scotland. 
After  the  death  of  his  father  in  1295,  he  succeeded  to  the 
lordship  of  Annandale  and  was  appointed  governor  of  Car- 
lisle, both  he  and  his  son,  the  Earl  of  Carriek,  swearing  fealty 
to  Edward  I.  as  king  of  England  and  of  Scotland.  He  sat  in 
Parliament  in  1295-97.  King  Edward  I.  restored  to  him  the 
lands  in  Scotland  that  his  father  had  given  up  and  he  accom- 
panied the  king  on  his  expedition  into  Scotland  against  Ba- 
liol when  the  latter  asserted  his  independence  of  England. 
After  Baliol  was  overthrown  at  Dunbar  in  1296,  Bruce  claimed 
the  throne  of  Scotland  by  virtue  of  a  promise  that  he  asserted 
had  been  made  to  him  by  Edward.  The  answer  of  the  Eng- 
lish king,  as  reported  by  one  of  the  chroniclers  of  the  period, 

"  Have  I  nought  ellys  to  do  nowe 
But  wyn  a  Kynrik  to  gyve  yhowe." 

Disappointed  in  his  ambitions  he  retired  to  his  estates  in 
England  and  took  no  more  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the  king- 

He  died  in  the  Holy  Land  in  1304  and  was  buried  in  the 
Abbey  of  Holmcultram,  Cumberland. 



He  married  in  1271,  Marjory,  widow  of  Adam  de  Kilcon- 
cath  who  fell  in  the  Holy  Land  in  1270;  she  was  the  only 
daughter  of  Neil,  Earl  of  Carrick.  She  died  in  1292.  The 
circumstances  attending  this  alliance  were  singular  arid  ro- 
mantic. According  to  the  ancient  historian  Fordun,  as  quoted 
by  George  Grant*: 

"  It  appears  that  a  short  time  after  his  return  from  the  Holy 
Wars,  Robert  Bruce  was  riding  through  the  beautiful  domains 
of  Turnberry  Castle,  the  property  of  the  widowed  Countess 
of  Carrick,  who,  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  her  husband, 
had  become  a  ward  of  the  crown.  The  noble  baron,  how- 
ever, cannot  be  accused  of  visiting  Turnberry  with  any  de- 
sign of  throwing  himself  in  the  way  of  the  young  and  hand- 
some heiress  of  Carrick,  and  indeed  any  such  idea  in  those 
days  of  jealous  wardship  would  have  been  dangerous  in  the 
extreme.  It  happened,  however,  that  the  lady  herself,  whose 
ardent  and  impetuous  temper  was  not  much  in  love  with  the 
seclusion  of  a  feudal  castle,  had  come  out  to  pursue  her  favor- 
ite diversion  of  the  chase,  accompanied  by  her  women,  hunts- 
men and  falcons;  and  this  gay  cavalcade  came  suddenly  upon 
Bruce  as  he  slowly  pursued  his  way  through  the  forest,  alone 
and  unarmed. 

"The  knight  would  have  spurred  his  horse  forward  and 
avoided  the  conflict,  but  he  found  himself  suddenly  surrounded 
by  the  attendants,  and  the  countess  herself  riding  up,  and, 
with  gentle  violence  taking  hold  of  his  horse's  reins,  reproached 
him  in  so  sweet  a  tone  for  his  want  of  gallantry  in  flying  from 
a  lady's  castle,  that  Bruce,  enamoured  of  her  beauty,  forgot 
the  risk  which  he  ran  and  suffered  himself  to  be  led  away  in 
a  kind  of  triumph  to  Turnberry.  He  here  remained  fifteen 
days  and  the  adventure  concluded  as  might  have  been  antici- 
pated by  his  privately  marrying  the  young  countess,  without 
the  knowledge  of  the  relatives  of  either  party  and  before  ob- 

*  Life  of  Robert  Bruce,  by  George  Grant. 


taining  the  king's  consent.  Alexander  the  Third  was  indig- 
nant at  this  bold  interference  with  the  rights  of  the  crown  and 
seized  her  castle  of  Turnberry;  but  being  a  prince  of  great 
benevolence,  upon  the  intercession  of  the  noble  baron  he 
extended  his  forgiveness  to  Bruce,  upon  his  paying  a  heavy 
feudal  fine." 

The  earldom  of  Carrick  that  the  Countess  Marjory  held  in 
her  own  right  was  one  of  the  most  ancient  in  the  kingdom  of 
Scotland.  It  added  much  to  the  already  high  distinction  of  the 
Bruce  family,  and  the  title  Earl  of  Carrick  was  one  of  their 
most  cherished  possessions  for  generations. 

Issue  of  Robert  Bruce,  by  his  wife  Marjory,  Countess  of 

1.  Robert  Bruce,  King  of  Scotland,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Edward  Bruce,  the  younger  brother  of  King  Robert 
Bruce,  was  most  famous  for  his  incursion  into  Ireland  where 
he  was  made  king.  When  King  Robert  Bruce  invaded  the 
district  of  Galloway  in  1308,  Edward  Bruce  acted  as  comman- 
der of  the  forces  part  of  the  time,  and  led  the  retreat  from 
the  army  of  the  Earl  of  Richmond.  On  the  banks  of  the 
river  Dee  he  made  a  stand  and  defeated  the  chiefs  of  Gallo- 
way, making  a  prisoner  of  Donall,  Prince  of  the  Isles.  Fi- 
nally, he  brought  the  district  of  Galloway  under  the  control  of 
King  Robert  and  gained  possession  of  the  town  of  Dundee, 
thus  driving  the  English  out  of  almost  their  last  stronghold 
in  Scotland.  In  1313  he  besieged  Stirling  Castle,  and  in 
1314  he  was  one  of  the  chief  commanders  on  the  glorious  field 
of  Bannockburn,  leading  the  right  column  of  the  Scottish 

In  1315  in  a  convention  of  the  prelates,  nobles,  and  com- 
mons of  Scotland,  Edward  Bruce  was,  by  ordinance,  recog- 
nized as  king  in  the  event  of  the  death  of  his  brother  Robert 
without  male  heirs.     This  action  was  a  just  tribute  to  his 



talent,  his  commanding  force  of  character,  and,  as  well,  to 
his  high  ambition.  He  was  a  valiant,  experienced,  and  able 
soldier  and  is  said  to  have  aspired  to  share  the  kingship  with 
his  brother.  But  his  thoughts  were  turned  away  from  the 
throne  of  Scotland  by  an  invitation  from  some  of  the  native 
chiefs  of  Ireland  to  go  over  to  that  island  to  drive  out  the 
English.  The  Bruce  descent  from  the  old  line  of  Irish  kings 
through  the  family  of  Scottish  kings  into  which  their  ances- 
tors had  married,  gave  them  something  of  a  claim  to  the  Irish 
throne  and  this  was  recognized  by  the  chiefs  who  called 
upon  him. 

The  Scottish  army  landed  in  Ulster  in  May,  1315,  led  by 
Edward  Bruce,  the  Earl  of  Moray,  and  others.  The  town  of 
Carrickfergus  was  besieged  and  taken  and  there  Bruce  was 
crowned  King  of  Ireland.  In  the  campaign  that  ensued  he 
encountered  and  defeated  on  many  occasions  the  forces  of 
the  government  in  Ireland.  John  Barbour,  in  his  rhymed 
history  of  the  Bruces,  says  that  he  defeated  the  English  in 
nineteen  engagements.  In  the  autumn  of  1318,  he  projected 
another  descent  upon  Leinster,  but  in  battle  near  Dundalk,  in 
October  of  that  year,  he  was  slain  and  his  forces  put  to  flight. 
His  body  was  quartered  and  his  head  was  sent  to  King  Ed- 
ward in  England.     He  was  not  married. 

3.  Thomas  Bruce,  who  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  English 
at  Galloway  in  1307  and  put  to  death  at  Carlisle  by  order  of 
King  Edward  I. 

4.  Alexander  Bruce,  who  was  taken  prisoner  with  his 
brother,  Thomas  Bruce,  and  suffered  a  like  fate. 

5.  Nigel,  or  Niel  Bruce,  who  was  taken  prisoner  by  the 
English  in  1306  and  executed  at  Berwick. 

6.  Isabel  Bruce.  She  married,  first,  Thomas  Randolph  of 
Strathdon,  Chamberlain  of  Scotland;  second,  the  Earl  of 
Athol ;  third,  Alexander  Bruce. 

7.  Mary  Bruce.  She  married,  first.  Sir  Niel  Campbell  of 
Lochow;  second,  Alexander  Frazer  of  Cowie,  Chamberlain 
of  Scotland. 



8.  Christiana  Bruce.  She  married,  first,  Gratney,  Earl  of 
Mar;  second.  Sir  Christopher  Seton,  who  was  put  to  death  at 
Dumfries,  in  1306,  by  order  of  King  Edward  I.;  third,  Sir 
Andrew  Moray  of  Bothwell,  who  was  governor  of  Scotland 
during  the  minority  of  King  David. 

9.  Matilda  Bruce.     She  married  Hugh,  Earl  of  Ross. 

10.  Elizabeth  Bruce.  She  married  Sir  William  Dishington 
of  Ardross  in  Fife. 

11.  Margaret  Bruce.  She  married  Sir  William  Carlyle  of 
Torthorwald  and  Crunnington. 

12.  Margery  Bruce.     She  married  Sir  David  de  Breschin. 


SCOTLAND   J-   J-    J-    J^    J-    Ji 

MMt;    Iv'  OMIIKI',  'I'lli;    HKMIi'i; 




ROBERT  BRUCE,  ninth  of  the  name,  son  of  Robert 
Bruce  and  his  wife,  Marjory  of  Carrick,  was  born 
July  11,  1274.  His  early  years  were  passed  in  the 
court  of  Edward  I.,  King  of  England,  where  he  acquired  the 
graces  of  society  and  the  art  of  arms  that  afterward  so  well 
adorned  him.  Upon  the  death  of  his  mother,  in  1292,  when 
he  was  just  entering  his  eighteenth  year,  his  father  resigned 
to  him  the  title  of  Earl  of  Carrick.  It  is  said  that  he  then  did 
homage  to  John  Baliol,  acknowledging  the  claim  of  that  noble 
to  the  throne  of  Scotland.  It  is  not  at  all  certain  that  such 
homage  was  rendered,  for  in  the  disputes  that  subsequently 
arose  between  Baliol  and  King  Edward  both  the  young 
Bruce  and  his  father  were  always  favoring  the  cause  of 

Throughout  Scotland's  troublous  and  exciting  years,  at  the 
close  of  the  thirteenth  century,  Bruce,  most  historians  con- 
cede, occupied  an  equivocal  position.  Correspondence  and 
documentary  evidence  show  that  he  was  first  on  one  side  and 
then  on  the  other.  His  attitude  during  all  the  early  years  of 
his  country's  struggle  for  freedom  has  been  much  discussed 
and  even  at  this  late  date  has  not  been  made  to  appear  wholly 
satisfactory  to  his  admirers.  The  testimony  of  early  Scottish 
and  English  chroniclers  is  variant  and  untrustworthy  on  this 



point,  for  it  was  the  aim  of  those  on  each  side  of  the  contro- 
versy, though  with  different  motives,  to  make  out  that  he  at- 
tached himself  early  to  the  national  cause.  That  he  did  so, 
is  not  clear,  however.  In  1296,  when  he  was  twenty-two 
years  of  age,  his  father  was  governor  of  Carli'sle  by  appoint- 
ment of  King  Edward,  and  the  son  swore  fealty  to  that  mon- 
arch. In  the  following  year  he  raided  the  Douglas  lands  in 
the  interest  of  Edward,  and  in  this  doing  made  himself,  for 
the  moment  at  least,  the  pronounced  enemy  of  the  man  who 
was  destined  to  become,  a  few  years  after,  his  most  loyal  and 
beloved  supporter  and  friend. 

When,  however,  it  was  disclosed  that  Edward  intended  to 
make  Scotland  wholly  subservient  to  England,  and  the  re- 
volt against  English  domination  became  general,  finally  as- 
suming national  proportions,  the  Bruce  gave  his  support  again 
to  the  Scottish  cause.  After  Baliol  and  the  Scots  were  forced 
to  capitulate  at  Irvine,  in  July,  1297,  he  turned  again  to  the 
standard  of  England.  Professing  loyalty  to  King  Edward, 
he  was  required  to  give  hostage  to  the  English  for  his  future 
faithfulness.  When  Wallace  once  more  raised  the  standard 
of  revolt,  the  Bruce  was  again  summoned  and  at  this  critical 
moment  he  whose  name  was  to  become  the  greatest  on  the 
pages  of  Scottish  history,  held  back. 

For  a  time  he  took  no  active  part  in  the  new  rebellion,  but 
when  King  Edward  invaded  Scotland  in  1298,  he  determined 
to  stand  on  the  side  of  his  countrymen.  It  is  said  that  he 
summoned  the  Annandale  men,  vassals  of  his  father,  then  in 
the  service  of  King  Edward,  and  addressed  them  thus: 



"You  have  already  heard,  without  doubt,  of  that  solemn 
oath,  which  I  lately  took  at  Carlisle,  and  I  cannot  deny  the 
fact;  but  the  oath  was  a  foolish  one  and  exacted  by  fear:  it 
was  my  body  that  took  the  oath  and  not  my  mind;  but  its 
having  been  taken  at  all  is  now  to  me  the  cause  of  much  re- 
morse and  sorrow :  yet  ere  long  I  hope  to  be  absolved  from  it 
by  our  Holy  Father.  In  the  meanwhile,  I  am  resolved  to  go 
and  join  my  fellow  countrymen  and  assist  them  in  their  efforts 
to  restore  to  its  liberty  the  land  of  my  nativity,  for  none,  as 
you  known,  is  an  enemy  of  his  own  flesh,  and  as  for  me  I  love 
my  own  people.  Let  me  beseech  you  then  to  adopt  the  same 
resolution,  and  to  accompany  me,  and  you  shall  ever  be  es- 
teemed my  dear  friends  and  approved  counsellors."* 

But  the  men  of  Annandale  declined  to  yield  to  these  exhor- 
tations, and  the  Bruce  had  only  a  few  vassals  of  Carrick  to 
follow  him  to  the  camp  of  the  insurgents,  where,  as  the  result 
of  the  stand  he  had  taken,  he  and  his  family  were  forced  to 
remain  a  long  time  in  hiding.  In  the  following  year,  how- 
ever, the  Bruce  had  reinstated  himself  in  royal  favor,  for  he 
was  one  of  the  three  guardians  of  Scotland  for  John  Baliol 
and  also  was  associated  with  other  nobles  in  an  attack  upon 
Lockmaben  castle  then  held  by  an  English  garrison.  From 
1300  to  1305  he  maintained  an  attitude  of  unquestioned  loy- 
alty to  King  Edward  and  received  many  favors  from  the 
hands  of  that  monarch. 

"The  conduct  of  de  Brus,  at  this  juncture,  as  throughout 
the  entire  period  prior  to  his  assumption  of  the  crown,  not 
being  understood,  has  excited  the  wonder  and  regret  of  pos- 
terity. Supple,  dexterous  and  accommodating — now  in  arms 
for  his  country,  and  then  leagued  with  her  oppressors — now 

*  Royal  Descents,  by  J.  Bernard  Burke,  p.  13. 



swearing  fealty  to  the  English  king,  and  again  accepting  the 
guardianship  of  Scotland  in  the  name  of  Baliol,  it  seems  to 
require  all  the  energy,  perseverance  and  consummate  pru- 
dence and  valour  of  after  years  to  redeem  his  character  from 
the  charges  of  apparent  and  culpable  weakness.  De  Brus, 
the  guardian  of  Scotland  in  the  name  of  Baliol,  says  Lord 
Hailes,  is  one  of  those  historical  phenomena  which  are  inex- 

But,  as  pointed  out  by  other  historians,  this  conduct,  upon 
careful  examination,  does  not  seem  so  inexplicable.  Impor- 
tant interests  of  Bruce  and  of  his  father  were  in  England,  and 
they  had  always  been  loyal  to  King  Edward.  In  Scotland, 
he  felt  that  he  had  been  wrongly  deprived  of  the  crown  and 
he  had  no  particular  reason  for  loyalty  to  the  rival  house  of 
Baliol,  that,  for  the  moment,  had  been  successful  in  pushing 
him  aside.  Wallace  and  Moray,  who  led  the  revolt  against 
English  misrule,  had  developed  their  movement  to  national 
proportions,  but  it  was  a  movement  quite  as  much  for  the  ad- 
vancement of  the  Baliols  as  for  the  freedom  of  Scotland. 
Wallace  was  a  supporter  of  Baliol  as  were  also  the  Comyns, 
rivals  of  the  Bruce  in  their  own  right  and  also  in  that  of  Baliol. 
Although  the  insurrection  was  widespread  among  the  masses 
there  was  lack  of  unity  among  the  Scottish  nobles.  Some 
stood  for  their  country  at  all  hazards,  while  others  were  not 
ready  to  support  a  cause  that  had  for  one  of  its  main  purposes 
the  reinstatement  of  Baliol.  Bruce,  holding  firmly  to  his 
right  to  the  throne,  and  determined  to  assert  his  claim  to  the 
uttermost    at  the  opportune  time,  could  in  reason    neither 

*  The  Scottish  Nation,  by  William  Anderson,  Vol.  I,  p.  412. 



support  his  rivals'  cause  nor  press  his  own  affair  when  the 
power  of  BaHol  or  of  Comyn  was  still  in  the  ascendancy. 

Matters  were  finally  precipitated  by  the  murder  of  John 
Comyn,  the  younger,  of  Badenoch,  February  10,  1305-6. 
With  the  renunciation  of  all  claim  to  the  throne  by  John  Ba- 
liol,  John  Comyn,  the  Red,  was  next  in  line,  according  to  the 
award  of  King  Edward  in  1291.  The  two  rivals,  Bruce  and 
Comyn,  met  in  the  church  of  the  Minorite  friars  at  Dumfries. 
There  they  quarrelled,  and  Bruce,  drawing  his  dagger,  stabbed 
Comyn  to  the  heart.  The  story  is  told  by  Lord  Hailes  that 
as  Bruce  emerged  from  the  building  he  was  met  by  his  com- 
panions Kirkpatrick  and  de  Lindsay  who,  noticing  that  he 
was  agitated,  asked  how  it  was  with  him.  "Ill,"  said  the 
Bruce,  "for  I  doubt  I  have  slain  the  Comyn."  "Doubt!" 
exclaimed  Kirkpatrick,  "then  I'll  make  sure."  Thereupon 
he  rushed  into  the  church  and  plunging  his  dagger  into  the 
body  of  Comyn,  completed  the  work  that  Bruce  had  begun. 
In  remembrance  thereof  the  crest  of  the  Kirkpatrick  family 
is  a  hand  holding  a  dagger,  distilling  drops  of  blood  with  the 
motto   "I  make  sure." 

With  that  the  die  was  cast.     The  field  was  clear  and  Bruce 

had  henceforth  no  competitor  for  the  throne.     The  moment 

was  favorable  too.     Once  more  the  country  was  aflame  with 

patriotism,  for  it  had  been  made  plain  that  King  Edward  was 

fully  determined  that  Scotland  should  be  simply  a  vassalage 

of  England.     The  Scottish  nobles  were  still  divided  in  their 

allegiance,  but  the  national  idea  enkindled  by  Wallace  was 

stronger  than  ever  with  the  people.     It  is  doubtful  if  the  mur- 



der  of  Comyn  was  premeditated.  The  deed  was  probably 
done  in  the  heat  of  the  moment,  in  passion  engendered  by 
discussion  of  differences  between  the  two  rivals.  Neverthe- 
less by  this  act,  Bruce  had  put  himself  upon  the  defensive 
and  he  had  no  choice  now  but  to  stake  all  upon  the  hazard 
of  warfare.  Despite  the  sacrilege  of  violence  before  the  altar 
the  church  was  on  his  side,  the  people  were  ready  to  acclaim 
him,  and  he  had  friends  and  supporters  among  the  nobles. 

Now  that  the  time  for  indecision  and  dalliance  had  passed 
Bruce  went  forward  bravely,  energetically,  and  patriotically. 
From  that  moment  he  never  faltered.  Nearly  two  months 
later,  in  March  1305-6,  he  was  crowned  king  of  Scotland. 
The  initial  ceremonies  took  place  at  Scone,  March  ?7.  The 
Bishop  of  Glasgow  furnished  from  his  own  wardrobe  the 
coronation  robes  and  presented  to  the  new  king  a  banner 
embroidered  with  arms,  which  he  had  long  concealed  in  his 
treasury.  On  the  head  of  the  monarch  the  Bishop  of  St. 
Andrews  placed  a  small  circlet  of  gold,  and  a  few  prelates 
and  barons  paid  homage  to  him  as  he  sat  on  the  state  chair 
of  the  bishop. 

A  second  coronation  followed  a  few  days  later.  This  had 
in  it  an  element  of  romance.  Ever  since  Malcolm  Canmore 
had  ascended  the  throne  in  1056,  the  Earls  of  Fife,  descend- 
ants of  the  celebrated  M'Duff,  had  enjoyed  the  honorary 
distinction  of  crowning  the  Scots'  kings,  or,  at  least,  of  placing 
them  on  the  throne  on  the  coronation  day.  But  Duncan, 
who  was  then  Earl  of  Fife,  was  on  the  side  of  the  English. 
His  sister  Isabella,  the  wife  of  the  Earl  of  Buchan,  was  true 



to  Scotland  and  in  sympathy  with  the  Bruce,  and  she  deter- 
mined that  her  family  should  not  fail  in  its  traditional  service. 
Withdrawing  secretly  from  her  castle,  unbeknown  to  her 
husband,  she  repaired  to  Scone,  avowing  herself  a  partisan 
of  the  new  king  and  patriotically  devoted  to  the  liberties  of 
her  oppressed  country.  At  Scone  she  insisted  upon  exer- 
cising the  privileges  and  discharging  the  duties  of  her  family, 
and  the  ceremonial  was  repeated  on  Sunday,  March  29.  It 
is  said  that  on  this  occasion  the  determined  countess  carried 
off  the  war  horses  of  her  liege  lord  and  took  them  with  other 
appurtenances  of  war  to  the  assistance  of  the  Bruce. 

Many  there  were  who  said  that  the  deed  of  the  countess 
was  inspired  quite  as  much  by  love  as  by  patriotism  and  tra- 
dition. The  gentle  rumor  was  that  the  countess  cherished 
a  tender  attachment  to  King  Robert,  although  each  was  in 
the  bonds  of  matrimony.  English  writers  of  that  period 
were  quite  ready  to  take  that  view  of  the  matter.  "She  was 
mad  for  the  beauty  of  the  fool  who  was  crowned,"  said 
Matthew  of  Westminster,  who,  though,  was  neither  unbiased 
nor  veracious.  That  interpretation  has  been  put  upon  her 
action  by  some  modern  writers.  John  Davidson,  the  Scotch 
poet,  dwelling  upon  this  event,  puts  these  words  into  the  mouth 
of  the  fair  countess,  as  the  culmination  of  her  decision; 

"Now,  world,  wag,  wag,  your  tongues! 
I  sacrifice  my  fame  to  make  a  king. 
And  he  will  raise  this  nation's  head  again 
That  lies  so  low;    and  they  will  honour  him; 
And  afterwards,  perhaps,  they'll  honour  me. 
Or  if  they  slight  me  and  my  modest  work, 

6  81 


I  shall  be  dead;    1  have  enough  to  bear 
Of  disrespect  and  slander  here  to-day, 
Without  forecasting  railing  epitaphs. 
But  some — nay,  many  of  the  worthiest. 
And  many  simple  judgments  too, — will  see 
The  sunlight  on  my  deed.     This,  I  make  sure: 
No  Scots'  allegiance  can  be  held  from  Bruce 
Because  he  was  not  crowned  by  a  Macduff. 
And  if  I  love  him,  what  is  that  to  him  ? 
That's  a  good  saying.     So  is  this,  I  make: 
If  I  do  love  him,  what  is  that  to  me.''"  * 

For  the  ensuing  eight  years  the  history  of  Bruce  and  of 
Scotland  was  a  history  of  warfare  with  all  the  accompani- 
ments of  danger,  deprivation,  and  suffering.  At  the  outset 
the  castles  and  lands  of  Scotland's  king  were  declared  forfeit 
by  King  Edward  and  sentence  of  excommunication  was  passed 
upon  him  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  With  his  supporters  the 
Bruce  was  driven  into  the  fastnesses  of  the  Highlands  where 
they  led  the  lives  of  outlaws.  When  he  started  he  had  only 
about  four  hundred  followers  and  was  quite  unable  to  cope 
with  his  adversaries.  He  was  first  defeated  by  the  Lord  of 
Lorn,  and  at  Craigrostan,  on  the  western  side  of  Ben  Lomond, 
there  is  a  cave  which  tradition  says  afforded  shelter  for  him 
and  his  little  band  on  this  occasion.  Here  he  spent  a  night 
surrounded  by  a  flock  of  goats  and  was  so  much  impressed 
with  this  companionship  that  he  afterwards  enacted  a  law 
that  all  goats  should  be  exempt  from  grassmail  or  rent.  Be- 
friended by  the  Earl  of  Lenox,  and  Angus  of  Isla,  Lord 
Cantire,  both  whom  received  him  in  their  castles,  he  moved 

*  Bruce:    A  Chronicle  Play,  by  John  Davidson,  Act  II. 








over  to  the  small  island  of  Rachrin,  now  Rathlin,  on  the 
northern  coast  of  Ireland,  where  he  and  his  adherents  passed 
the  first  winter  of  their  enterprise. 

Queen  Elizabeth,  with  Bruce's  daughter  Marjory  by  his 
first  wife,  and  other  ladies  of  his  family,  had  been  sent  to 
Kildrummie,  the  royal  castle  in  Aberdeenshire,  for  protection, 
under  the  escort  of  Nigel  Bruce,  the  king's  brother,  and  the 
Earl  of  AthoU.  But  Kildrummie  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
English  and  the  members  of  the  royal  party  were  captured. 
Nigel  Bruce  was  executed  as  a  traitor  and  Queen  Elizabeth, 
the  Countess  of  Buchan,  and  the  other  ladies  were  held  in 
confinement  in  various  castles  and  convents  until  the  end  of 
the  war.  The  Earl  of  AthoU  was  among  those  apprehended. 
He  was  carried  to  London,  where,  says  the  chronicler  Langtoft: 

"  being  hanged  on  a  gibbet  thirty  feet  high,  he  was  cut  down 
when  only  half  dead,  that  he  might  feel  greater  torments  and 
was  then  cruelly  beheaded.  The  trunk  of  his  body  was  burned 
to  ashes  before  his  own  face." 

The  earl  was  a  second  cousin  of  the  King  of  England  and 
for  that  reason  his  treason  was  considered  a  greater  offense. 
Matthew  of  Westminster  says  that  Edward,  although  griev- 
ously sick,  endured  the  pains  of  his  disease  with  greater 
equanimity  after  hearing  of  the  capture  and  execution  of  his 
disloyal  kinsman.  A  dozen  or  more  Scottish  nobles  were 
put  to  death  by  the  remorseless  Edward  and  there  is  a  list  of 
twenty-seven  nobles  and  ladies  who  were  imprisoned. 

In  the  spring  of  1307,  Bruce  came  out  from  hiding  on  the 
isle  of  Arran  whither  he  had  gone  from  Rachrin,  his  first  place 



of  refuge,  and  with  the  help  of  the  "good  Lord  James  Doug- 
las," ever  faithful,  and  some  three  hundred  hungry  but  valiant 
followers,  captured  from  the  English  his  ancestral  home 
Turnberry  Castle  in  Carrick.  He  was  not  able  to  hold 
the  castle,  however,  but  collected  what  spoils  he  could 
from  the  country  and  then  withdrew  to  the  highlands  of 

During  the  months  that  immediately  followed,  the  situation 
was  desperate  and  indeed,  apparently  well-nigh  hopeless. 
Douglas  achieved  several  slight  successes  but  nothing  of  real 
importance.  Three  brothers  and  several  friends  of  the  Bruce 
had  perished  on  the  gibbet.  His  queen  and  his  daughter 
were  prisoners  in  the  hands  of  the  English.  His  lands  were 
confiscated  and  his  supporters  were  deserting  him.  Beset 
by  enemies  who  environed  him  with  superior  forces  he  wan- 
dered, a  homeless  outlaw,  with  few  friends  and  unable  even 
to  rouse  the  vassals  of  his  family  to  unite  for  his  protection. 
To  this  period  the  romantic  and  marvellous  stories  of  his  ex- 
ploits that  have  passed  into  history  principally  pertain.  Most 
of  them  had  origin  in  the  metrical  work  of  Barbour  arid  while 
some  are  apocryphal,  others  were  undoubtedly  true  or  at  least 
had  some  foundation  in  fact. 

Hard  pressed  by  his  foes,  the  throneless  king  had  numer- 
ous adventures  and  many  narrow  escapes  from  death  or  cap- 
ture. He  was  tracked  by  bloodhounds;  he  was  followed  by 
hired  assassins ;  he  was  lured  into  traps  that  were  set  for  him 
and  only  his  bravery  and  skill  brought  him  safely  through. 
He  always  carried  a  two-handed  sword  or  a  ponderous  battle- 



axe  and  the  chronicles  of  the  period  abound  in  stories  of  his 
power  in  wielding  that  weapon. 

Barbour  tells  that  on  one  occasion  he  was  surprised  by  a 
body  of  his  enemies  to  the  number  of  more  than  two  hundred 
when  he  had  only  sixty  soldiers  with  him.  Placing  his  men 
in  a  secure  place,  he  stood  forth  alone  at  a  narrow  pass  to  hold 
the  attacking  force  at  bay  until  help  that  he  had  sent  for  should 
arrive.  On  the  first  assault  he  slew  five  of  the  enemy,  whose 
dead  bodies  became  a  rampart  of  defence  against  the  rest. 
Dismayed  by  the  fate  of  their  companions,  the  assailants  drew 
back  a  little,  but  regaining  courage  they  returned  to  the  on- 
slaught, urging  each  other  on.  Brandishing  his  great  sword, 
Bruce  stood  bravely  to  the  work.  As  only  a  single  man  at  a 
time  could  approach,  so  narrow  was  the  pass,  he  slew  them 
one  by  one  as  they  came  within  reach  of  his  sword.  When  the 
rescuing  party  that  he  had  sent  for  arrived  and  the  English 
troop  in  the  face  of  superior  forces  fled,  it  was  found  that 
fourteen  had  fallen  victims  of  the  prowess  of  the  Bruce. 

Such  stories  as  this  were  heralded  far  and  wide  through- 
out Scotland,  and  gradually  a  popular  enthusiasm  developed 
for  the  king,  bringing  to  him  more  support  from  the  nobles  as 
well  as  from  the  common  people,  and  more  subsistence  and 
munitions  of  war.  His  affairs  began  to  take  on  a  more  prom- 
ising outlook  and  his  hopes  heightened.  Venturing  into  the 
low  countries,  he  reduced  the  districts  of  Kyle,  Carrick,  and 
Cunningham,  won  the  small  victory  at  Glentool,  and  then 
defeated  the  Earl  of  Pembroke  at  Loudon  Hill.  That  was 
the  final  turning  point  of  his  career  and  when  three  days 



after  he  encountered  Ralph  Monthermer,  Earl  of  Gloucester, 
and  overthrew  him  with  great  slaughter,  the  patriotic  enthu- 
siasm of  the  Scots  broke  all  bounds  and  from  every  quarter 
they  flocked  to  the  national  standard. 

From  this  time  on,  the  Bruce's  career  was  one  of  almost 
uninterrupted  success.  King  Edward  died  in  July,  1307, 
and  although  his  son  Edward  II.  continued  the  fighting  it 
was  to  little  avail.  Bruce  swept  through  Scotland,  captured 
English  strongholds,  and  invaded  England,  laying  waste  to 
the  northern  districts  and  exacting  heavy  tribute.  In  Feb- 
ruary, 1309,  the  clergy  of  Scotland  in  a  provincial  council  at 
Dundee,  issued  a  declaration  that  the  Scottish  nation  had 
chosen  Robert  Bruce  for  their  king  and  that  they  willingly 
did  homage  to  him  as  sovereign. 

By  the  end  of  the  year  1312,  nearly  all  the  fortresses  in  the 
kingdom  had  been  retaken  from  the  English.  The  only  im- 
portant one  held  by  the  enemy  was  the  castle  of  Stirling,  de- 
fended by  Sir  Philip  Mowbray.  Edward  Bruce  laid  siege  to 
this  fortress  in  the  autumn  of  1313,  and  King  Edward,  with 
an  army  that  has  been  estimated  to  number  one  hundred  thou- 
sand men,  went  to  the  rescue.  To  oppose  this  force,  King 
Robert  Bruce  had  only  about  thirty  thousand  men,  but  in  the 
ensuing  combat — the  battle  of  Bannockburn,  June  24,  1314, 
— he  defeated  the  English  army  which  fled  from  the  field  in  a 
disorderly  rout,  while  King  Edward  barely  escaped  capture. 

Even  then  the  English  king  refused  to  consider  his  cause 
lost.  For  fourteen  years  longer  he  continued  hostilities.  But 
he  was  steadily  beaten  all  along  the  line  in  military  operations ; 



when  he  attempted  to  invade  Scotland,  his  efforts  resulted  in 
failure;  he  could  not  prevent  the  armies  of  the  Bruce  from 
invading  northern  England,  laying  waste  to  the  country  along 
the  border  and  carrying  away  great  stores  of  plunder;  his 
attempt  to  win  through  the  intervention  of  Pope  John  was 
also  a  failure,  for  the  Bruce  would  listen  to  no  papal  envoys 
who  did  not  come  with  full  recognition  of  him  as  King  of 
Scotland.  Edward  II.  abdicated  in  1327,  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  son  King  Edward  III.,  a  boy  of  fifteen.  Negotiations 
had  been  under  consideration  for  several  years,  during  a 
truce  between  the  two  sovereigns,  and  now  peace  was  con- 
cluded formally  and  ratified  at  Northampton,  March  4,  1328. 
It  was  an  instance  of  the  irony  of  fate  that  the  Bruce  did 
not  live  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  the  victory  that  he  had  fought 
to  secure  for  himself  and  his  beloved  Scotland.  He  had 
achieved  liberty,  independence,  and  peace  for  his  country  and, 
looking  into  the  future,  he  now  endeavored  to  make  assur- 
ance doubly  sure  by  betrothing  his  son  and  heir  to  the  throne 
to  Joanna,  a  sister  of  the  King  of  England.  Little  more  re- 
mained for  him  to  do.  The  hardships  and  sufferings  that 
he  had  endured  had  reduced  his  once  strong  constitution  and 
he  became  afflicted  with  disease.  He  spent  the  last  two  years 
of  his  life  in  comparative  seclusion  in  a  castle  that  he  had 
built  at  Cardross  on  the  northern  shore  of  the  Firth  of  the 
Clyde.  There  he  devoted  his  time  principally  to  the  building 
of  ships  and  to  aquatic  and  fishing  excursions,  hawking  and 
other  sports.  He  was  not  able  to  attend  the  wedding  of  Prince 
David  to  the  Princess  Joanna  at  Berwick,  in  July,  1328,  being 



represented  there  by  the  Earl  Douglas  and  the  Earl  Moray; 
the  bridegroom  on  that  occasion  was  only  four  years  old  and 
the  bride  but  six.  King  Robert  lingered  for  a  year  longer, 
dying  June  7,  1329,  in  the  fifty-fifth  year  of  his  age  and  the 
twenty-third  year  of  his  reign.  He  was  buried  in  the  church 
at  Dunfermline  beside  his  wife  who  had  died  in  1327. 

When  he  was  on  his  deathbed,  he  gave  directions  that  his 
heart  should  be  removed  from  his  body  after  death  and  taken 
to  the  Holy  Land  and  then  be  brought  back  and  buried  in 
the  new  church  of  Melrose  Abbey.  Froissart  tells  the  story 
of  this  deathbed  scene :  * 

"Then  calling  to  his  side  the  gentle  knight  Sir  James  of 
Douglas  he  thus  addressed  him  before  all  the  lords:  'Sir 
James,  my  dear  friend,  you  know  well  that  I  have  had  much 
ado  in  my  days  to  uphold  and  sustain  the  right  of  this  realm, 
and  when  I  had  most  difficulty,  I  made  a  solemn  vow,  which 
as  yet,  I  have  not  accomplished,  for  which  I  am  right  sorry. 
That  vow  was,  that  if  it  was  granted  me  to  achieve  and  make 
an  end  of  all  my  wars  and  so  bring  this  realm  to  peace,  I  would 
go  forth  and  war  with  the  enemies  of  Christ,  the  adversaries 
of  our  holy  Christian  faith.  To  this  purpose,  my  heart  has 
ever  intended.  But  our  Lord  would  not  consent  thereto; 
for  I  have  had  so  much  to  do  in  my  life,  and  now  in  my  last 
enterprise,  I  have  been  smitten  with  such  sickness  that  I  can- 
not escape.  Seeing,  therefore,  that  my  body  cannot  go  to 
achieve  what  my  heart  desires,  I  will  send  my  heart  instead  of 
my  body,  to  accomplish  my  vow.  And  because  I  know  not 
in  all  my  realm  a  knight  more  valiant  than  you,  or  better  able 
to  accomplish  my  vow  in  my  stead,  therefore  I  require  you 
my  own  dear  special  friend,  for  your  love  to  me  and  to  acquit 
my  soul  against  my  Lord  God,  that  you  undertake  this  journey. 

*  Chronicles  of  England,  France,  Spain,  and  adjoining  Countries,  by  Jean  Froissart. 



I  confide  so  thoroughly  in  your  nobleness  and  truth,  that  I 
doubt  not  what  you  take  in  hand  you  will  achieve;  and  if  my 
desires  be  carried  out  as  I  shall  explain  to  you,  I  shall  depart 
in  peace  and  quiet.  I  wish  as  soon  as  I  be  dead  th^t  my  heart 
be  taken  out  of  my  body  and  embalmed,  and  that,  taking  as 
much  of  my  treasure  as  you  think  necessary  for  yourself  and 
the  company  suitable  to  your  rank  which  shall  go  with  you 
on  the  enterprise,  you  convey  my  heart  to  the  holy  sepulchre 
where  our  Lord  lay  and  present  it  there,  seeing  my  body  cannot 
go  thither.  And  wherever  you  come,  let  it  be  known  that  you 
carry  with  you  the  heart  of  King  Robert  of  Scotland,  at  his  own 
instance  and  desire,  to  be  presented  at  the  holy  sepulchre.' 

"  Douglas  accepted  this  trust  on  his  honor  as  a  true  knight 
and  the  King  added:  'Then  I  thank  you,  for  now  I  shall  die 
in  greater  ease  of  mind,  seeing  I  know  that  the  most  worthy 
and  sufficient  knight  in  my  realm  shall  achieve  for  me  that 
which  I  could  not  myself  perform.'  " 

In  fulfillment  of  his  promise  to  his  royal  master  and  friend, 
Douglas  started  for  the  Holy  Land  in  the  spring  of  1330. 
He  was  accompanied  by  several  other  knights,  many  squires, 
and  a  large  retinue.  He  carried  the  heart  of  the  Bruce  in  a 
silver  casket.  He  sailed  for  Spain  first  and  there  engaged 
to  take  part  in  the  holy  war  that  Alfonso  XL,  King  of  Castile, 
was  waging  against  Osmyn,  the  Moorish  Prince  of  Granada. 
In  battle  near  Theba,  on  the  frontier  of  Andalusia,  he  was 
killed  as  he  impetuously  led  the  onslaught  against  the  Moors. 
His  body  was  recovered  and  taken  back  to  Scotland  to  be 
entombed.  The  silver  casket  was  also  recovered  and  the 
heart  of  the  Bruce  was  interred  in  Melrose  Abbey  without 
ever  having  been  laid  at  the  holy  sepulchre  in  Jerusalem. 

No  name  has  been  more  deeply  graven  upon  the  hearts  of 



the  Scottish  people  than  that  of  Robert  Bruce.  His  achieve- 
ment in  estabhshing  the  independence  of  his  native  land  made 
him  a  great  figure,  and  his  knightly  character  won  for  him  the 
undying  affection  of  his  countrymen.  Romance  has  blossomed 
into  full  flower  in  the  story  of  his  life,  while  fact  and  imagi- 
nation have  closely  intermingled  as  his  deeds  have  been  re- 
hearsed. Upon  the  national  life  of  Scotland  he  exercised  a 
profound  and  enduring  influence.  He  changed  the  histoiy 
of  England  as  well  as  the  history  of  Scotland,  and  made  possi- 
ble the  one  great  nation  where  two  warring  peoples  had  before 
existed.  In  tradition,  folk  lore,  and  poetry,  the  inspiration 
of  his  deeds  and  the  loving  loyalty  that  has  encompassed  his 
memory  have  enriched  the  literature  of  the  English  tongue. 
The  estimation  in  which  he  is  held  in  the  enthusiasm  and 
affection  of  his  countrymen  is  well  expressed  by  the  spirited 
lines  of  the  poet  Cunningham: 

De  Bruce!  De  Bruce! — with  that  proud  call 

Thy  glens,  sweet  Galloway, 
Grow  bright  with  helm,  and  axe,  and  glaive. 

And  plumes  in  close  array; 
The  English  shafts  are  loosed,  and  see. 

They  fall  like  winter  sleet ; 
The  southern  nobles  urge  their  steeds, 

Earth  shudders  'neath  their  feet. 
Flow  gently  on,  thou  gentle  Orr, 

Down  to  old  Sol  way's  flood; 
The  ruddy  tide  that  strains  thy  streams 

Is  England's  richest  blood. 

Flow  gently  onwards,  gentle  Orr 
Along  thy  greenwood  banks; 



King  Robert  raised  his  martial  cry,  • 

And  broke  the  English  ranks. 
Black  Douglass  railed  and  wiped  his  blade, 

He  and  the  gallant  Graeme; 
And,  as  the  lightning  from  the  cloud. 

Here  fiery  Randolph  came; 
And  stubborn  Maxwell  too  was  here. 

Who  spared  nor  strength  nor  steel; 
With  him  who  won  the  winged  spur 

Which  gleams  on  Johnstone's  heel. 

■  •  •  •  • 

De  Bruce!  De  Bruce! — on  Dee's  wild  banks, 

And  on  Orr's  silver  side. 
Far  other  sounds  are  echoing  now 

Than  war-shouts  answering  wide; 
The  reaper's  horn  rings  merrily  now; 

Beneath  the  golden  grain. 
The  sickle  shines,  and  maiden's  songs 

Glad  all  the  glens  again. 
But  minstrel  mirth  and  homely  joy, 

And  heavenly  libertie — 
De  Bruce!  De  Bruce!  we  owe  them  all 

To  thy  good  sword  and  thee. 

Lord  of  the  mighty  heart  and  mind. 

And  theme  of  many  a  song! 
Brave,  mild,  and  meek,  and  merciful 

I  see  thee  bound  along — 
Thy  helmet  plume  is  seen  afar, 

That  never  bore  a  stain; 
Thy  mighty  sword  is  flashing  high. 

Which  never  fell  in  vain. 
Shout,  Scotland,  shout— till  Carlisle  wall 

Gives  back  the  sound  agen, — 
De  Bruce!  De  Bruce! — less  than  a  god 

But  noblest  of  all  men." 



Nor  can  we  forget  that  he  was  the  inspiration  of  Robert 
Burns'  immortal  verse,  that  is  the  Scottish  national  song: 

"Scots,  wha  hae  wi'  Wallace  bled, 
Scots,  wham  Bruce  has  aften  led. 
Welcome  to  your  gory  bed. 
Or  to  victorie." 

It  was  Thomas  Carlyle  who  pronounced  this  "the  best 
war  ode  that  was  ever  written  by  any  pen." 

Of  the  personal  appearance  of  King  Robert  Bruce  we  have 
little  knowledge.  It  is  not  known  that  his  portrait  was  painted 
during  his  lifetime.  That  he  was  a  man  of  large  stature  and 
great  strength  is  indicated  by  the  stories  of  his  prowess  which, 
even  though  they  may  have  been  somewhat  exaggerated  to 
suit  the  popular  idea  of  the  hero,  were  without  doubt  substan- 
tially based  on  fact.  No  man  of  small  stature  or  of  ordinary 
strength  could  have  handled  the  broad  sword  as  he  is  reported 
to  have  done,  and  the  suffering  and  privation  that  he  under- 
went must  have  worn  out  a  man  of  ordinary  physique  long 
before  middle  age.  The  only  description  of  him  that  has  been 
left  is  the  following  from  an  ancient  work :  * 

"His  figure  was  graceful  and  athletic,  with  broad  shoulders; 
his  features  were  handsome;  he  had  the  yellow  hair  of  the 
northern  race,  with  blue  and  sparking  eyes.  His  intellect 
was  quick,  and  he  had  the  gift  of  fluent  speech  in  the  vernacu- 
lar, delightful  to  listen  to." 

At  Taymouth,  the  ancestral  seat  of  the  Earls  of  Breadal- 
bane,  descendants  of  Sir  John  Campbell  and  of  the  Bruce 
line,  there  is  a  portrait  of  the  Bruce  painted  by  George  Jamie- 

*  Historia  Majoris  Britannise. 

(From  Ihi  i>irtiii-e  iit  Taymiiitth  hy  yamieson.) 


son,  the  Scottish  painter  of  1586-1644.  Naturally,  it  is  a  work 
of  imagination,  but  the  artist  could  have  been  guided  by 
traditions  and  descriptions  that  had  been  handed  down  to 
his  time.  The  work  is  a  bust  portrait  of  a  man  clad  in  armor 
with  a  close-fitting  cap  on  his  head.  The  face  is  mild-featured 
and  the  eyes  strikingly  clear  and  penetrating.  A  flowing 
mustache  half  conceals  the  lines  of  the  mouth  and  a  long 
heavy  beard  falls  upon  the  breast.  In  the  left  hand  is  held 
a  battle-axe  upright.  A  round  frame  holds  the  canvas  and 
on  this  is  the  inscription  "ANNO  DOM.  MCCCVI.  RO- 

Robert  Bruce  married,  first,  Isabel  of  Mar,  daughter  of 
Donald,  the  tenth  earl  of  Mar;  second,  Elizabeth  Aylmer  de 
Burgh,  daughter  of  Richard  de  Burgh,  the  second  earl  of 

Issue ; 

1.  Marjory  Bruce.  She  married  Walter,  High  Steward  of 
Scotland,  Earl  of  Renfrew,  and  became  ancestress  of  the  royal 
house  of  Stewart  of  Scotland  and  England. 

2.  David  Bruce.  Born  in  1324,  he  succeeded  to  the  throne 
as  David  II.  on  the  death  of  his  father  when  he  was  only  five 
years  of  age.  With  his  child  consort  Joanna,  he  was  crowned 
at  Scone  in  1331.  The  reign  of  the  baby  king  did  not  open 
auspiciously.  Edward  Baliol,  son  of  John  Baliol,  the  former 
king,  had  been  exiled  in  France  for  many  years  but  now  saw 
his  opportunity.  In  1332,  three  years  after  the  death  of  King 
Robert,  he  came  secretly  to  Scotland  by  way  of  England, 
raised  an  army,  and  defeated  the  Scots  on  the  Muir  of  Dup- 
plin  on  August  11  of  that  year.  He  was  crowned  at  Scone 
a  month  later  and  young  King  David  and  his  bride  were  sent 
over  to  France  for  security.     For  more  than  a  decade,  Baliol 



and  his  supporters,  English  and  Scottish  nobles,  contended 
for  mastery  of  the  country.  In  1341,  King  David  and  Queen 
Joanna  were  brought  back  from  France,  but  in  battle  near 
Durham  in  October,  1346,  he  was  captured  by  the  English 
and  taken  to  London  where  for  eleven  years  he  was  held  in 
captivity.  During  this  time  the  affairs  of  Scotland  were  man- 
aged by  the  regents  and  patriotic  nobles  until  finally  in  1357 
Edward  of  England  abandoned  further  attempts  to  conquer 
the  northern  country,  entered  upon  terms  of  peace  by  the 
treaty  of  Berwick  and  set  King  David  free.  For  fourteen 
years  he  wore  the  crown,  but  his  reign  was  not  brilliant.  He 
died  in  Edinburgh  Castle,  February  22,  1371.  He  married, 
first,  Joanna,  daughter  of  King  Edward  II.  of  England.  She 
died  in  1362.  He  married,  second,  Margaret  Logic,  widow  of 
Sir  John  Logie,  a  Scottish  gentlewoman  of  great  beauty.  He 
left  no  issue. 

3.  Margaret,  or  Jane,  Bruce.     She   married,  first,   Robert 
Glen;  second,  William,  Earl  of  Sutherland. 

4.  Matildis  Bruce,  who  married  Thomas  Isaac. 

5.  Robert  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

6.  Elizabeth  Bruce,  who  married  Sir  Walter  Oliphant  of 

7.  John  Bruce,  who  died  in  infancy. 

8.  Walter  Bruce  of  Odiston  on  the  Clyde. 

9.  Nigel  Bruce  who  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Durham. 


NESS   ji^J-'^'^'^'^'^ 

TIf  /fiiimiitt  i.f  Clfi, kmannnn   Tmrn:      Tfirri<  Nprr  firr  erected  mthin  a  ithnrt  rlhttinir  ufrnch  nihrv  ;   b»t 
(fits  trim  thfprhieijtal  icj/rfciicr  of  ihf  fnm'ify  brfure  Robert  Hi  uce  gained  the  thmnr. 



AN  important  chapter  in  the  history  of  the  Bruce 
family  is  that  dealing  with  the  distribution  of  the 
various  branches  throughout  the  mainland  of 
Scotland  and  the  adjacent  islands.  The  name  became  con- 
spicuously identified  not  only  with  Scotland,  where  the  younger 
branch  settled  in  the  eleventh  century  and  was  most  famous, 
but  also  with  England  where  the  same  branch,  as  well  as  the 
elder,  has  given  to  public  life  many  distinguished  men  and 
women.  The  branch  from  which  the  American  Bruces  came 
adhered  to  its  early  Scottish  habitat.  For  several  generations 
immediately  after  King  Robert  Bruce  I.,  its  representative  was 
established  at  Clackmannan,  one  of  the  great  Bruce's  castle 
homes.  Then  toward  the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century  a 
cadet  of  the  house  moved  to  Cultmalindie,  in  Perthshire, 
marrying  into  one  of  the  leading  families  of  that  section. 

Both  in  Clackmannan  and  in  Cultmalindie  these  branches 
of  the  Bruce  family  became  famous  and  for  generations  were 
actively  and  substantially  identified  with  the  life  of  those 
localities.  Particularly  the  Bruces  of  Clackmannan  were 
numbered  among  the  great  noble  houses  for  several  cen- 
turies. The  heads  of  the  house  were  active  and  influential 
in  all  public  aifairs  and  worthily  carried  the  honors  of  their 
distinguished  ancestors. 

7  97 


Nearly  a  hundred  years  later,  the  head  of  this  branch  went 
to  Shetland,  thus  reverting  to  the  ancestral  home  of  the  Bruces 
more  than  five  hundred  years  before.  This  re-establishment 
of  the  Bruces  in  Shetland  and  Orkney  was  of  an  especially 
interesting  character.  In  1565  the  crown'  lands  of  the  old 
earldom  of  Orkney  and  Caithness  were  conferred  by  royal 
grant  upon  Sir  Robert  Stewart  of  Strathdon  who  subsequently 
was  created  Earl  of  Orkney  and  Lord  of  Zetland  (Shetland). 
This  earl  of  Stewart  was  an  elder  half-brother,  on  his  mother's 
side,  of  Laurence  Bruce  of  Cultmalindie  in  the  parish  of  Tib- 
bermore  and  county  of  Perth. 

One  branch  of  Laurence  Bruce's  family  remained  in  Shet- 
land and  Orkney  where  ever  since  it  has  been  numerous  and 
strong.  The  elder  branch  clung  to  the  old  home  in  Cult- 
malindie until  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century  when  the 
eldest  son  of  the  main  line  moved  to  Caithness,  another  local- 
ity which  by  virtue  of  brilliant  historical  associations  clearly 
pertains  to  the  Bruces.  There  Robert  Bruce,  the  grand- 
father of  George  Bruce  of  Edinburgh  and  New  York,  was 
bdrn  in  the  little  village  of  Watten  on  the  banks  of  Loch 
Watten,  the  largest  lake  in  the  district.  There  also  were  born 
his  son  John  Bruce,  father  of  George  Bruce,  and  his  grand- 
sons who  carried  the  family  name  to  distinction  in  the  western 


Robert  Bruce,  tenth  of  the  name,  son  of  King  Robert 
Bruce,  was  created  Earl  of  Ross  by  his  elder  half-brother,  King 
David  II.,  after  the  death  of  William,  the  third  earl  of  Ross. 



He  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Dupplin  August  11,  1332. 
He  married  Helen  Vipont,  daughter  of  Captain  Allan  Vipont, 
of  Lochleven.  , 


1.  Robert  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Marie  Bruce,  who  married  Sir  Alexander  Scrimgeour  of 


Robert  Bruce,  eleventh  of  the  name,  son  of  the  preceding, 
is  on  record  as  having  received  the  castle  of  Clackmannan 
from  King  David  II.,  the  charter,  dated  December  9,  1359, 
being  to  "  delicto  et  fideli  consanguineo  suo  Roberto  de  Bruys." 
By  this  charter  Bruce  received  the  castle  and  manor  of  Clack- 
mannan, Gyrmanston,  Garclew,  Wester  Kennault,  Pitf ol- 
den, and  other  lands  in  the  sheriffdom  of  Clackmannan.  In 
October,  1364,  he  had  other  grants  in  the  same  sheriffdom  and 
in  January,  1367-68,  lands  in  Rait  within  the  sheriffdom  of 

He  was  killed  in  the  battle  of  Shrewsbury  July  23,  1403. 

He  married  Isabel  Stewart,  daughter  of  Sir  Robert  Stewart 
of  Roslyth  or  Rosyth  castle. 

Issue : 

1.  Robert  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Edward  Bruce,  ancestor  of  the  Bruces  of  Airth,  Earlshall, 
and  Stenhouse. 

3.  Alexander  Bruce,  ancestor  of  the  Bruces  of  Garbot. 

4.  James  Bruce,  Bishop  of  Dunkeld,  1441,  and  High  Chan- 
cellor of  Scotland,  1440;   died  in  1447. 

5.  Helen  Bruce,  who  married  David  Ross  of  Balnagowan. 




Robert  Bruce,  twelfth  of  the  name,  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  the  second  baron  of  Clackmannan.  In  1393,  he  received 
the  lands  and  castle  of  Rait  or  Raith  by  charter  from  King 
Robert  Bruce  III.  who  called  him  "my  beloved  cousin." 

He  died  in  1405. 

He  married  a  daughter  of  Sir  John  Scrimgeour  of  Dudhope, 
constable  of  Dundee  castle.  Sir  John  Scrimgeour  was  con- 
stable before  1400,  under  Alexander,  Earl  of  Ross,  Lord  of 
the  Isles  and  Baron  Kincardine.  His  father,  Sir  James 
Scrimgeour,  fell  in  battle  at  Harlaw,  fighting  under  Alexander, 
Earl  of  Mar,  against  Donald,  Lord  of  the  Isles,  July  24,  1411. 

Issue : 

1.  David  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  John  Bruce. 

3.  Patrick  Bruce. 

4.  Thomas  Bruce. 


David  Bruce,  of  Clackmannan  castle  and  manor,  son  of 
the  preceding,  was  the  third  baron  of  Clackmannan. 

He  married  Jean  Stewart,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Stewart  of 
Innermeath  and  Lorn. 

Issue : 

1.  John  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Patrick  Bruce,  1449. 

3.  James  Bruce,  1450. 


John  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  fourth  baron 
of  Clackmannan. 



He  married  Elizabeth  Stewart,  daughter  of  Sir  David 
Stewart  of  Rosyth  castle. 


1.  David  Bruce.  He  was  knighted  by  James  IV.  He 
married,  first,  Janet  Stirling,  daughter  of  Sir  William  Stirling 
of  Keir;  second,  Marion  (Herries)  Stewart,  daughter  of  Sir 
Robert  Herries  of  Terreagles,  and  widow  of  David  Stewart  of 

2.  Robert  Bruce,  of  Cultmalindie,  of  whom  below. 


Robert  Bruce,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  was  of  Cult- 
malindie, parish  of  Tibbermore,  County  of  Perth. 

He  died  in  1508. 

He  married  in  1475  Janet  Barbour,  daughter  of  John 
Barbour  of  Cultmalindie,  and  by  this  marriage  received  half 
of  the  Cultmalindie  lands. 


Hector  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  father 
at  Cultmalindie. 

He  died  in  1535. 

He  married  January  19,  1502,  Gelis  Wardlaw,  daughter  of 
John  Wardlaw. 


John  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  also  of  Cultmalindie. 
He  died  in  1569. 

He  married  Euphame  of  Elphinston,  daughter  of  Alexander, 
the  first  baron  of  Elphinston. 



Issue : 

1.  Lawrence  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Robert  Bruce,  who  is  traditionally  said  to  have  been  the 
father  of  William  Bruce  of  Symbister. 

3.  Henry  Bruce. 

4.  James  Bruce. 


Lawrence  Bruce,  of  Cultmalindie,  son  of  the  preceding, 
went  to  Scotland  in  1571.  His  uterine  brother.  Lord  Robert 
Stewart,  appointed  him  underfowde  of  the  earldom  in  the 
Shetlands  and  Orkneys,  an  office  corresponding  to  that  of 
governor.  That  appointment  determined  him  to  make  his 
home  in  the  islands,  and  accordingly  he  went  thither  with  his 
family,  establishing  his  residence  on  the  island  of  Unst.  He 
became  a  large  owner  of  lands  on  that  and  other  islands,  and 
in  1598  he  commenced  building  the  castle  of  Muness  on  the 
island  of  Unst,  a  work  that  was  completed  by  his  son  Andrew. 
In  August,  1614,  the  Privy  Council  appointed  him  a  commis- 
sioner to  apprehend  any  of  the  rebels  from  Orkney  who  might 
seek  shelter  in  Shetland. 

He  died  in  August,  1617. 

He  married,  first,  Helen  Kennedy,  daughter  of  Alexander 
Kennedy  of  Girvan  Mains;  second,  Elizabeth  Grey,  daughter 
of  Patrick,  fifth  Lord  Grey,  by  whom  he  had  no  issue. 

Issue  of  Lawrence  and  Helen  (Kennedy)  Bruce : 

1.  Alexander  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  Andrew  Bruce,  who  succeeded  to  the  paternal  estates  in 
Shetland.  He  died  February  12,  1625.  He  married,  in  1600, 
Isabel  Sinclair,  daughter  of  Malcolm  Sinclair  of  Quendael. 


TH0M»5   LOAD   BRUCE     FIRST   E^PI.    OF  E  L(J■I^ 


3.  Helen  Bruce,  who  married,  in  1588,  Adam  Sinclair. 

4.  Margaret  Bruce,  who  married  Alexander  Fordyce. 

5.  Marjory  Bruce,  who  married  Malcolm  Mclnroy. 

6.  Elizabeth  Bruce. 


Alexander  Bruce,  of  Cultmalindie,  had  a  charter  of 
confirmation  March  24,  1587,  securing  to  him  the  lands  of 
Cultmalindie  granted  to  him  by  his  father. 

He  died  October  23,  1624. 

He  married,  December  15,  1568,  Jean  Oliphant,  daughter 
of  Lawrence,  the  fourth  Lord  Oliphant. 

Issue : 

1.  Lawrence  Bruce. 

2.  George  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

3.  Alexander  Bruce. 

4.  Helen  Bruce.  She  married,  first,  Robert  Moray,  fiar  of 
Abercairney;   second,  Malcolm  Fleming. 

5.  Barbara  Bruce,  who  married  David  Smith. 

6.  Jean  Bruce.  She  married  Hugh  Sinclair  and  died 
March  8,  1644. 

7.  Marjory  Bruce.  She  married  John  Cheyne  and  died 
April  4,  1645. 

8.  Margaret  Bruce. 


George  Bruce,  of  Cultmalindie,  son  of  the  preceding,  sold 
his  patrimony  to  James  Drummond  previous  to  May,  1667. 

He  died  in  1675. 

He  married  Margaret  (Campbell)  Stewart,  daughter  of 
Robert  Campbell  of  Glenlyon,  and  widow  of  Robert  Stewart 
of  Ballechin. 



Issue : 

1.  Lawrence  Bruce. 

2.  George  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

3.  Jean  Bruce. 


George  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  first  of  bis 
family  to  appear  in  Caithness.  In  the  parish  of  Wick,  March 
10,  1709,  he  married  Anna  Sutherland. 


Robert  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  a  resident  of 
Watten,  Caithness. 

He  married,  November  2,  1728,  Janet  Sutherland,  daughter 
of  George  Sutherland  by  his  wife  Margaret  Bruce. 


1.  John  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

2.  George  Bruce,  born  May  19,  1732 


John  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  Watten, 
Caithness,  April  8,  1730. 

He  married,  January  12,  1764,  Janet  Gilbertson,  daughter 
of  William  Gilbertson  of  Watten.  She  was  probably  born 
in  1740,  her  baptism  being  of  record  October  27  of  that  year. 

Gilbertson.  The  Gilbertson  family  was  originally  of 
North  of  England  antecedents.  As  the  name  indicates,  it 
was  a  branch  of  the  Gilbert  stock,  Gilbertson  being  simply 
the  son  of  Gilbert.  The  Gilberts  were  people  of  distinction, 
being  descended  from  Gilbert  of  Normandy,  the  name,  mean- 



ing  "  bright  fame,"  having  been  given  to  a  crusader.  Gilbert 
of  Fontenelle  was  closely  associated  with  William  the  Con- 
queror, and  other  distinguished  representatives  of  the  family 
were  an  Auvergnat  knight  of  the  second  crusade,  the  English 
founder  of  the  order  of  Gilbertine  monks,  and  a  Bishop  of 
Caithness.  According  to  the  Heralds  Visitation  of  Leicester- 
shire in  1619,  William  Gilbert,  son  of  Hugh  Gilbert,  bore  the 
following  arms:  gules,  an  armed  leg  couped  at  the  thigh,  in 
pale  between  two  broken  spears  argent,  headed  or.  Crest :  a 
dexter  arm  embowed  in  armor  proper,  the  hand  darting  a 
broken  lance  in  bend  sinister,  the  point  argent,  staff  or.  The 
Gilbertson  coat  of  arms  is  identical  with  the  above,  proving 
consanguinity.  The  crest  of  the  Gilbertson  family  is  a  snail 
in  the  shell  proper. 

William  Gilbertson  moved  with  his  individual  family  from 
the  old  home  in  England  to  Caithness  in  the  early  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  Births  and  deaths  in  his  family  are  re- 
corded in  the  parish  register  of  Wick  which  adjoins  the  parish 
of  Watten,  where  John  Bruce  lived.  He  is  there  called 
William  Gilbertson  of  Myrelandorne.  He  appears  to  have 
been  a  man  of  standing  in  the  community,  and  his  daughter 
took  a  substantial  fortune  to  her  husband. 

The  Bruces  and  the  Gilbertsons  of  this  generation  were 
admirable  representatives  of  the  industrious,  hard-headed 
Scotch  people  who  have  made  names  for  themselves,  not  alone 
in  their  native  country,  but  in  other  parts  of  the  world.  Al- 
though they  came  from  ancestors  who  had  brilliant  records, 
they  prided  themselves  even  more  upon  their  honesty  and 



integrity  of  character  and  their  love  of  native  land.  They 
contributed  well  to  the  life  of  the  little  communities  in  which 
they  lived  and  their  sons  and  daughters  were  worthy  descend- 
ants, who,  in  their  way,  cast  further  honor  upon  the  names  of 
their  families. 

Issue : 

1.  Elizabeth  Bruce,  born  January  12,  1766. 

2.  Janet  Bruce,  born  April  15,  1768. 

3.  David  Bruce,  born  November  16,  1770. 

4.  Whilhelmina  Bruce,  born  in  1785. 

5.  John  Bruce,  who  died  in  Egypt  fighting  Napoleon. 

6.  George  Bruce  of  Edinburgh  and  New  York,  founder  of 
the  New  York  branch  of  the  family;  of  whom  below. 






SEVERAL  Bruce  families  of  Scotland  and  England  have 
ranked  high  among  the  nobility  of  the  United  King- 
dom. Their  representatives  have  been  conspicuous 
in  the  social  life  of  the  periods  in  which  they  severally  lived 
and  have  rendered  their  country  signal  service  in  affairs  of 
state,  in  diplomacy,  in  war,  and  in  literature.  One  line  has 
been  particularly  noteworthy,  that  of  Kinloss,  Elgin,  and 
Kincardine,  which  has  given  to  the  world  several  men  and 
women  of  preeminent  achievement  and  which  produced 
Ghristiana  Bruce,  who  married  William  Cavendish  and  was  the 
progenitor  of  the  great  Dukes  of  Devonshire. 

The  branch  from  which  the  Lords  of  Kinloss,  and  the  Earls 
of  Elgin,  Ailsbury,  and  Kincardine  sprang,  connected  with 
that  from  which  George  Bruce  of  Edinburgh  and  New  York 
derived,  in  the  person  of  John  Bruce,  the  fourth  Baron  of 
Clackmannan  who  was  in  the  fifth  generation  from  King 
Robert  Bruce  I.  and  who  married  Elizabeth  Stewart,  daughter 
of  Sir  David  Stewart  of  Rosyth  Gastle.  Sir  David  Bruce  of 
Clackmannan,  the  eldest  son  of  John  Bruce  and  his  wife 
Elizabeth  (Stewart)  Bruce,  was  knighted  by  King  James  IV., 
and  was  the  immediate  ancestor  of  this  noble  family. 

David  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding  Sir  David  Bruce,  be- 
came the  seventh  baron  of  Clackmannan.     In  1497  he  mar- 



ried  Janet  Blackadder,  daughter  of  Sir  Patrick  Blackadder 
of  Perthshire.  He  had  a  family  of  five  sons  and  four  daugh- 
ters, of  whom  the  most  prominent  in  the  next  generation  was 
his  second  son,  Edward  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

Edward  Bruce  of  Blairhall,  second  son  of  the  preceding, 
married  Alison  Reid,  daughter  of  William  Reid  of  Aikenhead, 
County  of  Clackmannan,  and  sister  of  Robert  Reid,  Bishop 
of  Orkney.  He  was  president  of  the  Court  of  Session  from 
1543  until  the  time  of  his  death  in  1558.  He  died  in  France 
whither  he  had  gone  as  a  commissioner  from  Scotland  to  wit- 
ness the  marriage  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  to  the  Dauphin 
of  France.  He  had  three  sons,  Edward  Bruce,  of  whom  be- 
low, Sir  George  Bruce,  whose  descendants  became  the  Earls 
of  Elgin,  and  William  Bruce. 

Edward  Bruce  of  Blairhall,  second  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  about  1549.  His  public  career  began  as  early  as 
1576  when  he  was  judge  of  the  Commissary  Court  of  Edin- 
burgh. In  the  same  year  he  received  a  grant  of  the  Abbey  of 
Kinloss  in  Ayrshire  and  was  appointed  one  of  the  delegates 
of  the  Lord- Justice  General  of  Scotland.  He  was  commenda- 
tor  of  the  Cistercian  Abbey  at  Kinloss  and  was  appointed  lord 
of  session  in  1597.  A  devoted  adherent  of  King  James  VI., 
he  was  active  in  all  the  intriguing  of  that  period  for  the  advance- 
ment of  James.  It  was  largely  due  to  his  efforts  that  the  peace- 
able accession  of  the  Stewart  to  the  English  throne  was 
brought  about,  and  he  accompanied  James  to  England  to  be 
present  on  the  occasion  of  that  monarch's  coronation  in  1603. 


MOHlSSiraMl  ®7  JL.ffliBJBBK'JJSS.SK  TJHS  K®IIi£.S    ®!Hi!J?S!t. 


He  became  a  naturalized  subject  of  England,  was  made  a 
member  of  the  Privy  Council  of  both  kingdoms,  and  was 
raised  to  the  peerage  with  the  title  of  Baron  Bruce  of  Kinloss. 
In  1604  he  succeeded  Sir  Thomas  Egerton  to  the  mastership 
of  the  rolls.  He  died  January  14,  1610-11,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Rolls  Chapel  in  Chancery  Lane,  London,  where  a 
monument  was  erected  to  his  memory.  This  memorial 
structure  shows  his  effigy  recumbent  clothed  in  the  habit  of 
the  master  of  rolls.     Upon  it  is  the  following  inscription: 


We  were — we  are  no  more. 

Sacrae     Memoriae     Domi-         To  the  sacred  memory  of 

ni    Edwardi    Bruce,    Baronis  Lord  Edward  Bruce,   Baron 

Bruce,     Kinlossensis,     sacro-  Bruce  of  Kinloss.     Of  the  sa- 

rum  scriniorum  Magistridica-  cred  Records  Master  who  died 

tum,   qui   Obiit   14   Jan.   Sal  Jan.  14th,  1610  of  the  age  of  62, 

1610  Aetat  62  Jacobi  Regis  8.  in  the  8th  of  James  the  King. 

Brucius  Edvardus  situs  hie  Bruce  Edward  buried  here, 
et  Scotus  et  Anglus;  both  Scot  and  English, 

Scotus  ut  ortu,  Anglis  sic  As  Scot  by  birth,  so  sprung 
oriundus  avis,  from  English  ancestors, 

Regno  in  utroque  decus  tu-  In  each  kingdom  glory  he 
lit,  auctus  honoribus  amplis,       maintained,     entrusted     with 

great  offices, 

Regi  a  consiliis  regni  utri-  To  the  King  he  was  of 
usque;  fuit  Councils  of  each  kingdom; 

Conjuge,    prole,    nuro,    ge-         In  Wife,  Children,  Daugh- 

nero,  spe,  reque  beatus;  ter-in-law,    son-in-law,    hope 

and  estate  blessed, 

Vivere  nos  docuit,  nunc  do-         He  taught  us  to  live ;    now 

cet  ecce  mori.  teaches  lo!   to  die. 



He  married  Magdalen  Clark,  daughter  of  Alexander  Clark 
of  Balbirny  in  Fife. 

The  eldest  son  of  Edward  and  Magdalen  (Clark)  Bruce  was 
Edward  Bruce,  the  second  Lord  Bruce  of  Kinloss.  He  was 
a  Knight  of  the  Bath  and  was  killed  in  Holland  in  an  historic 
duel  by  Sir  Edward  Sackville,  afterwards  Earl  of  Dorset, 
who  had  long  been  his  close  companion. 

"It  appears  that  Lord  Bruce  was  a  nobleman  of  singu- 
larly gentle  and  amiable  manners,  and  had  been  intimate  from 
boyhood  with  Sir  Edward  Sackville,  a  young  man  of  profli- 
gate and  dissolute  habits.  An  attachment  had  grown  up  be- 
tween Lord  Bruce  and  Lady  Clementina  Sackville,  Sir  Ed- 
ward's sister,  and  it  was  agreed  that  when  he  had  attained 
to  manhood  they  should  be  married.  One  day  when  going 
out  hunting  at  Culross  in  Fifeshire,  an  old  woman  was  nearly 
ridden  over  by  Sir  Edward  who  struck  at  her  several  times 
with  his  whip.  Lord  Bruce  begged  him  to  calm  himself,  and 
said  'Don't  hurt  her,  she's  a  spae-wife.'  The  old  woman  ex- 
claimed: 'Ride  on  to  your  hunting,  young  man.  You  will 
not  have  the  better  sport  for  abusing  the  helpless  infirmities 
of  old  age.  Some  day  you  two  will  go  out  to  a  different  kind 
of  sport  and  one  only  will  come  back  alive.'  "* 

Despite  the  intimacy  of  the  two  young  men  Sir  Edward,  on 
two  occasions,  when  under  the  influence  of  wine,  insulted  and 
struck  Lord  Bruce  in  the  face.  For  his  love  of  Lady  Sack- 
ville he  bore  this  insult  at  first  with  calmness,  but  upon  its 
repetition  he  felt  compelled  to  defend  his  honor.  In  those 
days  a  duel  was  inevitable  under  the  circumstances,  and 
without  delay  the  young  men  arranged  to  meet  upon  the 
field  of  honor. 

♦Histories  of  Noble  British  Familiei,  by  Henry  Drummond. 


"Bruce  then  went  and  took  leave  of  his  mother,  and  then  of 
Lady  Clementine  Sackville,  and  going  abroad  sent  a  challenge 
to  Sir  Edward.  A  piece  of  ground  was  bought  near  Bergen 
of  Zoom  that  they  should  not  be  interrupted  arid  thither  they 
repaired.  Nothing  is  known  of  the  particulars  of  the  duel 
but  from  a  letter  of  Sir  Edward's,  in  which  the  account  bears 
upon  the  face  of  it  the  stamp  of  truth  and  whence  it  appears 
that  Bruce  would  accept  of  no  quarter  and  was  determined 
that  one  or  the  other  should  die;  and  that  he  was  very  nearly 
victor  himself,  for  Sir  Edward  was  badly  wounded,  but  Lord 
Bruce  died.  The  place  is  called  by  the  name  of  Bruce's  Field 
to  this  day.  The  heart  of  Lord  Bruce  after  being  placed  in  a 
silver  case,  was  brought  to  this  country  and  interred  in  the 
vault  or  burying  ground  adjoining  the  old  Abbey  of  Culross  in 

In  a  treatise  on  second  sight,  by  John  Aubrey,  it  is  said : 

"The  unfortunate  Lord  Bruce,  saw  distinctly  the  figure  or 
impression  of  a  mort  head,  in  the  looking-glass  in  his  chamber, 
that  very  morning  he  set  out  for  the  fatal  place  of  rendezvous, 
where  he  lost  his  life  in  a  duel,  and  asked  some  of  them  that 
stood  by  him,  if  they  observed  that  strange  appearance; 
which  they  answered  in  the  negative.  His  remains  were  in- 
terred at  Bergen-op-Zoom,  over  which  a  monument  was 
erected,  and  the  emblem  of  a  looking-glass  impressed  with  a 
mort  head,  to  perpetuate  the  surprising  representation  which 
seemed  to  indicate  his  approaching  untimely  end.  The 
monument  stood  entire  for  a  long  time."f 

The  second  son  of  Edward  and  Magdalen  (Clark)  Bruce 
was  Thomas  Bruce  who  became  the  first  Earl  of  Elgin.  The 
youngest  son  was  Robert  Bruce,  the  Baron  of  Skelton.  The 
only  daughter  of  the  family,  Christiana  Bruce,  married,  in 
1608,  William  Cavendish,  second  Earl  of  Devonshire. 

*  Histories  of  Noble  British  Families,  by  Henry  Drummond. 
t  Miscellania  Scotic.i. 
8  113 


Thomas  Bruce,  the  third  Lord  of  Kinloss  and  the  first 
Earl  of  Elgin,  succeeded  to  the  title  upon  the  death  of  his 
elder  brother,  unmarried.  He  was  born  in  Edinburgh,  De- 
cember 2,  1599.  Attending  King  Charles  I.  into  Scotland,  in 
1632,  he  was  created  Earl  of  Elgin  in  that  year,  and,  in  1641, 
was  created  a  peer  of  England,  with  the  title  of  Baron  Bruce 
of  Whorlton.  He  died  December  21,  1663.  He  married, 
first,  Anne  Chichester,  daughter  of  Sir  Robert  Chichester  of 
Devonshire;  second,  Diana  Vere,  dowager  of  Henry  Vere, 
Earl  of  Oxford,  and  the  second  daughter  of  William,  Earl 
of  Exeter,  by  his  wife  Elizabeth  Drury. 

Robert  Bruce,  the  second  Earl  of  Elgin,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, succeeded  his  father  in  1663.  He  was  Lord  Lieu- 
tenant of  the  County  of  Bedford  in  1660  and  a  member  of 
Parliament  in  1660  and  1661.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Privy  Council  in  1678  and  was  appointed  lord  chamberlain 
of  the  household  of  King  James  VII.  He  was  created  Baron 
Bruce  of  Skelton,  Yorkshire,  and  was  Viscount  Bruce  of 
Ampthill,  Bedfordshire,  and  Earl  of  Ailsbury  in  Bucking- 
hamshire in  the  peerage  of  England.  He  died  at  Ampthill, 
in  Bedfordshire,  in  1685.  He  married,  in  1646,  Lady  Diana 
Grey,  second  daughter  of  Henry,  first  Earl  of  Stamford,  and 
had  eight  sons  and  nine  daughters.     Five  sons   died  young. 

Thomas  Bruce  was  the  third  Earl  of  Elgin  and  the  second 
Earl  of  Ailesbury.  He  was  the  sixth  and  eldest  surviving  son 
of  the  preceding  Robert  Bruce,  and  succeeded  his  father  in 
the  title  in  1685.     He  adhered  to  the  cause  of  King  James  II., 



and  in  1695  was  active  in  the  plottings  in  which  so  many 
Scottish  noblemen  were  involved  to  restore  that  monarch  to 
the  throne.  He  was  apprehended  by  the  English  authorities 
and  committed  to  the  Tower  of  London  in  February,  1695-6. 
During  the  time  of  his  confinement  in  the  Tower  his  wife  died 
through  apprehension  of  the  fate  that  might  overtake  him. 
After  his  release  he  left  England  and  went  to  Holland  to  live. 
He  died  in  Brussels  in  1741,  having  been  a  resident  in  that  city 
after  1698.  He  married,  first,  in  1676,  Elizabeth  Seymour, 
daughter  of  Henry  Seymour,  Lord  Beauchamp,  co-heir  of 
Mary  Tudor,  sister  of  Henry  VIII. ;  she  was  a  sister  of  William, 
Duke  of  Somerset,  a  lineal  descendant  of  Mary,  Queen  of 
France,  daughter  of  King  Henry  VII.,  and  was  connected  by 
blood  with  several  of  the  most  ancient  noble  families  of  the 
kingdom.  He  married,  second,  Charlotte,  Countess  of  Sannu, 
of  the  house  of  Argenteau,  Duchy  of  Brabant. 

Charles  Bruce,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the 
fourth  Earl  of  Elgin  and  the  third  Earl  of  Ailesbury.  He 
succeeded  his  father  in  1741.  He  was  chosen  a  member  of 
Parliament  in  1707,  1708,  and  1710.  Under  the  title  of  Baron 
Bruce  of  Whorlton,  he  was  one  of  the  twelve  peers  who  were 
created  and  summoned  December  31,  1711,  to  secure  for  the 
government  a  tory  majority  in  the  House  of  Lords.  In  1746 
he  was  created  Baron  Bruce  of  Tottenham.  He  married, 
first.  Lady  Jane  Saville,  eldest  daughter  of  William,  Marquis 
of  Halifax,  and  she  died  in  1717;  second,  in  1720,  Lady  Juliana 
Boyle,  daughter  of  Charles.  Earl  of  Burlington,  and  she  died 



in  1739;  third,  in  1739,  Caroline  Campbell,  daughter  of  John 
Campbell,  afterward  Duke  of  Argyle.  He  left  no  surviving 
male  issue  and  the  title  Earl  of  Elgin  devolved  on  Charles 
Bruce,  the  ninth  Earl  of  Kincardine. 

The  line  of  Charles  Bruce,  the  ninth  Earl  of  Kincardine 
and  the  fifth  Earl  of  Elgin,  also  unites  with  that  of  the  Ameri- 
can Bruces  in  Sir  John  Bruce  (xxvi)*  who  was  the  father  of 
Robert  Bruce  (xxvii)t  of  Cultmalindie,  extending  through 
his  son.  Sir  David  Bruce,  his  grandson,  Sir  David  Bruce,  and 
his  great-grandson,  Edward  Bruce  of  Blairhall.J 

George  Bruce  of  Carnock,  third  son  of  Edward  Bruce  of 
Blairhall  by  his  wife  Alison  Reid,  was  prominent  in  trade  and 
manufacturing  and  did  much  to  develop  the  coal  mines  in 
Culross  early  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries.  He 
was  knighted  by  King  James  VI.  in  1604,  and  died  May  6, 
1625.  He  married  Margaret  Primrose,  daughter  of  Archi- 
bald Primrose   of  Burnbrae. 

George  Bruce  of  Carnock,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
a  man  of  affairs  and  took  a  prominent  interest  in  the  political 
movements  of  his  day.  He  was  a  member  of  the  commission 
appointed  to  treat  with  England  in  regard  to  the  union  of  the 
two  kingdoms  in  July,  1604.  He  married  Mary  Preston, 
daughter  of  Sir  John  Preston  of  Valleyfield.  His  son,  Edward 
Bruce,  was  created  Earl  of  Kincardine  and  Lord  Bruce  of 
Torrey  in  1662  and  died  without  issue,  being  succeeded  in 
1662  by  his  brother,  Alexander,  the  second  Earl  of  Kincardine, 

♦Page  100.     t  Page  101.     J  Page  110. 

r  u 

:    CARNOCK. 


whose  second  son,  Alexander  Bruce,  the  third  Earl  of  Kin- 
cardine, died  in  1705  unmarried. 

Alexander  Bruce,  the  second  Earl  of  Kincardine,  was  a  man 
of  extraordinary  character.  His  deep  and  lively  concern  in 
political  affairs  compelled  him  to  exile  himself  from  Scotland 
in  1657,  and  he  did  not  return  until  1660.  After  the  Restora- 
tion Scotland  was  a  possible  place  of  residence  for  him,  and 
in  the  quietude  that  followed  he  was  occupied  in  business; 
but  after  a  time  he  again  devoted  himself  to  public  affairs, 
being  particularly  thus  engaged  from  1660  to  1676,  during 
which  time  he  held  various  offices  of  trust.  In  1676  his  ac- 
tivity and  influence  became  of  such  a  pronounced  character 
that  the  king  dismissed  him  from  the  Scottish  Privy  Council. 
During  his  residence  in  Holland  he  married,  in  1659,'; Veronica, 
daughter  of  Corneille  Van  Arson  Van  Sommelsdyck,  Lord 
of  Sommelsdyck  and  Spycke.  This  marriage  added  much 
wealth  to  his  own  considerable  possessions  and  made  him  one 
of  the  great  and  prosperous  men  of  his  day.  He  was  engaged 
in  the  Greenland  whale  fisheries,  in  quarrying,  and  in  other 
industries  and  substantially  increased  his  fortune.  He  was 
a  man  of  wide  culture  and  varied  attainments,  and  of  unusual 
personality  in  many  ways.  An  historian  has  said  of  him  that 
he  was  a 

"  man  of  deep  personal  religion,  of  highly  refined  tastes  and 
of  very  wide  attainments;  medicine,  chemistry,  classics,  math- 
ematics, mechanical  appliances  of  every  kind  especially  as  ad- 
apted to  his  mining  enterprises,  divinity,  heraldry,  horticulture, 
forestry,  pisciculture,  mining  and  the  management  of  estates."* 

*  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,  by  Leslie  Stephen. 


Robert  Bruce  of  Broomhall,  brother  of  the  preceding 
George  Bruce  of  Carnock,  was  the  third  son  of  the  first  Sir 
George  Bruce  of  Carnock.  After  the  lapsing  of  the  title  in 
the  line  of  the  elder  brother  through  the  death  without  issue 
of  the  sons  and  grandsons  of  the  second  George  Bruce  of 
Carnock,  his  family  became  first  in  the  male  line,  although  he 
himself  had  died  half  a  century  before  the  title  came  to  his 
sons.  He  was  a  member  of  the  legal  profession,  was  admit- 
ted an  advocate,  and  became  eminent  among  the  practition- 
ers of  his  time.  He  was  lord  of  session,  appointed  in  June, 
1649.  He  died  in  June,  1652.  He  married  Helen  Skene, 
daughter  of  Sir  James  Skene  of  Curriehill.  It  was  through 
him  and  his  son  Alexander,  in  the  direct  line  from  the  first 
Sir  George  Bruce  of  Carnock,  that  the  famous  Earls  of  Elgin 
and  Kincardine  of  later  generations  derive. 

Alexander  Bruce,  the  fourth  Earl  of  Kincardine,  son  of 
Robert  Bruce  of  Broomhall,  took  his  seat  in  Parliament 
in  1706.  He  married  Christiana,  daughter  of  Robert  Bruce 
of  Blairhall,  son  of  Edward  Bruce  of  Blairhall,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded in  turn  by  his  three  sons,  Robert  Bruce,  Alexander 
Bruce,  and  Thomas  Bruce. 

Thomas  Bruce,  the  seventh  Earl  of  Kincardine,  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  born  March  19, 1663.  He  died  March  26, 1740. 
He  married  Rachel  Pauncefort,  daughter  of  Robert  Paunce- 
fort  of  Hereford. 

William  Bruce,  the  eighth  Earl  of  Kincardine,  son  of  the 



preceding,  possessed  the  title  only  a  few  months,  dying  Sep- 
tember 8,  1740.  He  married,  in  1726,  Janet  Roberton, 
daughter  of  James  Roberton  of  Lanark;  she  died  March  29, 

Charles  Bruce,  the  ninth  Earl  of  Kincardine,  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  born  about  1722.  He  succeeded  his  father 
in  1740,  and  in  1747  attained  to  the  Scottish  earldoms  of  Elgin 
and  Ailesbury  on  the  death  of  his  kinsman,  the  fourth  Earl  of 
Elgin;  thenceforth  he  was  styled  Earl  of  Elgin  and  Kincardine. 
He  was  active  in  promoting  agriculture  in  both  parts  of  the 
United  Kingdom  and  developed  important  industrial  enter- 
prises. He  died  in  Broomhall  May  14,  1771.  In  the  church- 
yard of  Dunfermline  Abbey  a  handsome  monument  stands 
to  his  memory  and  is  thus  inscribed: 

"Sacred  to  the  memory  of  Charles,  Earl  of  Elgin  and 
Kincardine,  who  died  the  14th  of  May,  1771,  aged  39  years. 
By  the  goodness  of  his  heart  and  the  virtues  of  his  life,  he 
adorned  the  high  rank  which  he  possessed.  In  his  manners 
amiable  and  gentle;  in  his  affections  warm  and  glowing;  in 
his  temper  modest,  candid  and  cheerful;  in  his  conduct, 
manly  and  truly  honorable;  in  the  character  of  husband, 
father,  friend  and  master,  as  far  as  human  imperfection  ad- 
mits, unblemished.  Pious,  without  superstition;  charitable 
without  ostentation.  While  he  lived  the  blessing  of  him  that 
was  ready  to  perish  came  upon  him.  Now  their  tears  em- 
balm his  memory.  Reader!  beholding  here  laid  in  the  dust 
the  remains  which  once  so  much  virtue  adorned,  think  of  the 
vanity  of  life;  look  forward  to  its  end,  and  prepare,  as  he  did, 
for  immortality." 

He  married,  in  1759,  Martha  White,  daughter  of  Thomas 



White  of  London,  and  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  William 
Robert  Bruce,  who  died  only  two  months  after  his  father. 

Thomas  Bruce,  second  son  of  the  preceding  Charles  Bruce, 
was  the  seventh  Earl  of  Elgin  and  the  eleventh  Earl  of  Kin- 
cardine. He  was  born  in  1756  and  educated  at  Harrow  and 
Westminster,  afterwards  studying  at  St.  Andrew's  and  in 
Paris.  He  entered  the  army  in  1785  and  rapidly  rose  to  the 
rank  of  major-general  in  1809.  It  was  in  diplomacy,  however, 
that  he  achieved  his  greatest  distinction,  and  he  has  been  re- 
membered as  one  of  the  ablest  and  most  brilliant  diplomats 
in  the  history  of  modern  England.  In  1790  he  was  intrusted 
with  a  special  mission  to  the  Emperor  Leopold  of  Belgium, 
and  in  this  opportunity  he  was  so  preeminently  successful 
that  he  was  sent  as  Envoy-Extraordinary  to  the  Court 
of  Brussels  in  1792.  Subsequently  he  was  Envoy-Extraor- 
dinary and  Minister-Plenipotentiary  to  the  Court  of  Berlin 
in  1795. 

He  was  appointed  Ambassador-Extraordinary  and  Minister- 
Plenipotentiary  to  the  Sublime  Ottoman  Porte  in  1799,  and 
there  he  entered  upon  a  mission  in  connection  with  the  preser- 
vation of  the  ancient  works  of  art  of  Greece  that  gave  him 
worldwide  fame  and  entitled  him  to  the  admiration  of  all 
lovers  of  art.  Taking  up  the  study  and  examination  of 
Grecian  art  he  was  soon  embued  with  an  enthusiasm  that 
carried  him  quite  beyond  his  original  intentions  until  the  pur- 
suit absorbed  his  mind  and  his  time  exclusively  for  many 
years.     His  initial  movement  was  made  to  have  permission 



5/      IS'-  ..T    «0.(      r,t'-,f..r> 


from  the  Porte  to  carry  on  the  work  that  he  contemplated. 
This  concession  was  secured  in  1801  and  the  privilege  was 
granted  to  him  to  make  drawings  and  reproductions  of  the 
Grecian  sculptures  of  the  Parthenon  and  elsewhere,  and  to 
take  away  such  of  those  remains  as  he  might  desire.  Em- 
ploying competent  artistic  assistants  he  made  a  large  collec- 
tion of  the  antiquities  which  he  had  ready  for  transporta- 
tion to  England  in  1803.  This  was  only  the  nucleus  for  the 
great  collection  which  subsequently  became  known  as  the 
Elgin  Marbles,  additions  being  made  to  it  from  time  to  time 
until  1812. 

As  soon  as  all  these  works  of  art  were  safely  landed  in  Eng- 
land he  arranged  an  exhibition  of  them  in  London,  and  they 
excited  the  wonder  and  admiration  of  all  who  saw  them.  He 
did  not,  however,  entirely  escape  criticism,  for  there  were  many 
ready  to  accuse  him  of  vandalism  in  removing  these  art  works 
from  their  original  home  in  Greece.  In  this  connection 
Byron's  scathing  poem,  "The  Curse  of  Minerva"  will  be  re- 
called. In  the  course  of  time,  however,  his  acts  have  come  to 
be  generally  approved,  and  in  1816  the  whole  collection  was 
purchased  for  the  nation. 

From  1790  to  1840  Lord  Elgin  was  one  of  the  representa- 
tive peers  of  Scotland,  but  after  his  return  from  the  East  to 
England  he  took  but  little  part  in  public  affairs,  his  life  being 
embittered  by  the  criticisms  that  were  made  upon  him  by 
many  of  his  contemporaries.  He  died  November  14,  1841. 
He  married,  first,  in  1799,  Mary  Nisbet,  the  only  child  of 
William  H.  Nisbet  of  Dirleton,  Haddingtonshire;    second,  in 



September,   1810,  Elizabeth  Oswald,  daughter  of  James  T. 
Oswald,  of  Dunnikier,  Fifeshire. 

James  Bruce,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  by  his  second 
wife  Elizabeth  Oswald,  was  the  eighth  Earl  of  -Elgin  and  the 
twelfth  Earl  of  Kincardine.  He  was  educated  at  Eton  and  at 
Christ  Church,  Oxford,  and  became  a  Fellow  of  Merton. 
On  the  death  of  his  father  in  1841,  he  succeeded  to  the  Scottish 
earldoms.  Entering  the  diplomatic  service  of  his  country  he 
became  one  of  the  most  famous  diplomats  of  his  time,  rival- 
ling in  achievement  even  his  father.  In  March,  1842,  he  was 
appointed  Governor  of  the  Island  of  Jamaica  and  his  adminis- 
tration there  under  specially  discouraging  conditions  was  pre- 
eminently satisfactory.  His  success  won  for  him  promotion 
to  the  governorship  of  Canada  where  he  was  sent  in  1846. 
Troublous  times  were  then  in  the  Dominion,  riots  and  other 
disturbances  throughout  the  country  upsetting  affairs  and 
giving  both  the  local  and  the  home  government  much  anxiety. 
The  new  Governor-General,  however,  was  again  successful 
and  after  an  eight-year  term  of  service  he  was  able  to  leave  the 
Dominion  in  a  much  more  healthful  condition  politically  and 
industrially  than  it  was  when  he  arrived. 

In  1857  he  was  sent  as  an  envoy  to  China,  but  before  reach- 
ing there  he  was  ordered  to  India  to  aid  in  suppressing  the 
mutiny  which  had  broken  out  in  that  colony.  Having  done 
admirable  service  in  that  emergency  he  returned  to  China  and 
negotiated  a  treaty  with  that  country,  and  also  with  Japan. 
In  1859  he  was  a  member  of  Lord  Palmerston's  Cabinet, 



holding  the  portfoUo  of  Postmaster-General.  The  distinction 
of  his  achievements  in  public  life  brought  him  abundant  recog- 
nition, and  he  was  elected  Rector  of  Glasgow  University  and 
received  the  freedom  of  the  Gity  of  London. 

In  1860  he  was  sent  as  an  Envoy  to  Ghina  on  another  deli- 
cate mission,  and  two  years  later  was  appointed  Viceroy  and 
Governor-General  of  India.  Leaving  England  in  January  of 
1862  he  entered  upon  the  duties  of  his  new  position  with  some 
misgivings  on  account  of  ill-health.  He  was  able  to  accomplish 
a  great  deal  of  good,  however,  in  the  two  short  years  that  he 
lived,  his  death  occurring  from  heart  disease  at  Dharmsala  in 
November,  1863.  He  married,  first,  April  22,  1841,  Elizabeth 
Mary  Bruce,  only  daughter  of  Gharles  Lennox  Cumming- 
Bruce;  second,  in  1847,  Lady  Louisa  Mary  Lambton,  daugh- 
ter of  the  first  Earl  of  Durham. 

Frederick  William  Adolphus  Bruce,  the  youngest  son 
of  Thomas  and  Elizabeth  (Oswald)  Bruce,  also  won  distinc- 
tion in  the  diplomatic  service  of  Great  Britain.  He  was  born 
at  Broomhall,  Fifeshire,  April  11,  1814.  He  was  first  ap- 
pointed Golonial  Secretary  at  Hongkong  in  1844,  and  sub- 
sequent appointments  were  Lieutenant-Governor  of  New- 
foundland in  1846;  Gonsul-General  to  Bolivia  in  1847;  Gharge 
d'Aflf aires  to  Uruguay  in  1851;  and  Agent  and  Gonsul- 
General  to  Egypt  in  1853.  He  was  secretary  to  his  brother 
James  Bruce,  Ambassador-Extraordinary  to  Ghina  in  1857, 
and  was  appointed  Envoy-Extraordinary  and  Minister- 
Plenipotentiary  to  Ghina  in  the  following  year.     In  1865  he 



was  transferred  to  the  United  States  where,  as  British  Minister 
at  Washington,  he  won  the  approval  of  both  his  home  govern- 
ment and  that  of  the  United  States.  His  term  of  sei-vice  in 
the  United  States  lasted  less  than  two  years,  ending  with  his 
death  which  occurred  suddenly  in  Boston  September  19,1867. 
He  was  not  married.     He  was  buried  in  Dunfermline  Abbey. 





:^ -'vi 

THOMAS     BRUCt    2-''t-ARL    Of    AlLtSDURY 



IN  the  peerage  line  the  Bruces  of  Glaekmannan  and  their 
offshoots  longest  maintained  their  identity.  Descent 
in  male  stock  was  preserved  for  many  generations,  and 
title  and  possessions  were  held  by  worthy  sons  of  the  name. 
The  Elgin,  Ailesbury,  and  Kincardine  were  the  most  famous 
of  these  branches  and  contributed  most  vigorously  and  most 
brilliantly  to  the  history  of  their  country.  But  other  strong 
lines  long  persisted  and  from  some  of  them  branches  extended 
even  into  foreign  lands.  Most  noted  among  these  was 
probably  that  of  Airth  from  which  sprang  the  Bruces  of  Earls- 
hall,  Kinnaird,  and  Stenhouse  and  the  Counts  Bruce  of 
France.  Some  of  the  branches  of  this  line  were  scarcely  less 
distinguished  than  their  parent  stem. 

"  And  in  Scotland  still,  not  far  removed  from  the  old  sites  of 
Dunfermline,  Clackmannan,  and  Rosyth,  and  still  possessing 
Broomhall,  Gulross,  Blairhall,  etc.,  etc.,  we  must  look  for  the 
chief  of  that  ancient  house;  whilst  on  the  south  side  of  the 
Forth  some  few  scions  still  remain  of  the  house  of  Airth,  and  in 
foreign  lands  we  find  many  willing  to  claim  kindred  and  bear- 
ing for  centuries  the  same  arms.  The  Gomtes  de  Brus 
in  France  we  have  been  enabled  to  trace  from  their  origin. 
Russia,  Prussia,  and  Sweden  have  also  their  branches;  and 
the  Princesses  des  Home  of  Salm  and  Stolberg  took  pains  to 
prove  their  descent  from  their  mother,  the  Lady  Charlotte 
Maria  Bruce,  daughter  of  Thomas,  third  Earl  of  Elgin,  who 



married  at  Brussels,  in  1698,  Charlotte,  Countess  de  Sanu, 
of  the  noble  house  of  Argenteau,  in  the  Duchy  of  Brabant, 
one  of  whose  grand-daughters  became  the  wife  of  Charles 
Edward,  Chevalier  de  St.  George."* 

In  the  day  of  Wallace  the  patriot,  Erthe  or  -Arth  was  one  of 
the  great  strongholds  on  the  banks  of  the  Firth.  It  was  held 
by  a  garrison  of  English  soldiers  who  oppressed  and  maltreated 
the  people  of  the  neighborhood.  They  imprisoned  many, 
including  an  uncle  of  Wallace,  the  priest  (6f  Dunipace,  in  a 
cave  or  cell  under  the  castle,  and  thereupon  Wallace  attacked 
the  stronghold  and,  killing  its  defenders,  rescued  the  prisoners. 
On  the  west  side  is  a  tower  that  is  still  called  Wallace's  tower 
and  the  spot  is  pointed  out  where  he  killed  most  of  the  English 
soldiers.  The  De  Erths  recovered  their  property  after  a 
while  and  it  was  retained  by  them  until  well  into  the  fifteenth 
century.  The  family  was  very  ancient  and  highly  connected, 
its  sons  and  daughters  marrying  into  various  families  of 
distinction.     Of  Alexander  de  Airth,  1296,  Nisbet  says: 

"An  ancient  family  in  Stirlingshire,  that  had  the  baronies 
of  Airth,  Carnock,  Playne,  etc.,  etc.,  which  in  the  reign  of  James 
I  came  to  heirs  female,  and  by  marriage  to  the  Bruces, 
Drummonds  and  Somervilles."  f 

The  name  occurs  frequently  in  the  Ragman  Rolls  and  other 
Scottish  records  from  the  latter  part  of  the  thirteenth 
century.  In  1426-27  Alexander  de  Arth  was  one  of  the 
representatives  of  Malyse,  Earl  of  Strathearn  by  his  mother 

*  Famfly  Records  of  the  Bruces  and  Cumyns,  by  M.  E.  Cumming  Bruce,  p.  296. 
t  Ragman  Rolls,  by  A.  Nisbet. 



Matilda,  one  of  the  daughters  of  that  earl  by  his  third  wife, 
Isabel,  daughter  of  Magnus,  Earl  of  Caithness  and  Orkney. 
Because  in  the  reign  of  King  David  II.  he  gave  his  eldest 
daughter,  Johanna,  in  marriage  to  Narrenne,  Earl  of  Surrey, 
"  an  enemy  of  King  and  Kingdom,"  the  Earl  of  Strathearn  was 
forfeited  of  his  title  by  King  Robert  II. 

Edward  Bruce,  second  son  of  Sir  Robert  Bruce  of  Clack- 
mannan by  Isabel  Stewart  of  Rosyth,*  married  Agnes  de  Erth, 
eldest  daughter  and  co-heiress  of  William  de  Erth,  and  thus 
his  family  came  into  possession  of  Erth  or  Airth.  Personally 
he  does  not  appear  to  have  held  that  property,  as  he  proba- 
bly died  before  his  father-in-law  and  his  father.  He  left  two 
sons,  Robert  Bruce  and  William  Bruce.  His  widow  married 
secondly  an  Elphinston,  of  a  family  with  which  the  Bruces 
in  several  lines  were  often  matrimonially  connected. 

Sir  Robert  Bruce  of  Airth,  son  of  the  preceding,  married 
Agnes  Livingstone,  a  daughter  of  Sir  Alexander  Livingstone. 
With  his  father-in-law  and  other  nobles  he  was  constantly 
embroiled  in  the  political  controversies  of  his  time.  His  activ- 
ity made  him  an  object  of  jealousy  on  the  part  of  the  courtiers 
of  King  James  II.,  and  he  lost  his  life  thereby  in  1449-50. 

"That  samen  yer,  the  xixth  dai  of  Janvier,  James  II  held 
his  first  parliament.  Then  was  forfaulted  Sir  Alexander 
Levingstone,  Lord  Kallender,  and  James  Dundas  of  that 
Ilk;  and  Robert  Bruce,  the  Lord  of  Clackmannan's  brother 
(nephew)  and   James   Levingstone,  son  and  heir  of  the  said 

*  XXm  on  p.  99. 


Alexander,  was  put  to  deid,  baith  togidder,  on  the  Castle  hill. 
Their  heides  stricken  off  the  3d  dale  of  the  Parliament."  * 

Sir  William  Bruce,  brother  of  the  preceding,  went  to 
France  and  entered  the  service  of  King  Charles  VIII.  He 
•was  greatly  beloved  and  honored  by  that  monarch,  by  whom 
he  was  made  a  knight  of  the  order  of  St.  Michael  and  re- 
ceived permission  to  add  the  fleur-de-luce  to  his  arms.  The 
Earlshall  family  founded  by  him  through  his  grand-nephew. 
Sir  Alexander  Bruce  of  Brigham,  ever  after  bore  arms  with 
that  distinction. 

Sir  Alexander  Bruce,  only  son  of  Sir  Robert  and  Agnes 
(Livingstone)  Bruce  succeeded  to  his  father's  title  and  lands 
upon  the  return  of  the  family  to  the  royal  favor  in  1451.  He 
married,  first,  Joneta,  daughter  of  Alexander,  the  first  Lord 
Livingstone,  and,  she  dying  without  issue,  he  married,  second, 
Margaret  Forrester,  daughter  of  Sir  Malcolm  Forrester. 

Sir  John  Bruce,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  died  before 
his  father.  He  lived  at  Stanehouse  which  appears  to  have 
been  the  property  and  residence  of  the  heir  apparent  of  Airth 
for  some  generations.  He  was  involved  in  many  of  the  politi- 
cal troubles  of  the  time  and  became  so  conspicuous  in  his 
doings  that  he  was  placed  under  ban  as  a  traitor,  as  appears 
from  an  act  of  Parliament,  November  6,  1481. 

"The  quhilk  tyme  the  saide  Commissioners  chargeit  Jolme 
the  Brois  of  Erthe,  Constable  Depute  in  that  pairt  to  call  Alex- 
ander, Duke  of  Albany,  the  Earl  of  Marche,  and  others,  to 

*  Auchencleck  Chronicle,  p.  26. 


compere  in  our  Souveraine  Lorde's  Parliament  to  answer  for 
their  crimes  of  treason." 

In  some  one  of  these  difficulties  engendered  by  the  passions 
that  made  Scotland  so  long  a  bloody  field  of  family  and 
neighborhood  animosities,  he  met  a  tragic  death.  As  appears 
by  the  Criminal  Trials,  he  was  "  sclaughtered "  by  the  Men- 
teiths,  brothers  of  his  wife. 

"28th  January  1488-89,  William  Menteith  of  the  Kerss, 
Archibald,  his  brother,  Alexander  Menteith,  for  thaim,  their 
kyn  and  frendis,  on  the  tae  pairt;  'Robert  the  Broisse  of 
Arthe,'  'Alexander,'  'Lucas' and  'Robert  Broisse '  for  thaim 
and  bre  her,  emes,  and  friendis,  on  the  uther  pairt;  bind  and 
oblije  theimselves  to  abide  the  sentence  of  the  Lords  of  Coun- 
cil '  tuiching  the  making  of  Amendis  for  the  sclaughter  of 
umquhile  Johne  the  Broisse  of  Arthe,  and  tuiching  the  making 
of  amite,'  luff  and  tendernis  betwix  the  pairties  in  tyme  to 

Sir  John  Bruce  married,  in  1471,  Elizabeth  Men- 
teith, daughter  of  Sir  William  Menteith  of  Kerss.  He  left 
three  sons.  Robert  Bruce  succeeded  his  father.  Thomas 
Bruce  found  a  branch  of  the  family  in  France.  One  of  his 
daughters,  Helen  Bruce,  married  a  son  of  Sir  William  Men- 
teith of  Karss,  one  of  her  father's  murderers.  Another  daugh- 
ter, Janet  Bruce,  married  William  Livingstone,  the  younger, 
who  fell  on  Flodden  field. 

Sir  Robert  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his 
father  in  Stanehouse  and  his  grandfather  Sir  Alexander  Bruce 
in  Airth,  1488-89.  During  his  lifetime  the  peace  between  the 
Bruces   and   the   Menteiths  was   still  further  bound   by  the 



erection  in  the  Airth  church  of  the  Bruce  aisle  at  the  expense 
of  the  two  famihes.  He  married  Euphemia  Montgomery, 
daughter  of  Alexander,  Lord  Montgomery. 

Robert  Bruce,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  father 
who  was  killed  at  Flodden.  In  May,  1544,  he  was  Captain 
of  the  castle  of  Edinburgh  and  in  that  place  gained  special 
renown  by  the  gallant  defense  that  he  made  against  the  army 
which  King  Henry  VIII.  of  England  sent  to  Scotland  to  en- 
force his  demand  for  the  person  of  the  Queen  Mary,  who  was 
then  only  an  infant  and  whom  the  English  desired  to  take 
from  her  Scottish  environment. 

"  The  Laird  of  Stanehouse,  captain  thairof ,  caused  shoot  at 
them,  in  so  great  abundance,  and  with  so  guid  measure,  that  they 
slew  a  great  number  of  Englishmen,  amonst  whom  were  some 
principal  captains  and  gentlemen,  and  one  of  the  greatest 
pieces  of  ordinance  was  broken,  wherethrew  they  were  obliged 
to  raise  the  siege  shortly  and  retire." 

He  married  Janet  Forester,  daughter  of  Sir  Walter  For- 
ester of  Garden. 

Sir  Alexander  Bruce,  head  of  the  house  in  the  fifth 
succeeding  generation  in  the  direct  eldest  male  line  from  the 
preceding  Robert  Bruce,  came  to  a  much  diminished  inher- 
itance. His  grandmother  was  Margaret  Elphinston,  daughter 
of  Sir  Alexander,  fourth  Lord  of  Elphinston.  Early  in  life 
he  took  military  service  in  Germany  and  he  was  with  Prince 
Rupert  in  the  Low  Countries  during  many  years.  He  re- 
turned to  his  native  land  in  the  spring  or  summer  of  1665,  and 
in  September  of  that  year  he  died — the  last  Bruce  of  Airth 



in  the  male  line.  Through  the  marriage  of  his  daughter, 
Jean  Bruce,  to  Richard  Elphinston,  the  barony  passed  to 
those  of  the  name  of  Elphinston  and  Dundas.  In  the  old 
street  of  Airth,  the  village  cross,  still  standing,  bears  on  one 
side  the  Bruce  arms,  with  the  lion  for  a  crest,  and  on  the  other 
the  Elphinston  arms  with  the  motto  "Do  well,  let  them  say," 
with  the  initials  C.  E.,  1697  (Charles  Elphinston).  Near  by 
a  stone  bears  the  united  arms  of  Bruce  and  Elphinston.  Not 
many  years  ago,  there  was  in  the  old  church  of  Airth  a  slab  of 
black  marble  that  bore  upon  its  face  an  inscription  to  one  of 
the  barons  of  Airth.  The  marble  has  long  since  disappeared, 
but  the  inscription  that  was  on  it  has  been  preserved  and  reads 
as  follows: 

Brusiois  hie  situs  est  pietate  an  clarior  armis 

Incertum;   est  certum  regibus  ortus  avis. 
Heer  lies  a  branch  of  Brusses  noble  stemm, 

Airth's  Baron!   whose  high  wurth  did  sute  that  name. 

Holland  his  courage  honoroured.     Spain  did  feare — 
The  Swedes  in  Funen  bought  the  triall  deare. 

At  last  his  Prince's  service  called  him  home 

To  die,  on  Thames,  his  bancke,  and  leave  this  tombe, 

To  bear  his  name  unto  posteritie, 
And  make  all  men  love  his  memorie. 

Alexandro  Brussio 
Ex  Robertii  Brossii,  Scotorum  Regis 

Filio  Natu  secundo  progenito 
Baroni  Airthensi. 

Primum  in  Belgio  per  Annos  XLII. 
Dein  in  Anglia  pro  Tribuno  Regio. 



Viro  cum  strenuo  turn  pientissimo. 
^tatis  anno  LVI.  vitague  simul  defuncto. 
A.D.  XVII.  Kal.  Oct.  ob.  CI3,  LIC.  XLII. 
G.  Lauderus,  affinis,  M.P. 

The  modern  French  house  of  Bruce  is  derived  from  the 
Sir  John  Bruce  of  Airth  who  married  EUzabeth  Menteith 
and  was  murdered  by  his  wife's  relatives.  Besides  the  son 
who  succeeded  him  he  had  a  second  son,  Thomas  Bruce?  who 
married  EUzabeth  Auchmoutie.  Adam  Bruce  of  Waltown, 
great-grandson  of  the  preceding,  Thomas  Bruce,  Lord  of 
Labertsheilles  and  Woodsyd,  went  to  France  in  1633  and  es- 
tabUshed  himself  there.  He  married  Eve  Marie  de  Hermant 
and  founded  the  house  of  the  Counts  Bruce  in  France  that 
has  been  noted  in  the  history  of  that  country. 

Louis  Daniel,  Count  de  Bruce,  seigneur  de  Montlerard, 
great-grandson  of  Adam  Bruce,  was  the  first  of  the  family 
who  entered  the  service  of  the  King  of  France.  He  married 
Harriette  Dieudonnee  de  Montaigu,  daughter  of  the  Marquis 
de  Montaigne.  Charles  Hector,  Count  de  Bruce,  grandson 
of  the  preceding,  was  the  head  of  the  house  in  the  nineteenth 
century.  He  was  a  chevalier  of  Malta,  a  chevalier  of  St. 
Louis,  and  a  chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor.  He  was  bom 
in  1772.  He  married  in  1820  Fanny  de  Chamont,  daughter 
of  the  Chevalier  de  Chamont. 

Descendants  of  the  Bruces  of  Airth  were  also  established 
in  Prussia  and  Russia.  A  brief  account  of  these  Bruces  and 
their  families  was  given  in  a  memoir  written  by  Peter  Henry 
Bruce  and  published  in  1782.     During  the  troublous  times 



of  the  Protectorate  two  cousins  of  this  house,  John  Bruce 
and  James  Bruce,  determined  to  leave  their  native  country 
and  seek  fortune  abroad.  John  Bruce  went  to  BerHn  and 
entered  the  service  of  the  Elector  of  Brandenburg.  In  time 
he  rose  to  the  command  of  a  regiment  and  had  large  grants 
of  land  whereon  he  built  the  villages  of  Brucenwold  and  Jet- 
kensdorf.  His  wife  was  of  the  family  of  Arensdorf.  His 
eldest  son,  Charles  Bruce,  was  killed  at  the  siege  of  Namur. 

James  Bruce,  youngest  son  of  this  John  Bruce,  married  Eliza- 
beth Catherine  Detring  of  Detring  castle,  Westphalia.  He 
was  a  lieutenant  in  a  Scotch  regiment  commanded  by  the  Earl 
of  Leven  in  the  service  of  Brandenburg.  Peter  Henry  Bruce, 
son  of  the  preceding  James  Bruce,  was  educated  in  Scotland 
and  then  served  in  the  Prussian  army  and  afterwards  in  that 
of  Russia.  In  1714  he  received  his  commission  as  captain 
in  the  artillery  and  engineers  of  the  Russian  army.  After 
nearly  twenty  years  he  returned  to  Scotland,  married,  and 
settled  upon  a  small  estate  near  Cupar.  About  1740  he 
entered  the  service  of  the  English  as  an  engineer  and  was  em- 
ployed in  refortifying  Providence,  one  of  the  Bahama  Islands, 
and  in  making  surveys  for  the  fortification  of  Charleston, 
S.  C.  During  the  last  six  months  of  1745  he  took  part  in  the 
military  operations  about  Hull,  Newcastle,  and  elsewhere  on 
the  occasion  of  Prince  Charles  Edward's  invasion  of  Scot- 
land.    Thereafter  he  retired  to  his  farm  where  he  died  in  1747. 

James  Bruce,  who  also  left  Scotland  in  the  time  of  Crom- 
well, went  to  Russia.  There  he  settled  and  married  and  his 
descendants  became  numerous  and  powerful.     General  Robert 



Bruce,  grandson  of  this  pioneer,  was  of  the  Russian  ordnance 
service  in  the  time  of  Peter  the  Great.  He  was  a  knight  of 
four  orders,  St.  Andrew,  The  White  Eagle,  The  Black  Eagle, 
and  The  Elephant.  When  the  Czar  was  honored  by  his 
senate  with  the  titles  of  Peter  the  Great  and  The  Emperor  of 
all  the  Russias,  General  Bruce  was  made  a  count  of  the 
Empire  and  received  ten  thousand  roubles.  At  the  corona- 
tion of  the  Empress  Count  Bruce  carried  the  crown  and  the 
Countess  Bruce  was  one  of  the  four  train-bearers. 


OF  DEVONSHIRE    ^    ^    ^ 

CHARLE.S     BRUCe    9"    CARLo*     KINCARDINE.    V    5"    CARU   or    CLCIN 



TO  no  family  of  England  did  the  Bruce  stock  in  mat- 
rimonial alliance  bring  more  of  success  and  bril- 
liant renown  than  to  that  of  Cavendish.  In  the 
early  centuries  of  Scottish  history  the  Cavendish  ancestors 
were  not  of  particular  distinction.  The  marriage  of  Eliza- 
beth Hardwicke  to  William  Cavendish  in  the  forepart  of 
the  sixteenth  century — ^  lady  who  afterwards  became  the 
Countess  of  Shrewsbury — was  the  beginning  of  the  change. 
As  the  Countess  of  Shrewsbury  the  widow  Cavendish  availed 
herself  of  her  wealth  and  social  position  to  guard  and  pro- 
mote the  interests  of  the  children  of  her  first  husband.  Under 
her  tactful  direction  the  house  was  able  to  take  the  first  steps 
that  led  toward  the  substantial  position  among  the  peers  of 
the  realm  that  it  now  holds.  What  the  Countess  of  Shrews- 
bury began  in  the  direction  of  the  advancement  of  the  family 
fortunes,  political,  social,  and  financial,  was  added  to,  two 
generations  later,  by  the  Countess  of  Devonshire,  Christiana 
Bruce,  daughter  of  Edward  Bruce  of  Blairhall.  It  was  un- 
doubtedly due  in  no  small  degree  to  the  genius  of  Christiana 
Bruce  that  her  son  and  grandson  as  well  as  her  descendants 
in  succeeding  generations,  achieved  the  renown  that  has  at- 
tached to  them. 

Cavendish  as  a  family  appellation  was  not  known  previous 
to  the  fourteenth  century.     It  is  held  by  some  genealogists, 


BOOK     OF     BRUCE 

and  generally  accepted  with  here  and  there  a  scant  reserva- 
tion, that  the  ancestors  of  the  first  Cavendish  came  from  the 
Gernon  family,  which  was  of  considerable  note  as  remote  as 
the  eleventh  century.  According  to  this  account,  Robert 
Gernon  was  a  Norman  who  came  to  England  with  William 
the  Conqueror  in  1066.  So  far  as  the  records  show  he  does 
not  appear  to  have  been  prominent,  but  he  received  several 
grants  of  lordships  from  King  William  and  was  a  generous 
contributor  to  the  churches.  Matthew  de  Gernon,  son  of 
the  preceding,  married  Hodierna.  daughter  of  Sir  William 
Sackville,  who  was  a  son  of  Herbron  de  Sackville.  Ralph  de 
Gernon,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  living  in  1167.  He  mar- 
ried a  sister  of  Sir  William  de  Brewse,  who  was  a  descendant 
of  the  first  Alan  de  Brusee  who  went  into  Scotland  after  the 
Norman  invasion  and,  as  has  already  been  shown,  estab- 
lished the  Bruce  family  there.  Ralph  de  Gernon,  son  of  the 
preceding,  founded  the  Lees  priory  in  Essex.  He  died  in 
1248.  William  de  Gernon,  son  of  the  preceding,  died  in 
1258.  He  had  a  wife  Eleanor  and  left  two  sons.  One  of  his 
sons,  Geoffrey  de  Gernon,  was  the  father  of  Roger  de  Gernon 
who  is  believed  to  have  married  the  daughter  and  heir  of 
John  Patton,  Lord  of  Cavendish  in  Suffolk  County,  his  chil- 
dren adopting  the  title  name  of  their  maternal  grandfather. 
The  surname  Cavendish  was  derived  from  the  locality  Caven- 
dish of  Suffolk  County. 

John  Cavendish,  son  of  the  preceding  Roger  de  Gernon, 
was  a  noted  lawyer  and  judge  of  England  in  the  middle  of 



the  fourteenth  century.  It  is  said  that  his  father  was  a  jus- 
tice itinerant  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II.,  which  may  account 
for  the  son's  incHnation  for  the  legal  profession.  John 
Cavendish  was  chancellor  of  the  University  of  Cambridge, 
and  in  1352  he  was  a  collector  in  the  counties  of  Essex 
and  Suffolk.  As  early  as  1366  he  was  a  sergeant-at-law  and 
soon  after  that  time  was  a  justice  on  the  King's  Bench.  In 
1373  he  was  appointed  chief  justice  and  reappointed  in  1378. 
He  was  a  lawyer  of  remarkable  talent,  and  as  a  justice  was 
particularly  noteworthy,  becoming  one  of  the  most  conspicu- 
ous figures  in  his  generation.  His  pronouncements  from  the 
bench  were  of  strong  character  and  made  a  deep  impress 
upon  the  life  of  that  period.  One  of  his  peculiar  judgments 
attained  more  than  transitory  or  mere  local  fame.  As  the 
story  goes,  he  was  trying  a  case  in  which  the  defendant,  a 
lady,  alleged,  as  a  defence  in  a  suit  involving  land  possession, 
that  she  was  a  minor.  The  question  of  her  age  arising  natur- 
ally, she  announced  her  willingness  to  leave  the  decision  on 
that  point  to  Chief  Justice  Cavendish,  but  he  declined  to 
render  a  decision  upon  the  grounds  as  he  said: 

"II  n'ad  nul  home  en  Engleterre  que  luy  adjudge  a  droit 
deins  age  ou  de  plein  age,  car  escuns  femes  que  sont  de  age 
de  XXX  ans  voile  apperer  d'age  de  XVIII."  * 

He  died  June  15,  1381,  under  distressing  circumstances. 
The  peasantry  in  Suffolk  County,  under  the  leadership  of 
Jack  Straw,  had  risen  in  riot  against  the  ruling  authorities 
and  their  rage  was  directed  particularly  against  the  lawyers. 

»  Year  Book,  50  Edward  III.,  p.  12. 


A  mob  of  fifty  thousand  persons  assembled  and  John 
Cavendish  was  sent  to  suppress  the  insurrection.  He  was 
captured  by  the  mob  and  with  Sir  John  of  Cambridge,  a 
prior  of  the  Abbey,  was  brutally  beheaded  in  the  market- 
place of  York.  The  people  were  especially  incensed  against 
him  personally  because  his  son,  John  Cavendish,  had  some 
time  previously  killed  Watt  Tyler  in  the  insurrection  led  by 
that  individual. 

He  married  Alice  de  Odyngseles,  daughter  and  heiress  of 
John  de  Odyngseles,  and  by  her  had  two  sons  and  one  daugh- 
ter. By  this  marriage  he  acquired  the  lordship  of  Cavendish- 
Overhall.  His  eldest  son.  Sir  Andrew  Cavendish,  was  sheriff 
of  Suffolk  and  of  Norfolk  County  and  died  in  1396. 

John  Cavendish,  the  youngest  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
an  esquire  to  King  Richard  II.  He  is  said  to  have  slain  Watt 
Tyler  at  Smithfield,  and  he  served  under  King  Henry  V., 
being  present  at  the  battle  of  Agincourt  in  October,  1415. 

"For  William  Walworth,  Mayor  of  London,  having  ar- 
rested him,  he  furiously  struck  the  mayor  with  his  dagger, 
but  being  armed  hurt  him  not;  whereupon  the  mayor,  draw- 
ing his  baselard,  grievously  wounded  Watt  in  the  neck;  in 
which  conflict  an  esquire  of  the  King's  house,  called  John 
Cavendish,  drew  his  sword  and  wounded  him  twice  or  thrice 
even  to  death.  For  which  service  Cavendish  was  knighted 
in  Smithfield  and  had  a  grant  of  MW  from  the  King."* 

He  married  Joan  Clopton,  daughter  of  Sir  William  Clop- 
ton,  and  had  three  sons. 

William  Cavendish  of  Cavendish  Overhall,  son  of  the 

*  Collins'  Peerage  of  England,  by  Sir  Egerton  Brydges.     1812  Edition,  Vol.  I.,  p.  308. 



preceding,  died  in  1433.     He  married  Joan  Staventon,  and 
had  two  sons. 

Thomas  Cavendish,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  of 
Cavendish  and  Poslingford,  Suffolk.  He  died  in  1477.  He 
married  Katherine  Scudamore,  who  died  in  September,  1499. 

Thomas  Cavendish  of  Cavendish  Overhall  was  the  clerk 
of  the  pipe  in  the  Exchequer.  He  died  in  1524.  He  mar- 
ried Alice  Smith,  daughter  of  John  Smith  of  Podbrook  Hall, 
Suffolk.  She  died  in  March,  1515,  leaving  two  sons.  One 
son,  George  Cavendish  of  Cavendish  Overhall,  was  born  in 
1500,  and  became  famous  for  his  attachment  to  Cardinal 
Wolsey,  whom  he  served  from  1526  until  the  death  of  that 
prelate.  After  that  he  retired  to  private  life  and  wrote  a  life 
of  Wolsey.     He  died  in  1562. 

William  Cavendish,  youngest  son  of  Thomas  Cavendish, 
was  born  about  1505,  and  early  in  life  engaged  in  the  public 
service.  In  1530  the  King  appointed  him  a  commissioner  to 
visit  the  monasteries  to  receive  from  the  monks  the  property 
which  they  were  called  upon  to  surrender  to  the  Crown.  In 
1541  he  acquired  valuable  grants  of  land  and  in  1546  he  was 
treasurer  of  the  King's  Chamber,  was  knighted,  and  was 
made  a  member  of  the  Privy  Council.  Throughout  his  life 
he  enjoyed  the  favor  of  his  sovereigns,  Henry  VIII.,  Edward 
VI.,  and  Queen  Mary,  and  was  a  very  wealthy  man.  He 
died  Ocotober  25,  1557.  He  married,  first,  Margaret  Bos- 
tock,  daughter  of  Edmund  Bostock  of  Walcroft  in  Cheshire, 
and  had  one  son  and  four  daughters.     He  married,  second, 



Elizabeth  Conyngsby,  daughter  of  Thomas  Conyngsby,  and 
she  died  in  1540.  He  married,  third,  in  1541,  EHzabeth 
Hardwicke,  daughter  of  John  Hardwicke  of  Hardwicke,  Der- 
byshire, and  widow  of  John  Barley,  and  by  her  he  had  three 
sons  and  three  daughters.  After  his  death,  she  married 
George  Talbot,  the  sixth  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  and  became 
famous  as  the  great  Countess  of  Shrewsbury. 

William  Cavendish,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  was  a 
member  of  Parliament  in  1588;  a  high  sheriff  of  Derbyshire 
in  1599,  and  a  justice  of  the  peace  in  1603.  He  was  created 
Baron  Cavendish  of  Hardwicke  in  1605.  Becoming  seri- 
ously concerned  in  the  advancement  of  English  interests  in 
America,  he  was  associated  with  other  leading  men  of  his 
time  in  promoting  the  colonizing  of  Virginia  and  the  Islands 
of  Bermuda;  one  island  of  the  Bermuda  group  was  named 
for  him.  He  inherited  a  large  fortune  from  his  mother,  the 
Countess  of  Shrewsbury,  and  from  his  elder  brother,  Henry 
Cavendish,  who  died  in  1616.  Among  the  possessions  re- 
ceived from  his  mother  were  the  three  estates  of  Chatsworth, 
Hardwicke,  and  Oldcotes,  which  have  been  described  as  "the 
three  most  splendid  estates  ever  raised  by  one  hand."  He 
was  created  Earl  of  Devonshire  in  1618  and  died  March  3, 
1625-26.  He  married,  first,  Anne  Keighley,  daughter  of 
Henry  Keighley  of  Keighley,  Yorkshire,  and  had  three  sons 
and  three  daughters.  He  married,  second,  Elizabeth  Bough- 
ton,  daughter  of  Edward  Boughton  of  Couston,  Warwick- 
shire, and  widow  of  Sir  Richard  Wortley  of  Yorkshire. 


%YM^  (ir^ajier?  rr^foinjiff.^Tr-r^'^^v   .rvi?  :f^,p'w.niM"',i;^i(t(o^f^ . 

/h)m.  the  Oritftitai  by  Vandyke  m  the  Coll«6iion  ^  the  Manuesr  v/^Ushwy 


William  Cavendish,  second  son  of  the  preceding  and 
the  second  Earl  of  Devonshire,  was  born  in  1591.  He  was 
a  member  of  Parliament  in  1621  and  thereafter,  and  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Derbyshire  in  1619,  and  again  in  1625  and  1626. 
He  was  a  man  of  many  accomplishments,  one  of  the  noted 
gallants  of  his  age,  and  a  spendthrift  of  such  prodigality  that 
when  he  died  he  left  his  family  almost  in  poverty  and  his  es- 
tate burdened  with  indebtedness  of  every  description.  He 
died  June  20,  1628. 

He  married,  in  1608-9,  Christiana  Bruce,  who  became 
one  of  the  most  famous  women  of  her  time  in  England  and 
whose  marvellous  abilities  exercised  in  various  directions  not 
only  resuscitated  the  fortunes  of  the  house  of  Cavendish  but 
started  son  and  grandson  on  that  splendid  career  which  since 
her  time  has  distinguished  the  house  of  Devonshire.  She 
was  young  in  years  when  married,  being  less  than  thirteen, 
and  she  took  to  her  husband  a  handsome  dowry  from  the 
king,  James  I.,  who  esteemed  her  father  Edward  Bruce, 
Lord  of  Kinloss,  as  one  of  his  prime  favorites.  To  this 
dowry  the  king  persuaded  the  father  of  William  Cavendish 
to  add  a  substantial  amount  so  that  the  young  couple  were 
well  started  in  life. 

Upon  the  death  of  her  husband  it  was  discovered  that  his 
estate  was  heavily  charged  and  complicated  with  nearly  thirty 
law-suits.  The  countess  thereupon  devoted  herself  to  saving 
the  property  and  to  the  education  of  her  son,  to  whom  she 
was  intensely  devoted.  The  litigation  in  which  she  was  in- 
volved was  made  as  perplexing  and  tedious  as  possible  by  the 

lo  145 


cunning  and  power  of  her  adversaries,  yet  in  the  end  she  tri- 
umphed over  all  opposition  and  her  success  was  so  marked 
that  it  became  the  talk  of  the  kingdom.  On  one  occasion 
King  Charles  jestingly  remarked  to  her,  "Madame,  you  have 
all  my  judges  at  your  disposal,"  which  perhaps  may  be  taken 
as  an  indication  of  how  she  was  able  to  overcome  the  disas- 
ters that  threatened  her  estate.  She  developed  marked  busi- 
ness talent  and  increased  the  value  of  her  holdings  until  she 
became  very  wealthy. 

She  had  fine  intellectual  qualities  and  also  took  an  active 
and  important  part  in  the  politics  of  the  kingdom.  At  the 
time  of  the  rebellion  against  the  Stewarts,  she  supported  the 
cause  of  the  royal  house,  and  after  the  battle  of  Worcester 
carried  away  and  concealed  for  King  Charles  much  of  her 
personal  property.  Her  devotion  to  the  Stewarts  was  in- 
tensified by  the  death  of  her  younger  son,  Charles  Cavendish, 
who  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Gainsborough,  July  27,  1643, 
fighting  against  the  army  of  Cromwell.  During  the  Protec- 
torate she  maintained  her  relations  with  the  royalists,  giving 
them  much  secret  assistance.  After  the  Restoration  King 
Charles  II.  was  frequently  at  her  house,  and  she  was  upon 
intimate  terms  with  the  leading  men  and  women  of  the  new 
regime.  Her  palace  was  the  center  of  hospitality  and  she 
entertained  many  men  of  letters  who  wrote  agreeable  verses 
in  her  praise.     It  was  said  of  her  that  she  was — 

"of  that  affability  and  sweet  address  with  so  great  wit  and 
judgment  as  captivated  all  who  conversed  with  her  and  of  such 
strict  virtue  and  morals  that  she  was  an  example  to  her  sex." 



Horace  Walpole  wrote  of  her  as  follows: 

"Christiana  Bruce,  Countess  of  Devonshire,  was  a  lady  of 
much  note  in  her  time.  She  was  the  daughter  of  the  Lord 
Bruce  of  Kinloss,  one  of  the  favorites  of  James  I.,  who  to 
facilitate  her  match  into  so  great  a  family  gave  her,  besides 
his  recommendation  £10,000.  ...  In  her  youth  she  was 
the  platonic  mistress  of  William,  Earl  of  Pembroke,  who, 
according  to  the  romantic  gallantry  of  the  age,  wrote  a  volume 
of  poems  in  her  praise  which  were  published  and  dedicated 
to  her  by  Dr.  Donne.  In  every  period  she  seems  to  have 
held  one  of  those  female  tribunals  of  literature  first  instituted 
by  the  Marquise  de  Rambouillet  at  Paris  and  of  late  years 
very  numerous  there.  The  Lord  Lisle  in  a  letter  to  Sir  Wil- 
liam Temple  tells  him  that  the  old  Countess  of  Devonshire's 
house  was  Mr.  Waller's  chief  theatre.  One  of  the  Indepen- 
dents has  recorded  her  life  in  a  small  tract  written  in  the 
more  spiritual  tone  of  those  times.  Upon  the  whole  her 
ladyship  seems  to  have  been  a  fair  model  of  our  ancient  no- 
bility, a  compound  of  piety,  regularity,  and  human  wisdom 
so  discreetly  classed  as  to  suffer  none  of  them  to  trespass  on 
the  interests  of  its  associates.  Thus  while  her  devotion  was 
universally  admired,  her  prudence  entrusted  the  education 
of  her  eldest  son  to  Mr.  Hobbes;  and  though  she  lived  up  to 
the  splendour  of  her  rank,  having  a  jointure  of  5,000  a  year, 
so  judicious  was  her  economy  that  she  nearly  doubled  it;  and 
having  procured  the  wardship  of  her  son  she  managed  his 
affairs  so  skillfully  as  to  extricate  his  estate  from  a  vast  debt. 

"Nor  were  politics  neglected  by  a  lady  so  extremely  tinc- 
tured with  a  knowledge  of  the  world.  On  the  contrary  Lady 
Devonshire  was  not  only  busy  but  reckoned  instrumental  in 
the  conduct  of  the  Restoration,  being  trusted  by  the  pearl  of 
secrecy.  General  Monck.  In  a  word,  if  this  Countess  in  the 
flower  of  her  age  was  like  the  Queen  of  Bohemia,  the  theme 
of  the  wits  and  poets  of  the  court;  in  her  riper  years  she 
seems  to  have  imbibed  the  profitable  wisdom  of  her  Lord's 



grandmother,  the  famous  Countess  of  Shrewsbury,  and  to 
have  made  it  her  study  to  preserve  and  augment  that  wealth 
of  importance  to  the  house  of  Cavendish  of  which  the  gran- 
dame  had  laid  such  ample  foundation." 

The  Countess  of  Devonshire  died  January  l(i,  1674-75. 
Her  second  son,  Charles  Cavendish,  who  was  born  in  1670, 
was  named  after  Prince  Charles  Stewart.  He  served  in  the 
war  against  Cromwell,  becoming  a  general  of  cavalry.  At 
Gainsborough,  July  28,  1643,  he  was  defeated  and  killed. 

William  Cavendish,  the  third  Earl  of  Devonshire,  son  of 
the  preceding,  was  born  in  1617,  and  upon  the  coronation  of 
King  Charles  I.  in  1625  he  was  made  a  Knight  of  Bath.  His 
advancement  in  public  life  was  rapid  and  he  became  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Derbyshire  in  1638,  retaining  that  office  until 
1641  and  was  High  Steward  of  Ampthill  in  1639-40.  De- 
votedly attached  to  the  royalist  cause  he  was  marked  by  the 
opponents  of  the  Stewarts,  and  was  one  of  the  eight  peers  of 
England  who  were  impeached  for  high  crimes  and  misde- 
meanors and  expelled  from  the  House  of  Lords  in  1642.  He 
was  attainted  and  his  estate  was  sequestrated  and  a  heavy 
fine  imposed  upon  him.  Under  these  circumstances  he  was 
obliged  to  leave  England  and  remained  abroad  on  the  Con- 
tinent until  1645.  Then  he  secured  pardon  and  lived  in 
retirement  with  his  mother  at  Latimers,  Buckinghamshire. 
Upon  the  restoration  of  the  house  of  Stewart  his  disabilities 
were  removed  and  he  was  reappointed  Lord  Lieutenant  of 
Derbyshire.     He  was  a  man  of  high  culture,  interested  in 



scientific  pursuits,  and  was  one  of  the  original  Fellows  of  the 
Royal  Society-  He  died  November  23,  1684.  He  married 
Elizabeth  Cecil,  daughter  of  William  Cecil,  Earl  of  Salisbury. 
She  died  November  19,  1689. 

William  Cavendish,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born 
January  25,  1640,  and  was  educated  under  the  careful  di- 
rection of  his  grandmother.  In  1661  he  was  a  member  of 
Parliament  for  Derbyshire,  and  was  again  in  Parliament  in 
1666.  He  served  in  the  British  navy  in  1665,  and  in  1669 
was  appointed  on  an  embassy  to  France.  From  1675  until 
1681  he  was  in  Parliament  in  strong  opposition  to  the  court 
party,  and  became  one  of  the  foremost  men  of  the  realm.  He 
succeeded  his  father  as  Earl  of  Devonshire  in  1684.  He  was 
a  man  of  pronounced  views,  irascible  and  impatient,  and  was 
constantly  in  trouble  with  others  who  were  active  in  the  public 
affairs  of  the  day.  As  a  result  of  an  encounter  with  Colonel 
Thomas  Culpepper  he  was  sentenced  to  pay  a  heavy  fine  and 
was  condemned  to  confinement.  He  escaped  from  prison, 
but  all  the  influence  of  his  grandmother,  the  Countess  of  Dev- 
onshire, and  her  family  could  not  avail  wholly  to  save  him 
from  the  consequences  of  his  act.  It  was  not  until  long 
afterwards,  in  1697,  when  political  power  in  Parliament  had 
changed  that  the  record  of  his  conviction  was  removed. 

For  several  years  in  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury he  was  living  in  retirement,  but  never  ceased  his  opposi- 
tion to  King  James  and  was  among  those  who  made  plans  for 
the  succession  to  the  English  throne  of  the  Prince  of  Orange. 



He  was  very  useful  in  bringing  about  the  accession  of  William 
and  Mary  to  the  throne  in  1689,  and  as  a  reward  for  his  ser- 
vices the  new  sovereign  appointed  him  Lord  Lieutenant  of 
Derbyshire,  and  he  was  elected  a  Knight  of  the  Garter.  In 
1692  he  served  in  the  English  army  in  Flanders,  and  as  a  re- 
sult of  that  campaign  he  was  created  Duke  of  Devonshire. 
He  was  much  addicted  to  sport  of  all  kinds,  especially  horse- 
racing,  and  was  noted  even  in  that  luxurious  age  for  the  munifi- 
cence of  his  entertainments.  His  last  public  service  was  in 
assisting  to  conclude  the  union  with  Scotland  for  negotiating 
which  he  and  his  son,  the  Marquis  of  Hartington,  had  been 
appointed  among  the  commissioners  by  Queen  Anne.  He 
died  August  18,  1707,  and  ordered  the  following  inscription 
to  be  put  on  his  monument : — "  Willielmus  Dux  Devon,  Bono- 
rum  Principum  Fidelis  Subditus,  Inimicus  et  Invisus  Tyran- 
nis."  He  married  in  1660,  in  Kilkenny,  Ireland,  Lady  Mary 
of  Ormonde,  daughter  of  James,  Duke  of  Ormonde. 

In  later  generations  the  representatives  of  the  ducal  house 
of  Devonshire,  descendants  of  Christiana  Bruce,  have  not 
been  less  famous  or  less  distinguished  than  those  of  their  an- 
cestors whose  careers  have  here  been  noted.  They  have  been 
prominent  in  public  life,  serving  their  country  at  home  and 
abroad,  and  have  exercised  a  marked  influence  upon  each 
generation  of  English  life.  The  Devonshire  ducal  house  is 
rightly  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  eminent,  most  distinguished, 
and  most  powerful  in  the  United  Kingdom. 









AS  a  royal  house,  the  family  of  Stewart  which  gave 
kings  to  Scotland  and  to  England  for  several  cen- 
turies and  whose  history  became  one  of  the  most 
conspicuous  parts  of  the  annals  of  the  United  Kingdom,  was 
more  Bruce  than  Stewart.  The  surname  was  derived  from 
ancestors  who,  while  they  had  been  not  without  distinction 
in  the  generations  immediately  preceding  their  matrimonial 
connection  with  the  Bruces,  were  in  no  wise  royal.  The 
pedigree  went  back  to  men  of  eminence  only  a  few  hun- 
dred years,  and,  honorable  as  it  was,  the  record  in  the  begin- 
ning was  not  even  of  nobility. 

Stewarts  could  claim  no  relationship  to  royalty  previous 
to  the  marriage  of  Walter,  High  Steward  of  Scotland,  to  Mar- 
jory Bruce.  With  that  alliance  there  was  brought  into  the 
family  the  blood  of  a  stock  which,  as  has  been  shown  on  pre- 
ceding pages,  went  back  generation  after  generation,  not  only 
on  the  male  side  but  also  in  various  collateral  lines,  to  those 
who  had  been  foremost  in  making  history  and  in  establish- 
ing nations  upon  the  European  Continent  and  the  adjacent 
islands.  Between  the  Stewarts  who  began  in  the  twelfth  cen- 
tury and  the  Bruces  who  started  from  kings  and  princes  six 
hundred  years  before  and  could  also  trace  through  genera- 
tions to  the  royal  houses  of  Scotland  and  Ireland,  there  was 
a  wide  difference.     It  was  the  royal  strain  brought  into  the 



family  by  Marjory  Bruce  that  gave  the  descendants  of  Walter, 
the  High  Steward,  their  claim  to  the  throne.  Therefore  it  was 
that  the  Stewarts  as  a  ruling  house  were  really  Bruce  in  every- 
thing except  name. 

Still,  despite  these  considerations,  among  the  many  great 
families  with  which  the  Bruce  line  became  connected  in  mar- 
riage none  was  more  worthy  or  had  up  to  that  time  occupied 
a  more  conspicuous  place  in  the  history  of  Scotland  than  that 
of  Stewart.  Its  history  began  in  the  time  of  William  the 
Conqueror,  and  after  the  twelfth  century  it  was  a  house  of 
power  and  distinction  while  its  representatives  ranked  among 
the  leading  men  of  Scotland. 

So  far  as  careful  antiquarian  research  has  been  able  to  dis- 
cover, the  family  was  of  Norman  origin  and  vestiges  of  its  Eng- 
lish founder  have  been  discovered  in  the  province  of  Dol  in 
the  northeastern  section  of  Brittany.  It  is  believed  that  the 
first  English  or  Scotch  ancestor  came  from  France  about  the 
time  of  William  the  Conqueror  or  shortly  before.  An  in- 
genious but  not  altogether  successful  attempt  has  been  made 
by  some  writers  to  connect  the  family  with  Bancho,  thane 
of  Lochaber,  who  lived  in  the  reign  of  King  Duncan  of 
Scotland  and  was  murdered  by  Macbeth  in  1043.  This  is 
the  Banquo  of  Boece  and  Shakespeare,  and  his  place  in  history 
as  an  ancestor  of  the  Stewarts,  as  argued  by  the  supporters  of 
this  pedigree,  is  somewhat  hypothetical  although  not  wholly 
impossible.  The  argument  in  its  favor  is  presented  strongly 
by  the  Reverend,  J.  K.  Hewison  in  Bute  in  Olden  Time, 
and  by  others  before  and  since  that  author. 



According  to  this  pedigree  the  son  of  Banquo  was  Fleance 
who  married  Nesta,  daughter  of  Griffith  ap  Lewellin,  a  Prince 
of  Wales  who  was  murdered  by  ruffians  in  1045.  Walter, 
son  of  Fleance,  was  obliged  to  leave  Wales  on  account  of  dis- 
turbances at  that  time  and  was  brought  up  in  the  court  of 
King  Edward  the  Confessor.  Having  some  disagreement 
with  the  Saxon  court  he  was  sent  to  the  Continent  to  live  with 
Alan,  Earl  of  Brittany,  who  was  a  relative  of  his  mother.  He 
married  a  daughter  of  Alan,  and  subsequently  joining  the  army 
of  William  the  Conqueror,  fought  in  the  battle  of  Hastings 
in  1066.  For  some  reason  he  fell  into  disfavor  with  King 
William  and  retired  to  Scotland  where  he  was  received  by 
King  Malcolm  III.,  and  thereafter  rendered  considerable  ser- 
vice to  the  Scottish  king.  In  reward  he  was  made  Dapifer 
Domini  Regis,  an  office  which  did  not  differ  much  from  that 
of  the  High  Steward  of  Scotland  which  was  subsequently  the 
hereditary  prerogative  of  the  Stewart  family.  Alan,  son  of 
Walter,  became  a  valiant  knight  and  went  to  the  Holy  War 
under  the  standard  of  Godfrey  Bouillon.  He  was  present  at 
the  taking  of  Jerusalem  in  1099.  After  his  return  home  he 
was  made  Lord  High  Steward  of  Scotland  in  1153. 

Walter  Fitz  Alan  is  the  member  of  this  royal  family  who  is 
accepted  with  certitude  by  all  genealogists  as  the  real  founder 
of  the  stock  in  Scotland.  From  him  downward  to  later 
generations  the  pedigree  is  without  controversy.  Variant 
and  speculative  genealogical  discussion  regarding  him  con- 
cerns itself  only  with  his  origin  and  ancestry.     Those  who 


BOOK     OF     BRUCE 

hold  to  the  genealogy  just  presented  make  him  the  son  of  Alan 
who  was  the  great-grandson  of  Bancho.  The  more  accepted 
and  reliable  view  is  that  he  was  the  son  of  Alan  Flaald,  a 
Norman  knight  who  obtained,  soon  after  the  conquest  of 
England,  the  grant  of  the  castle  of  Owestry  in  the  County  of 
Salop.  There  is  nothing  to  show  that  this  Alan  Flaald  may 
not  have  been  the  Alan,  son  of  Walter,  who  was  Lord  High 
Steward  of  Scotland  in  1153  and  is  included  in  the  supposed 
line  from  Bancho.  According  to  Eyton*  and  other  Scotch 
historians,  this  Alan  married  Avelina  or  Adelina  de  Hesdinges, 
sister  of  Ernulf  de  Hesdinges,  and  had  three  sons. 

Walter  Fitz  Alan  founded  the  Abbey  of  Paisley  in  Renfrew- 
shire for  monks  of  the  Cluniac  order  from  the  convent  of  Wen- 
lock  in  Salop  in  1164,  and  his  family  became  fully  established 
in  Renfrewshire  where  it  remained  for  centuries,  being  a 
large  owner  of  land,  and  wealthy  and  powerful.  From  the 
death  of  King  David  1.,  in  1153,  to  the  death  of  King  David  II., 
in  1371,  the  Fitz  Alans  held  chief  sway  in  Renfrewshire  and 
were  persons  of  weight  throughout  the  kingdom.  It  is  said 
that  Walter  Fitz  Alan  went  from  Shropshire  in  England 
to  Scotland  during  the  reign  of  King  David,  and  that  mon- 
arch made  him  Steward  of  Scotland  and  gave  him  valuable 
lands.  In  1153  King  Malcolm  IV.,  the  successor  to  King 
David  I.,  confirmed  these  grants  and  further  maintained  the 
family  in  important  standing.  Eyton*  says  that  he  married 
Eschina,  daughter  of  Thomas  de  Londoniis  and  heiress  of 
Molle   and   Huntlaw   in   Roxburghshire.     He   died   in  1177. 

*  Antiquities  of  Shropshire,  by  R.  W.  Eyton,  Vol.  VII.,  p.  228. 


Alan  Fitz  Alan,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  father 
in  the  important  office  of  High  Steward  of  Scotland.  He  was 
a  man  of  notable  character  and  emulated  the  zeal  of  his  father 
in  religious  affairs,  giving  many  munificent  grants  to  church 
institutions.  He  died  in  1204  and  was  buried  in  the  Abbey 
of  Paisley.  He  married,  first,  Eva,  daughter  of  Suan,  who 
was  a  son  of  Thor,  Lord  of  Tippermuir  and  Tranant ;  second, 
Alesta,  daughter  of  Morgund,  Earl  of  Mar. 

Walter  Fitz  Alan,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  became  in 
turn  the  High  Steward  of  Scotland.  So  far  as  the  records  go 
he  was  the  first  to  term  himself  and  to  be  called  Seneschallus 
Scotise.  On  August  24,  1230,  he  was  appointed  by  King 
Alexander  II.  to  the  office  of  justiciary  of  Scotland.  He  was 
held  in  such  esteem  by  King  Alexander  that  he  was  commis- 
sioned as  an  ambassador  to  negotiate  with  Mary,  the  daugh- 
ter of  Ingelram,  Count  de  Coucy,  for  her  marriage  to  the  King 
of  Scotland  after  the  death  of  his  first  wife  in  1239.  He  was 
preeminently  successful  in  this  mission,  as  the  marriage  of  the 
king  to  Mary  of  Ingelram  in  the  same  year  fully  evidences. 
Like  his  father  and  grandfather  he  was  a  benefactor  of  the 
church,  and  besides  other  grants  for  religious  purposes,  he 
founded  the  monastery  at  Dalmulin  on  Air.  He  was  born  in 
Paisley  and  died  there  in  1246.  He  married  Beatrix,  daughter 
of  Gilchrist,  Earl  of  Angus.  His  sons  were  Alexander  Fitz 
Alan,  who  succeeded  him;  John  Fitz  Alan,  killed  at  the  siege 
of  Damietta  in  Egypt  in  1249;  Walter  Fitz  Alan,  Earl  of 
Monteith;  and  William  Fitz  Alan. 



Alexander  Fitz  Alan,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  be- 
came High  Steward  of  Scotland  after  the  death  of  his  father. 
He  was  a  valued  counsellor  of  King  Alexander  HI.,  and  in 
1255  was  named  as  one  of  the  regents  of  the  kingdom  of 
Scotland.  In  that  year  he  received  a  charter  of  the  barony 
Garbis  and  himself  gave  many  charters  and  grants  to  churches. 
He  was  not  only  beneficent  and  well-disposed  toward  his  de- 
pendents, but  was  a  brave  man  and  a  capable  commander  in 
military  affairs.  At  the  battle  of  Largs,  in  1263,  he  led  the 
Scottish  forces  under  King  Alexander  III.  and  was  mainly 
instrumental  in  the  defeat  of  the  Norwegians  under  King 
Hakon.  In  1264  he  was  sent  to  the  Isle  of  Man  to  receive 
there  the  subjection  of  the  people  who  heretofore  had  been 
under  the  domination  of  the  kingdom  of  Norway;  and  he 
secured  the  annexation  of  the  island  to  Scotland. 

When  at  Rosburgh  in  1289  the  nobles  of  Scotland  assembled 
to  consider  the  succession  to  the  crown  of  Scotland  in  case 
of  the  decease  of  the  ruling  king  he  was  prominent  and 
influential  in  the  deliberations.  He  was  a  subscriber  to  the 
agreement  for  marriage  between  Mary,  the  daughter  of  King 
Alexander  III.,  and  Eric,  King  of  Norway.  He  died  in  1283. 
He  married  Jean,  daughter  of  James  Macrory,  who  was  the 
son  of  Angus  Macrory,  Lord  of  Bute.  His  children  were 
James  Fitz  Alan,  who  succeeded  him;  Sir  John  Stewart  of 
Bonkyl,  the  ancestor  of  the  Stewarts  of  that  name,  and  Eliza- 
beth Fitz  Alan,  who  married  William,  Lord  Douglas,  of 
Lugton  in  Lothian. 

Margaret  Fitz  Alan,  the  youngest  daughter  of  Walter  Fitz 



Alan  and  sister  of  Alexander  Fitz  Alan,  married  Niel,  Earl 
of  Carrick.  In  the  next  generation  the  daughter  of  this  mar- 
riage, Marjory  of  Carrick,  married  Robert  Bruce,  seventh  of 
the  name;  by  this  marriage  the  first  union  of  the  houses  of 
Bruce  and  Stewart  was  brought  about. 

James  Fitz  Alan  or  James  Stewart,  son  of  the  preceding 
and  the  next  High  Steward  of  Scotland,  succeeded  his  father 
in  1283.  By  this  time  the  Fitz  Alan  family  had  become 
habituated  to  the  use  as  a  surname  of  the  name  of  the  heredi- 
tary oflSce  that  their  ancestors  had  held  for  generations.  It 
is  not  certain  exactly  when  the  change  in  the  family  name  was 
made,  and  in  fact  for  several  generations  both  surnames  were 
in  use  at  the  same  time  indiscriminately.  But  James  Fitz 
Alan  became  James  Stewart  and  his  descendants  gradually 
grew  more  and  more  accustomed  to  the  use  of  the  new  name 
until  finally  they  adopted  it  altogether.  Like  his  ancestors, 
James  Stewart  was  a  man  of  influence  and  power  and  taken 
much  into  consideration  in  all  important  proceedings  in  the 
kingdom.  In  1286  he  was  one  of  the  six  regents  who  were 
appointed  to  rule  under  Queen  Margaret  after  the  death  of 
King  Alexander  III.  In  September,  1286,  associated  with  his 
brothers,  John  Stewart  and  Walter  Stewart,  Earl  of  Monteith, 
and  other  leading  nobles  assembled  at  Turnberry  Castle,  he 
was  a  subscriber  to  the  agreement  to  support  the  claims  of 
Robert  Bruce  to  the  throne  of  Scotland. 

In  1291  he  was  one  of  the  auditors  acting  on  the  part  of 
Robert  Bruce  to   support  that  noble's  claims  before   King 



Edward  of  England.  In  1297  he  gave  his  support  to  the  cause 
of  the  patriotic  VViUiam  Wallace,  but  upon  the  failure  of  that 
enterprise  he  was,  in  common  with  many  other  Scottish  nobles, 
compelled  to  make  his  peace  with  King  Edward  and  swear 
fealty  to  that  monarch.  Still  devoted  to  his  country  and 
willing  to  sacrifice  everything  to  secure  her  freedom  from 
English  rule,  in  1302,  with  six  others  of  like  patriotism,  he 
visited  France  to  solicit  the  assistance  of  King  Philip  to 
enable  Scotland  to  maintain  her  liberties;  and  afterwards 
he  was  engaged  on  a  similar  mission  to  the  court  of  Spain. 
He  died  July  16,  1309,  in  the  sixty-ninth  year  of  his  age.  He 
married  Cecilia,  daughter  of  Patrick,  Earl  of  Dunbar  and 
March,  and  had  three  sons  and  one  daughter.  His  sons  were 
Walter  Stewart,  who  succeeded  him;  Sir  John  Stewart,  who 
was  with  the  army  of  invasion  that  Edward  Bruce  led  to 
Ireland  in  1318,  and  with  Bruce  was  killed  at  the  battle  of 
Dundalk;   Sir  James  Stewart  of  Durisdeer. 

W^ALTER  Stewart,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  next  High 
Steward  of  Scotland.  He  was  born  in  1293.  He  was  one  of 
the  staunchest  and  most  trusted  supports  of  the  Bruce  and 
when  King  Robert  invaded  Ireland  in  1316,  he  and  Sir  James 
Douglas  were  appointed  governors  of  Scotland  to  rule  the 
kingdom  in  the  absence  of  the  king.  He  showed  himself 
possessed  of  patriotic  spirit  and  of  military  instinct  at  an  early 
age,  and  in  1314  at  Torwood,  preceding  the  battle  of  Ban- 
nockburn,  he  brought  a  body  of  hardy  men  to  support  the 
Bruce,  the  sturdy  warriors  of  Slrathgryfe. 



"Walter  Stewart  of  Scotland  fyne 
That  then  was  but  a  beardless  hyne, 
Came  with  a  rout  of  noble  men, 
That  might  by  countenance  be  ken."* 

In  arranging  the  forces  of  the  Scottish  army  for  the  ensu- 
ing combat,  Walter  Stewart  had  command  of  the  third  divi- 
sion in  company  with  Sir  James  Douglas. 

"And  syne  the  third  battle  they  gave 
To  Walter  Stewart  for  to  lead 
And  to  Douglas  doughty  of  deed, 
They  were  cousins  in  near  degree. 
Therefore  to  him  betaught  was  he; 
For  he  was  young  but  not  forthy, 
I  trow  he  shall  so  manlily 
Do  his  devoir,  and  work  so  well 
That  he  shall  need  no  more  zounseil."  * 

In  the  battle  of  Bannockburn  he  shared  to  the  full  the  work 
and  dangers  of  the  day  as  well  as  the  glory  of  victory.  In 
recognition  of  his  services  he  was  knighted  for  bravery  and 
at  that  time  he  had  reached  the  age  only  of  twenty-one.  He 
married,  early  in  life,  AUce  Erskine,  daughter  of  Sir  John 
Erskine,  and  had  by  her  a  daughter,  Jean  Stewart,  who  mar- 
ried Hugh,  Earl  of  Ross. 

The  romance  of  his  life  came  after  he  had  acquitted  him- 
self so  brilliantly  at  Bannockburn  before  the  eyes  of  King 
Robert  Bruce  and  the  other  nobles  of  Scotland.  In  the  next 
year  when  the  royal  Scottish  prisoners.  Queen  Elizabeth, 
Marjory    Bruce,    daughter  of   the   King;    Christiana   Bruce, 

*  Metrical  Life  of  Robert  Bruce,  by  John  Barbour,  p.  228  and  p.  232. 
II  161 


sister  of  the  King;  Earl  Mar,  the  Bishop  of  Glasgow,  and 
others  were  released  from  confinement  in  England  where  they 
had  been  held  by  King  Edward  I.  they  were  sent  to  the  Scot- 
tish borders  under  English  escort.  King  Robert  Bruce  com- 
missioned Walter  Stewart  to  receive  them  and  escort  them 
to  Scottish  soil.  This  was  the  first  meeting  of  the  young 
warrior  with  Marjory  Bruce  and  he  immediately  fell  in  love 
with  her.  King  Robert  must  have  held  his  supporter  in  the 
highest  esteem,  for  he  willingly  gave  his  daughter  to  him 
in  marriage  and  conferred  upon  him  the  barony  of  Bathgate 
and  other  valuable  lands.  Marjory  (Bruce)  Stewart  died  in 
1316,  only  a  year  after  she  was  married.  Walter  Stewart 
married,  third,  Isabel  Graham,  daughter  of  Sir  John  Graham 
of  Abercorn.     He  died  April  9,  1326. 

Robert  Stewart,  the  succeeding  High  Steward  of  Scotland, 
was  the  only  son  of  Walter  Stewart  and  Marjory  Bruce.  He 
was  born  March  2,  1316.  When  he  was  little  more  than 
seventeen  years  of  age  he  was  placed  in  command  of  a  body 
of  troops  of  the  Scottish  army  upon  the  field  of  Halidon. 
After  that  defeat  he  was  concealed  for  some  time  in  Bute, 
knowing  full  well  that  the  King  of  England  was  desirous  of 
apprehending  him,  inasmuch  as  he  was  the  heir-apparent 
to  the  Scottish  throne.  By  act  of  parliament  in  session  at 
Scone  in  1318  the  throne  was  entailed  upon  the  issue  of  Mar- 
jory Bruce  in  the  case  of  the  death  of  all  male  heirs.  There- 
fore Robert  Stewart  was  next  in  line  of  succession  to  King 
David  II.,  son  of  King  Robert  Bruce. 




In  1334  he  found  refuge  in  the  castle  of  Dunbarton  and 
began  actively  to  engage  in  plans  for  the  recovery  of  Scotland 
for  King  David.  While  the  King  was  in  exile  in  France  he 
was  associated  with  John  Randolph,  Earl  of  Moray,  as  one  of 
the  regents  of  Scotland  and  assisted  in  the  military  operations 
which  resulted  in  Baliol,  the  pretender  to  the  throne,  being 
overthrown  and  driven  from  Scotland.  In  consequence  of 
changes  in  the  situation,  in  1335,  he  lost  the  regency  and  Sir 
Andrew  Moray  of  Bothwell  took  his  place.  Three  years  later 
Sir  Andrew  Moray  died  and  Robert  Stewart  again  became  a 
regent.  During  all  these  years  he  was  active  in  encourag- 
ing the  national  spirit  of  Scotland  and  in  developing  plans 
for  the  reinstatement  of  King  David  and  the  firmer  estab- 
lishment of  the  Stewart  royal  house  upon  the  throne.  When 
King  David  and  his  wife  Joanna  returned  from  France, 
Robert  Stewart  was  among  the  first  to  greet  them,  and  in 
the  fighting  that  followed  he  was  in  the  forefront  of  the  battle 
at  Durham  that  resulted  so  disastrously  to  the  Scottish  cause. 
After  the  capture  of  King  David  on  this  occasion  Robert 
Stewart  exerted  himself  to  the  uttermost  to  secure  the  re- 
lease of  Scotland's  young  monarch  from  the  hands  of  the 
English.  He  was  active  and  influential  in  the  negotiations 
for  the  treaty  of  peace  between  Scotland  and  England,  and 
when  that  treaty  was  signed  in  1357  he  was  one  of  the  eight 
Scottish  nobles  who  submitted  themselves  as  hostages  to 
King  Edward  to  secure  the  fulfillment  of  its  terms. 

King  David  died  February  22,  1370-1.  As  he  left  no  male 
heir,  Robert  Stewart  succeeded  him  on  the  throne  and  was 



crowned  at  Scone  March  27,  1371.  As  a  monarch  King 
Robert  II.  made  no  marked  impress  upon  his  age.  His  pre- 
cocious youth  when  he  accompHshed  so  much  for  Scotland 
and  his  relative,  King  David,  was  the  most  brilliant  part  of 
his  life.  Although  he  reigned  for  nineteen  years,  that  period 
was  of  secondary  importance  compared  to  the  years  that  had 
preceded  in  his  life.  It  was  of  consequence  only  as  marking 
an  epoch  in  Scottish  history,  the  commencement  of  a  new  race 
of  kings — the  Stewarts. 

King  Robert  II.  was  past  his  prime  when  he  came  to  the 
throne  and  seems  to  have  lost  altogether  the  spirit  of  ac- 
tivity that  once  dominated  him.  Shortly  after  his  accession 
England  again  waged  war  upon  Scotland,  but  the  King  took 
no  vigorous  personal  part  in  the  defence  of  his  country.  Even 
when  the  French  under  Admiral  Vienne  came  over  to  assist 
their  Scottish  allies  King  Robert  was  not  present  at  first  to 
meet  them.  Subsequently  when  he  did  see  them  he  did  not 
make  a  very  agreeable  impression.  As  one  of  the  writers  of 
that  age  said,  they  thought  "it  seemed  right  well  that  he  was 
not  a  valiant  man  in  arms;  it  seemed  that  he  had  rather 
lie  still  than  ride."*  After  that  the  King  retired  to  the  High- 
lands and  did  not  show  himself  for  some  time,  taking  no  part 
in  military  operations  because,  as  the  same  writer  says,  "he 
was  not  in  good  point  to  ride  in  warfare  and  there  he  tarried 
all  the  war  through  and  let  his  men  alone."  * 

He  died  in  1390. 

He  married,  first,  Elizabeth  Mure,  daughter  of  Sir  Adam 

Chronicles  of  England,  France,  and  Spain,  by  Jean  de  Froissart. 



Mure  of  Rowallan,  and  by  her  had  four  sons  and  six  daugh- 
ters. He  married,  second,  in  1355,  Euphemia,  Countess  of 
Moray,  daughter  of  Hugh,  Earl  of  Ross,  and  widow  of  John 
Randolph,  Earl  of  Moray,  and  by  her  had  two  sons  and  one 

Robert  (John)  Stewart,  son  of  the  preceding  by  his 
wife  Elizabeth  Mure,  was  born  about  1340.  He  was  originally 
John  Stewart,  but  that  name  was  changed  to  Robert  in  order 
that  as  a  monarch  he  should  not  carry  the  Christian  name  of 
John  Baliol,  the  old-time  enemy  of  the  Bruces  in  their  contest- 
ing for  the  throne,  and  also  from  the  desire  of  his  parents  to 
preserve  in  the  line  of  the  kings  of  the  house  the  family  name 
of  Robert.  He  was  the  eldest  son  of  King  Robert  II.,  and 
upon  the  death  of  his  father  in  1390  he  was  crowned  at  Scone. 
Physically  he  was  not  strong,  and  he  never  really  governed  the 
kingdom.  He  had  little  inclination  to  rule  and  was  quite 
willing  to  entrust  the  affairs  of  the  kingdom  to  regents  who 
directed  affairs  the  greater  part  of  his  lifetime.  The  first  re- 
gent, his  brother  Robert,  Earl  of  Fife  and  Duke  of  Albany,  was 
succeeded  in  1399  by  David  Stewart,  the  King's  son,  Earl 
of  Carrick  and  Duke  of  Rothesay. 

Albany  conspired  against  his  royal  brother,  and  contested 
the  position  of  the  Duke  of  Rothesay,  who  shortly  died  at 
Falkland  under  circumstances  that  have  never  been  fully 
explained,  but  that  have  always  been  regarded  as  pointing 
toward  his  having  been  put  away  at  the  instigation  of  his 
uncle  Albany.     These  domestic  troubles  naturally  gave  King 



Robert  much  unhappiness,  and  he  took  less  and  less  interest 
in  the  affairs  of  his  kingdom,  allowing  the  contentious  nobles 
to  go  on  altogether  in  their  own  way.  Retiring  to  his  castle 
Rothesay,  he  fell  into  sickness  and  died  April  4,  1406.  His 
melancholy  pursued  him  to  the  end.  It  is  related  that  his 
wife  urged  him  to  follow  the  examples  of  his  ancestors  and 
the  custom  of  the  age  by  preparing  a  royal  tomb  for  himself, 
but  he  refused  her  importunings,  saying  that  he  "was  a 
wretched  man  unworthy  of  a  proud  sepulchre;"  and  he 
prayed  her  to  bury  him  in  a  dung-hill  with  this  epitaph, 
"Here  lies  the  worst  king  and  the  most  miserable  man  in  the 
whole  kingdom." 

He  married  Annabella  Drummond,  daughter  of  Sir  John 
Drummond.  She  died  in  1401.  He  had  three  sons  and 
three  daughters. 

James  Stewart,  third  son  of  the  preceding,  was  bom  in 
Dunfermline  in  1394.  After  the  death  of  his  brother  David, 
Duke  of  Rothesay,  in  March  1402,  by  reason  of  the  anxiety  of 
his  parents  lest  he  might  fall  victim  to  the  animosity  of  his 
uncle  Albany  and  other  nobles,  he  was  placed  with  Bishop 
Henry  Wardlaw  at  St.  Andrew's  to  be  cared  for  and  to  be 
educated.  Two  years  later  it  was  determined  to  send  him 
to  France  for  greater  security,  but  on  the  way  thither  he  was 
captured  by  an  English  man-of-war  and  with  his  compan- 
ions taken  to  London  where  he  was  first  imprisoned  in  the 
Tower.  During  the  subsequent  nineteen  years  he  lived  in 
exile  in  England  under  more  or  less  restraint,  part  of  the  time 




in  prison,  and  again  enjoying  considerable  freedom  at  the 
courts  of  King  Henry  IV.  and  King  Henry  V.,  and  in  the  castles 
of  English  favorites  of  those  kings.  He  was  a  man  of  pro- 
nounced literary  taste  and  a  writer  of  much  merit.  Several  of 
his  poetical  works  rank  among  the  masterpieces  of  that  period 
of  English  literature.  The  Kingis  Quair  tells  in  part  his  life 
story  and  a  melancholy  tinge  pervades  it. 

"Bewailing  in  my  chamber  thus  allone, 
Despeired  of  all  joye  and  remedye; 
Fortirit  of  my  thought  and  wo  begone, 
And  to  the  wyndow  gan  I  walk  in  hye, 
To  see  the  world  and  folk  y'  went  forbye, 
As  for  the  tyme  though  I  of  mirthis  fude 
My*  have  no  more,  to  luke  it  did  me  gude."* 

When  he  came  to  manhood  he  met  with  much  favor  from 
King  Henry  V.,  and  accompanied  that  monarch  on  many 
military  expeditions.  He  was  present  with  King  Henry  at 
the  siege  of  Melun  when  the  army  of  France  with  its  Scot- 
tish supporters  was  defeated  after  a  four  months'  engagement. 
Thereafter  he  remained  in  France  several  years,  but  upon 
the  death  of  King  Henry  he  returned  to  England.  When 
the  treaty  was  arranged  between  England  and  Scotland,  in 
1423,  he  was  released  upon  payment  of  ransom  and  the  agree- 
ment of  other  minor  conditions.  Before  his  return  to  Scot- 
land he  married,  in  February,  1423-4,  Lady  Joanna  Beaufort, 
daughter  of  John  Beaufort,  the  first  Earl  of  Somerset,  and 
granddaughter  of  John    Plantagenet    of    Gaunt.     On    May 

*  The  Kingis  Quaire,  by  King  James  I.,  Canto  II. 


21  of  the  same  year  he  was  crowned  King  of  Scotland  as  James 
I.,  at  Scone. 

As  soon  as  he  was  seated  upon  the  throne  he  manifested 
great  personal  interest  in  the  affairs  of  his  kingdom  and  en- 
tered upon  a  policy  of  inaugurating  new  legislation,  a  policy 
that  he  consistently  followed  throughout  his  entire  life.  Very 
early  in  his  reign  he  was  drawn  into  a  contest  with  the  nobles 
of  Scotland  who  were  principally  led  by  Douglas,  Dunbar,  and 
Lennox;  some  twenty-five  or  thirty  nobles  were  engaged  in 
opposition  to  the  crown  and  eventually  a  rebellion  broke  out 
led  by  James  of  Albany  and  others.  This  uprising  was 
suppressed  and  several  of  the  leaders  were  hanged,  but  the 
movement  of  the  nobles  against  the  royal  house  was  never 
fully  overcome.  Throughout  his  reign  the  Albany  malcontents 
were  in  constant  opposition  and  the  King  was  never  able  to 
abandon  the  policy  of  trying  to  destroy  the  power  of  those  great 
nobles.  Toward  the  end  of  his  life  strained  relations  with 
England  promised  to  bring  about  another  war  between  the 
two  countries  and  this  added  to  his  troubles.  He  was  a 
monarch  of  much  ability,  ruling  under  the  most  discouraging 
conditions,  but  still  accomplishing  a  great  deal  for  his  beloved 
Scotland.  It  has  been  said  of  him  that  "while  the  nation 
made  his  predecessors  kings  he  made  Scotland  a  nation." 

He  died  February  20,  1437,  being  assassinated  by  Sir 
Robert  Graham.  The  story  is  told  that  in  the  previous  De- 
cember he  journeyed  to  Perth  to  keep  Christmas. 

"As  he  was  about  to  cross  the  Forth  a  Highland  woman 
shouted  'An  ye  pass  this  water  ye  shall  never  return  again 



alive.'  He  took  up  his  residence  in  the  cloister  of  the  Black 
Friars  of  Perth.  While  playing  a  game  of  chess  with  a  knight 
nicknamed  the  King  of  Love  James  referring  to  a  prophecy 
that  a  king  should  die  that  year  said  to  his  opponent,  'There 
are  no  kings  in  Scotland  but  you  and  I.  I  shall  take  good 
care  of  myself  and  I  counsel  you  to  do  the  same.'  A  favorite 
squire  told  James  he  had  dreamt  that  Sir  Robert  Graham 
would  slay  the  king  and  for  this  he  was  rebuked  by  the  Earl 
of  Orkney.  James  himself  had  a  dream  of  a  cruel  serpent 
and  horrible  toad  attacking  him  in  his  chamber." 

Finally  these  prophecies  and  dreams  were  realized  in  his 
assassination.  By  the  marriages  of  his  children  he  strength- 
ened the  royal  house  and  the  Scottish  kingdom  by  powerful 
home  and  foreign  alliances.  Margaret  Stewart  married 
Louis,  the  Dauphin  of  France,  who  afterwards  became  King 
Louis  XL  of  France.  Elizabeth,  or  Isabel,  Stewart  married 
Francis,  Count  of  Montfort  and  Duke  of  Bretagne.  Joan, 
or  Janet,  Stewart  married  James  Douglas,  Lord  Dalkeith. 
Mary  Stewart  married  Wolfram  van  Borselen,  Lord  of  Camp- 
Vere  in  Zealand,  who  by  his  wife  was  Earl  of  Buchan  in 
Scotland.  Annabella  Stewart  married  George  Gordon,  the 
second  Earl  of  Huntley.  Eleanor  Stewart  married  the  Arch- 
Duke  Sigismund  of  Austria. 

James  Stewart,  Duke  of  Rothesay,  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  October  16,  1430.  Only  seven  years  old  at  the 
time  of  his  father's  death  in  1437,  he  was  crowned  at  Scone 
in  March  of  that  year.  A  regency  was  established,  and  the 
young  prince  was  retained  in  the  custody  of  his  queen 
mother.     Civil  war  between  the  rival  nobles  broke  out  and 



continued  during  the  lifetime  of  this  monarch  as  it  had  in  the 
Hfetime  of  his  parent.  When  he  became  of  age  and  assumed 
the  throne  and  with  it  the  authority,  he  was  drawn  into  the 
contentions  between  the  nobles,  and  as  his  father  had  done, 
maintained  opposition  to  the  great  leaders  of  the  nobles' 
party.  Personally  he  killed  Lord  Douglas  and  followed  up 
that  deed  by  a  campaign  in  1453-55  against  the  Douglas 
supporters.  A  war  with  England  also  demanded  his  atten- 
tion, without  which  at  that  time  no  Scottish  king  could  fairly 
consider  himself  to  be  ruling.  In  this  war  he  laid  siege  to 
the  city  of  Roxburgh  and  there  was  killed  accidentally  August 
3,  1460. 

As  a  monarch  he  was  vigorous,  politic,  and  successful. 
Sincerely  devoted  to  his  people  and  desirous  of  raising  Scot- 
land to  power  as  a  nation,  and  of  improving  its  domestic  con- 
dition, he  was  naturally  popular  with  the  commons,  but  like 
his  predecessors  and  those  who  followed  him  failed  to  win  the 
approval  and  support  of  the  noble  class.  He  married,  in 
1449,  Mary  Gelderland,  daughter  of  Arnold,  Duke  of  Gelder- 
land.  By  this  marriage  he  strengthened  the  relations  between 
Scotland  and  Flanders. 

James  Stewart,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  July  10, 
1451.  In  his  minority  the  nobles,  still  struggling  against 
their  inevitable  downfall  as  a  concentrated  political  power, 
tried  to  usurp  authority  but  were  not  at  all  successful.  In 
the  exigency  King  James  III.,  who  had  been  crowned  at  the 
Abbey  Kelso  on  the  death  of  his  father,  took  actual  control  of 



affairs  in  1460  when  he  was  only  eighteen  years  of  age. 
At  that  time  he  had  been  just  married  and  his  bride  was 
twelve  years  old,  the  Princess  Mai^garet,  daughter  of  King 
Christian  I.  of  Denmark.  The  first  part  of  his  reign  was  very 
fortunate  since  Scotland  was  quiet  at  home  and  enjoyed  peace 
abroad.  Presently,  however,  came  the  inevitable  war  with 
England,  while  the  brother  of  the  king,  the  Duke  of  Albany, 
rose  against  him  and  secured  the  support  of  King  Edward 
IV.  of  England. 

For  a  time  James  was  successful  against  this  movement 
of  the  nobles,  but  at  Sauchie  in  1488  his  army  was  defeated 
and  he  was  driven  despairingly  from  the  field.  The  circum- 
stances of  his  death  as  related  by  the  historians  of  the 
period  were  touching,  but  reflected  little  upon  his  courage. 
Escaping  from  the  field  of  disaster  he  imprudently  revealed 
his  identity  to  a  woman  who  was  drawing  water  at  a  well  by 
mournfully  telling  her,  "I  was  your  king  this  morning."  Ac- 
cording to  the  traditional  story  the  woman  thereupon  called 
for  a  priest,  and  a  soldier  of  the  victorious  army  who  hap- 
pened to  be  near  by  assumed  that  character.  When  asked 
by  the  fallen  monarch  to  shrive  him  the  soldier  replied  that 
he  would  give  him  short  shrift  and  promptly  dispatched 
him  with  his  sword. 

James  Stewart,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  March  18, 
1472-3.  After  the  fatal  battle  of  Sauchie  he  was  crowned 
as  King  James  IV.,  and  at  once  his  troubles  began  at  home 
and  abroad.     Some  of  the  noble  leaders  who  had  been  in 



revolt  during  the  reign  of  his  father  were  now  restored  to 
power,  but  the  plottings  that  had  been  going  on  for  generations 
preceding  still  continued,  and  King  James  found  great  diffi- 
culty in  meeting  them  and  in  keeping  his  kingdom  quiet. 
At  times  he  was  courted  by  princes,  on  friendly  terms  with 
his  father-in-law,  blessed  by  the  Pope,  and  at  peace  with 
his  subjects.  Again  he  was  at  odds  with  all  parties  and  nearly 
all  personages.  In  1513  he  was  obliged  to  go  to  war  again 
with  England  and  was  killed  at  Flodden. 

The  story  goes  that  at  the  time  of  this  battle,  before  leaving 
Linlithgow,  he  had  been  warned  against  the  war  by  an  ap- 
parition. A  version  of  this  tale,  given  by  Pittscottie,  was 
the  basis  of  Scott's  Marmion.  Therein  it  is  related  how  a 
bald-headed  old  man  in  blue  gown  with  brotikins  on  his  feet  and 
belted  with  a  linen  girdle  suddenly  appeared  at  the  king's  desk 
where  he  prayed  and  prophesied  the  defeat  and  death  that 
so  soon  followed.  James  married,  in  1503,  Lady  Margaret 
Tudor,  eldest  daughter  of  King  Henry  VH.  of  England.  Out 
of  this  alliance  grew  the  right  of  the  Stewarts  to  the  throne 
of  England,  which  was  successfully  asserted  three  generations 
later  when  King  James  VI.  of  Scotland,  great-grandson  of  King 
James  IV.,  became  King  James  I.  of  England. 

James  Stewart,  only  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  April 
15,  1512.  He  was  crowned  at  Scone  in  1513  as  King  James 
V.  Throughout  his  reign  he  was  the  victim  of  the  evils  of  a 
regency  and  the  ambitions  of  the  nobles,  and  was  no  more 
able  to  contend  successfully  against  them  than  had  been  the 



kings  of  his  household  who  had  preceded  him.  The  mar- 
riage of  the  queen  mother  to  Archibald  Douglas,  Lord  Angus, 
alienated  the  son  from  his  maternal  parent,  and  before  he  was 
eighteen  years  of  age  he  plunged  into  the  midst  of  affairs  and 
made  war  the  pursuit  of  his  life.  He  had  varying  success 
against  the  Douglas  party,  but  was  always  in  the  midst  of 
conspiracies,  mostly  to  his  disadvantage,  and  he  had  also 
continually  to  contend  against  border  raids  with  which  the 
English  vexed  the  country  throughout  his  reign.  His  army 
was  overthrown  by  the  English  at  Solway,  November  25, 
1542,  in  more  disastrous  defeat  even  than  that  of  Flodden, 
and  the  king  died  in  Falkland,  December  16  following. 

James  married,  first,  in  1537,  Madeleine,  daughter  of 
Francis  I.,  King  of  France.  His  queen  was  an  exceedingly 
attractive  young  woman,  and  it  is  said  of  her  that  "  her  fragile 
beauty  won  all  hearts  in  Scotland."     When  she  died  in  July, 

1537,  only  a  few  months  after  her  marriage,  there  was  general 
and  sincere  mourning  for  her.     James  married,  second,  in 

1538,  Mary  of  Guise,  daughter  of  Claude  de  Lorraine,  Duke 
of  Guise,  and  widow  of  the  Due  de  Longueville. 

Mary  Stewart,  daughter  of  the  preceding  by  his  wife 
Mary  of  Guise,  was  born  December  8,  1542,  and  was  a  mere 
infant  when  the  death  of  her  father  made  her  the  queen. 
Her  history  as  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  has  become  a  house- 
hold word  in  English-speaking  lands,  and  need  not  be  dwelt 
upon  here.  By  the  order  of  Queen  Elizabeth  of  England 
she  was  beheaded  at  Fotheringay  Castle,  February  8,  1586, 



after  a  life  full  of  unhappiness.  She  married,  first,  in  1558, 
Francis,  the  Dauphin  of  France,  afterwards  King  Fancis 
II. ;  second,  in  1566,  Henry  Stewart,  Lord  Darnley,  eldest  son 
of  Matthew,  fourth  Earl  of  Lennox,  heir-male  of  the  Stewarts; 
third,  in  1567,  James  Hepburn,  Earl  of  Bothwell. 

James  Stewart,  son  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  by  her 
husband,  Henry  Stewart,  Lord  Darnley,  was  born  June  19, 
1566.  When  his  mother  was  forced  to  resign  the  crown  at 
the  time  when  the  young  prince  was  but  a  year  old,  he  was 
declared  king  with  the  title  of  James  VI.  of  Scotland,  being 
crowned  at  Stirling,  July  29,  1567.  Upon  the  demise  of 
Queen  Elizabeth  of  England  in  1603  he  received  the  sceptre 
of  England  in  addition  to  that  of  Scotland,  ascending  to  the 
throne  of  the  United  Kingdom  as  King  James  I.  With  the 
union  of  Scotland  and  England  the  history  of  the  Stewarts 
as  the  royal  line  of  Scotland  exclusively  came  to  an  end. 






NO  history  of  ancient  times  has  been  more  carefully 
or  more  thoroughly  investigated  by  painstaking 
scholars  of  mediaeval  and  modern  times  than  that 
which  treats  of  the  origin  and  the  careers  of  the  Irish  kings. 
Plentiful  records  concerning  those  monarchs  were  preserved 
by  the  old  monks  of  the  early  Christian  period;  and  beyond 
that  the  priests  and  other  functionaries  who  surrounded  the 
rulers  of  the  world  in  the  long  generations  antedating  the 
coming  of  Christ  preserved  much  of  information  concerning 
the  people  from  whom  the  Irish  race  and  subsequently  that 
of  Scotland  originally  sprang.  To  these  varied  and  multi- 
tudinous records  were  gradually  added  an  abundance  of 
tradition  and  much  of  mythical  lore  out  of  all  which  it  has 
been  possible  to  derive  an  interesting  and  generally  accept- 
able account  of  the  Hibernian  chiefs  and  their  ancestors. 

It  is  largely  due  to  the  labors  of  the  scholastic  monks  in 
the  early  centuries  of  the  Christian  era  and  even  before  that 
time  that  we  are  able  to  trace  the  history  of  those  rulers 
chronologically  and  genealogically.  In  the  fifth  century  nine 
scholars,  among  whom  were  St.  Patrick,  St.  Benignus,  and 
St.  Carioch  were  appointed  by  the  triennial  parliament  of 
Tara  in  the  reign  of  Lseghaire,  the  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
eighth  monarch  of  Ireland,  "to  review,  examine  and  reduce 
into    order    all    the    monuments    of    antiquity,    genealogies, 

12  177 


chronicles  and  records  of  the  Kingdom."  The  documents 
thus  examined  and  placed  in  order  were  carefully  preserved 
in  the  national  archives  until  the  Danish  and  Anglo-Norman 
invasions.  At  that  time  some  were  destroyed;  some  were 
carried  away  to  Belgium,  Denmark,  England,  France,  Rome, 
and  elsewhere;  some  were  preserved  in  public  and  private 
libraries  in  Ireland,  and  some  were  held  in  safety  in  Irish 
and  Scotch  convents  and  monasteries.* 

Early  in  the  seventeenth  century  another  special  under- 
taking was  inaugurated  to  bring  together  these  scattered 
records,  to  compare  them  with  original  documents,  and  to 
compile  from  the  vast  amount  of  widely  distributed  material 
a  reliable  history  of  the  colonization  of  Ireland  from  the 
earliest  ascertainable  period  to  about  the  close  of  the  six- 
teenth century.  The  monumental  work  that  was  thus  accom- 
plished is  known  as  The  Annals  of  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland 
by  the  Four  Masters,  and  also  as  The  Annals  of  the  Four 
Masters.  Upon  this  imposing  work  later  historians  and 
genealogists  have  in  large  measure  depended,  although  much 
has  been  added  from  time  to  time  from  other  sources,  giving 
additional  information  or  throwing  new  light  upon  what 
had  been  before  collated.  Thus  the  celebrated  Irish  Pedi- 
grees of  O'Hart  and  the  works  of  O'Ferrall,  the  Irish  his- 
toriographer to  Queen  Anne,  and  other  investigators  have 
given  us  works  that  not  only  reproduce  but  reinforce  the 
conclusions  of  the  Four  Masters. 

The  task  of  compiling  these  annals  was  placed  in  the  hands 

*  Irish  Pedigrees,  by  John  O'Hart.    Fifth  Edition,  Vol.  I,  p.  17. 


of  the  three  brothers  O'Clery, — Michael,  Cucogry,  and  Con- 
aire, — and  Feearfeasa  O'Mulconaire.  Michael  O'Clery,  or 
Teige  of  the  Mountain,  was  born  in  1575.  Early  in  life  he 
sought  admittance  to  the  religious  Order  of  St.  Francis, 
but  instead  of  giving  himself  up  to  religious  work  he  deter- 
mined to  devote  his  life  to  historical  research.  He  and  his 
brothers  became  hereditary  historians  to  the  O'Donnells, 
princes  of  Tyrconnel.  Peregrine  O'Duigenan  and  Maurice 
O'Mulconaire  of  Roscommon,  who  were  hereditary  historians 
to  the  kings  of  Connaught,  assisted  the  O'Clerys  and  Feear- 
feasa O'Mulconaire  in  their  work. 

Throughout  a  period  of  fifteen  years  these  scholars  were  en- 
gaged in  gathering  manuscripts  and  various  kinds  of  documen- 
tary and  traditional  evidence  from  all  parts  of  Ireland.  They 
had  access  to  the  Annals  of  Boyle  which  the  monks  in  the 
Cistercian  monastery  of  Boyle  had  collected;  the  Annals  of 
Connaught  which  dealt  with  the  history  of  Ireland  from  the 
thirteenth  to  the  sixteenth  century;  the  Annals  of  Innisf alien 
which  had  been  collected  by  the  monks  in  the  Abbey  of  Innis- 
f alien  and  were  also  sometimes  called  the  Annals  of  Munster; 
the  Annals  of  Ulster  collected  by  Cathal  Maguire  in  the 
fifteenth  century,  and  many  other  important  collections  of 
similar  character. 

Many  of  these  original  annals  have  been  preserved  to  the 
present  day  and  are  even  now  accessible  to  scholars.  The 
Leabhar-Gabhala  of  the  O'Clerys  contains  poems  and  other 
documents  which  were  the  sources  of  the  bardic  history  of 
Ireland.     Many  passages  from  these  poems  were  reproduced 



verbatim  in  the  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters.  The  first 
manuscript  is  in  the  library  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy. 
Another  valuable  source  of  information  for  this  compilation 
was  the  Annals  of  Clonmacnoise  which  contained  the  syn- 
chronisms of  Flann,  the  poems  of  Maelmura/  poems  of 
Gillacaemhain,  and  so  on. 

The  catalogue  of  Irish  kings  by  Gillacaemhain,  mcorpor- 
ated  in  the  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters,  was  principally  derived 
from  the  accumulated  traditions  of  the  poets  and  seanachils 
of  Ireland.  Pinkerton  and  other  Scottish  historians  who 
have  dealt  with  the  early  centuries  of  Ireland  and  Scotland 
unreservedly  admit  the  antiquity  and  general  reliability  of 
this  list.  Pinkerton  in  commenting  upon  it  says  that  it  was 
"  so  easily  preserved  by  the  repetition  of  bards  at  high  solem- 
nities and  some  grand  events  of  history"  that  it  is  readily 
credible.  Michael  O'CIery,  speaking  of  the  work  of  himself 
and  his  associates,  said  that  the  Annals  were  compiled  "from 
the  ancient  and  approved  chronicles,  records  and  other 
books  of  antiquity  of  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland."  The  work 
upon  the  Annals  was  begun  in  the  monastery  of  Donegal 
in  1632  and  was  finished  in  1636.  From  the  locality  where 
the  work  was  done  the  Annals  are  sometimes  called  The 
Annals  of  Donegal. 

A  further  reason  for  confidence  in  these  Annals  is  derived 
from  the  fact  that  the  first  settlers  upon  the  island,  the  Mile- 
sians, established  principles  of  law  particularly  involving 
hereditary  possession  of  property.  They  adhered  to  the  prin- 
ciple that  a  man's  right  to  inheritance  depended  upon  his 



family  relationships,  and  therefore  with  them  genealogy  early 
became  a  very  important  matter.  They  employed  officials 
whose  duty  it  was  carefully  to  compile  the  genealogical 
history  of  all  families  of  prominence.  These  Milesian  Irish 
genealogical  records  and  chronicles  were,  even  in  the  cen- 
turies before  Christ,  constantly  examined  and  revised  in  order 
to  prevent  errors  and  to  continue  the  historical  family  account. 
As  state  documents  they  were  preserved  from  generation  to  gen- 
eration, and  they  constituted  the  material  from  which  in  the  third 
century  was  written,  by  order  of  the  monarch  Cormac  MacArt, 
a  history  of  the  Irish  nation  called  The  Psalter  of  Tara. 

From  this  and  from  other  equally  ancient  and  valuable 
records  Cormac  MacCullenan,  Archbishop  of  Cashel  and  King 
of  Munster,  wrote  in  the  ninth  century  The  Psalter  of  Cashel, 
the  original  of  which  is  now  in  the  library  of  the  British  Mu- 
seum. The  reliability  of  these  annals  and  records  is  now  very 
generally  recognized  by  scholars,  and  the  chronological  and 
genealogical  pedigrees  of  the  Irish  kings  set  down  in  them  is 
accepted  as  being  quite  as  fully  and  firmly  established  as  any 
history  dealing  with  periods  as  far  back  as  the  beginning 
of  the  Christian  era. 

From  the  outset  the  royal  Milesian  rulers  of  Ireland  were 
split  into  several  lines  of  lords  who  controlled  different  parts 
of  the  island,  just  as  in  Norway,  before  the  time  of  Harald 
Harfagra,  the  country  was  divided  into  many  small  kingdoms 
held  by  independent  princes.  But  all  these  Irish  kings 
derived  originally  from  the  same  common  stock  and  were  also 
closely    allied    by  intermarriages    in    successive    generations. 



Ultimately  they  united  in  the  one  royal  house  which  held  the 
most  part  of  Ireland  long  before  the  Christian  era  and  which, 
in  its  royal  descendants,  gave  to  Scotland  the  great  family 
which  dominated  that  country  for  nearly  seven  hundred  years 
and  became  especially  distinguished  in  its  famous  kings, 
Kenneth,  Alexander,  and  Malcolm. 

According  to  the  ancient  Irish  historians  Ireland  was 
colonized  by  several  nations  more  than  two  thousand  years 
before  the  Christian  era.  These  colonists  were  mostly  of 
Scythian  origin  and  they  made  no  very  deep  impress  upon 
the  new  country  in  which  they  settled,  never  rising  in  civiliza- 
tion higher  than  mere  tribal  existence.  Then  came  the 
permanent  occupants  of  the  island  who  conquered  the  tribes 
who  had  preceded  them.  The  origin  of  the  later  settlers  has 
been  traced  to  the  conquerors  from  the  East  who  overran  the 
southwestern  peninsula  of  Europe,  subjugating  the  rude 
people  of  Galicia  and  Lusitania  long  before  the  Roman 
legions  had  invaded  those  countries. 

These  were  the  Gaelic,  Milesian,  or  Scotic  men  who  arrived 
in  Ireland  in  the  year  of  the  world  3500,  according  to  the 
ancient  chronology.  Under  them  the  country  was  developed 
into  a  nation.  They  set  up  stable  government,  bringing 
with  them  customs  and  laws  that  had  made  Assyria,  Egypt, 
Babylon,  and  other  nations  of  the  East  rich  and  powerful 
and  the  forerunners  of  modern  civilization.  The  nation  that 
they  established  remained  in  existence,  and  the  continuity 
of  the  royal  line  was  unbroken  until  Ireland  was  subjugated 
by  King  Henry  II.  of  England  in  1186. 




1 — 1 




(  ) 














It  is  recorded  *  that  Niul,  the  youngest  son  of  Fenius  Farsa 
(Phoeniusa  Farsaidh),  king  of  Scythia,  being  a  man  of  great 
learning  was  invited  into  Egypt  by  the  ruHng  Pharaoh  about 
the  time  of  the  captivity  of  the  IsraeHtes.  He  received  land 
bordering  on  the  Red  Sea  and  married  Scota,  a  daughter  of 
Pharaoh.  Gaodhal  or  Gathelus,  the  son  of  Niul,  was  the 
ancestor  of  the  Clan-na-Gael,  that  is  "  the  children  or  descend- 
ants of  Gaodhal."  He  lived  in  the  time  of  Moses  who,  it  is 
said,  at  one  time  cured  him  of  a  serpent's  wound  by  the  laying 
on  of  a  rod.  During  many  succeeding  generations  the  descend- 
ants of  Gaodhal  who  were  driven  out  of  Egypt  led  their 
people  in  warfare  on  the  island  of  Greta,  in  Scythia,  and  up 
and  down  the  Caspian  sea.  Cachear  their  high  priest  fore- 
told that, 

"there  should  be  no  end  to  their  wanderings  until  they 
should  arrive  at  the  western  island  of  Europe  now  called 
Ireland,  which  was  the  place  destined  for  their  future  and 
lasting  abode  and  settlement;  and  that  not  until  their  pos- 
terity after  three  hundred  years  should  arrive  there." 

Brath,  the  seventeenth  king  in  line  after  Gaodhal,  ruled 
in  Getulia  or  Libya,  but  leaving  that  country  established  a 
colony  in  Galicia,  Spain.  His  son  Breoghan,  or  Brigus, 
conquered  Galicia,  Andalusia,  Murcia,  Castile,  and  Portugal, 
and  made  himself  king  of  all  those  countries.  He  built 
Breoghan's  tower  or  Brigantia  in  Galicia  and  the  city  of 
Brigansa  or  Braganza  in  Portugal,  which  was  named  after 
him.     Also    Castile    was    originally    called    Brigia    for    him. 

*  The  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters. 


Brigus  sent  into  England  a  colony  that  settled  in  the  territory 
now  embraced  in  the  counties  of  York,  Lancaster,  Durham, 
Westmoreland,  and  Cumberland.  These  colonists  were  called 
Brigantes,  and  the  Romans  found  their  posterity  there  cen- 
turies later. 

A  grandson  of  Brigus  was  Milesius  of  Spain  who  is  the 
great  figure  in  ancient  Irish  history.  In  his  youth  he  went 
back  to  Scythia,  the  early  home  of  his  race ;  there  he  married 
a  daughter  of  the  king  and  was  made  a  general  of  the  army. 
He  grew  in  power  and  in  the  affection  of  the  people  until  the 
king  became  jealous  of  him  and  determined  to  put  him  out 
of  the  way.  Milesius,  anticipating  his  father-in-law's  inten- 
tions, slew  him  and  sailed  away  to  Egypt  with  a  fleet  of  sixty 
vessels.  In  Egypt  Pharaoh  Nectonibus  received  him  gracious- 
ly, made  him  a  general,  kept  him  eight  years  in  the  country, 
and  gave  him  his  daughter  Scota  in  marriage. 

Returning  to  Spain  he  found  that  his  father  was  dead  and 
his  country  threatened  by  the  invasion  of  foreign  tribes.  He 
fought  these  enemies  successfully,  winning,  it  is  said,  fifty- 
four  battles  and  establishing  peace  throughout  the  land. 
Inspired  by  a  desire  to  find  out  about  the  islands  to  the  west 
and  remembering  the  prophecy  of  the  old  magician  of  his 
race  centuries  before,  concerning  them  and  his  people,  he 
sent  his  uncle  Ithe  thither  to  spy  out  the  land.  Ithe  was 
killed  by  the  islanders  who  resented  his  intrusion,  and  then  in 
revenge  Milesius  determined  to  invade  and  subdue  the  country; 
but  before  he  could  mature  his  plans  he  died. 

The  eight  sons  of  Milesius  undertook  to  carry  out  the  work 



that  their  father  had  contemplated,  but  on  the  way  westward 
part  of  their  fleet  was  destroyed  and  five  of  the  brothers  were 

"They  met  many  difficulties  and  various  chances  before 
they  could  land;  occasioned  by  the  diabolical  arts,  sorceries 
and  enchantments  used  by  the  Tuatha-de-Danans,  to  obstruct 
their  landing;  for  by  their  magic  art,  they  enchanted  the  island 
so  as  to  appear  to  the  Milesians  or  Clan-na-Mile  in  the  form 
of  a  hog  and  no  way  to  come  at  it  (whence  the  island,  among 
the  many  other  names  it  had  before,  was  called  Muc-Inis 
or  the  Hog  Island."  * 

The  three  surviving  brothers,  Heber,  Heremon,  and  Amergin 
with  Heber  Donn,  son  of  Ir,  one  of  the  brothers  who  had 
perished,  effected  a  landing,  slew  in  battle  the  three  Tuatha- 
de-Danan  kings,  routed  their  army,  and  took  possession  of  the 

"Heber  and  Heremon,  divided  the  kingdom  between  them 
(allotting  a  proportion  of  land  to  their  brother  Amergin,  who 
was  their  arch-priest,  druid  or  magician;  and  to  their  nephew 
Heber  Donn  and  to  the  rest  of  their  chief  commanders),  and 
became  jointly  the  first  of  one  hundred  and  eighty-three  kings 
or  sole  monarchs  of  the  Gaelic,  Milesian  or  Scottish  race, 
that  ruled  and  governed  Ireland  successively  for  two  thousand 
eight  hundred  and  eighty-five  years  from  the  first  year  of 
their  reign  Anno  Mundi  three  thousand  five  hundred  to  their 
submission  to  the  crown  of  England  in  the  person  of  King 
Henry  the  Second;  who,  being  also  of  the  Milesian  race  by 
Maude,  his  mother,  was  lineally  descended  from  Fergus 
Mor  MacEarca,  the  king  of  Scotland,  who  was  descended  from 
the  said  Heremon,  so  that  the  succession  may  be  truly  said  to 

*  Irish  Pedigrees,  by  John  O'Hart.    Fifth  Edition,  Vol.  I,  p.  S3. 



continue  in  the  Milesian  blood  from  before  Christ  one  thou- 
sand six  hundred  and  ninety-nine  years  down  to  the  present 
time."  * 

"This  invasion,  conquest  or  plantation  of  Ireland  by  the 
Milesian  or  Scottish  Nation  took  place  in  the  Year  of  the 
World  3,500  or  the  next  year  after  Solomon  began  the  foun- 
dation of  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem,  and  1,699  years  before 
the  Nativity  of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ;  which  according 
to  the  Irish  computation  of  Time,  occurred  Anno  Mundi, 
5,199;  therein  agreeing  with  the  Septuagint,  Roman  Mar- 
tyrologies,  Eusebius,  Orosius  and  other  ancient  authors; 
which  computation  the  Irish  chroniclers  exactly  observed  in 
their  Books  of  the  Reigns  of  the  Monarchs  of  Ireland,  and 
other  Antiquities  of  that  Kingdom;  out  of  which  the  Roll 
of  the  INIonarchs  of  Ireland,  from  the  beginning  of  the  Mile- 
sian Monarchy  to  their  submission  to  King  Henry  the  Second 
of  England,  a  Prince  of  their  own  blood,  is  exactly  collected. "f 

The  expedition  of  the  sons  of  Milesius  is  the  theme  of 
Thomas  Moore's  beautiful  Song  of  Inisfail: 

"They  came  from  a  land  beyond  the  sea 

And  now  o'er  the  western  main 
Set  sail,  in  their  good  ships,  gallantly, 

From  the  sunny  land  of  Spain. 
'Oh,  where's  the  isle  we've  seen  in  dreams, 

Our  destined  home  or  grave.''' 
Thus  sang  they,  as  by  the  morning's  beams, 

They  swept  the  Atlantic  wave. 

And  lo!  where  afar  o'er  ocean  shines 

A  spark  of  radiant  green. 
As  though  in  that  deep  lay  emerald  mines, 

Whose  light  through  the  wave  was  seen. 

*  t  Irish  Pedigrees  by  John  O'Hart.     Fifth  Edition,  Vol.  I,  p.  54  and  p.  55. 



*'Tis  Inisf ail  — 'tis  Inisfail!' 

Rings  o'er  the  echoing  sea; 
While,  bending  to  heaven,  the  warriors  hail 
That  home  of  the  brave  and  free. 

Then  turned  they  unto  the  Eastern  wave, 

Where  now  their  day-god's  eye 
A  look  of  such  sunny  omen  gave 

As  lighted  up  sea  and  sky. 
Nor  frown  was  seen  through  sky  or  sea, 

Nor  tear  o'er  leaf  or  sod. 
When  first  on  their  Isle  of  Destiny 

Our  great  forefathers  trod." 

On  his  shield  and  standard  Milesius  of  Spain  bore  three 
lions.  In  explanation  of  these  insignia  the  story  is  told  that 
on  one  occasion  in  his  younger  days,  when  journeying  in 
Africa  he  killed  three  lions  on  a  single  day.  In  memory  of 
this  exploit  he  always  after  bore  three  lions  on  his  shield. 
His  two  surviving  sons,  Heber  and  Heremon,  and  his  grand- 
son, Heber  Donn,  after  their  conquest  of  Ireland,  adopted 
these  arms,  each  of  them  bearing  a  single  lion  on  his  shield 
and  banner,  but  of  different  colors.  Their  descendants  to 
this  day  preserve  these  arms  with  additions  and  changes  as 
may  be.  The  lion  rampant  was  a  distinctive  part  of  the  arms 
born  by  members  of  the  royal  house  of  Scotland,  the  earls 
of  Huntingdon,  and  several  of  the  Bruces. 

For  a  more  detailed  account  of  the  pedigrees  of  the  kings 
of  Milesian  origin  during  their  occupancy  and  control  of  the 
emerald  isle,  the  records  and  annals  already  quoted  may  be 
profitably  consulted.  Taking  up  the  narrative  in  the  cen- 
turies immediately  preceding  the  birth  of  Christ  we  find  it 



set  down  that  one  of  the  strongest  royal  houses  of  Ireland  was 
that  which  ruled  Dalriada,  a  province  that  comprised  part  of 
the  modern  counties  of  Antrim  and  Derry. 

^Eneas  Tuirmeach-Teamrach,  the  eighty-first  monarch  of 
Ireland,  who  died  at  Tara,  the  royal  seat  of  the  Irish  kings, 
in  324  B.C.,  had  a  son  named  Fiacha  Firmara;  this  son  was 
the  ancestor  of  the  kings  of  Dalriada  in  Ireland,  and  Dal- 
riada and  Argyle  in  Scotland.  In  the  twenty-first  generation 
from  Fiarcha  Firmara  was  Conaire  II.,  known  as  Conaire 
MacMogha  Lainne;  he  married  Sarad,  the  daughter  of  Conn 
of  the  one  hundred  battles,  who  began  to  reign  in  122. 
Carbry  Riada,  the  son  of  Conaire  II.  and  his  wife  Sarad, 
was  the  first  king  of  Dalriada.  He  invaded  the  northeastern 
part  of  Ireland  and  conquered  a  new  territory  which  was 
named  after  him.  He  was  a  cousin  of  King  Comal,  and  his 
descendants  lived  and  ruled  under  the  protection  of  the 
sovereign  house  of  Ireland  from  the  time  of  the  first  occupancy 
of  the  country  in  the  middle  of  the  third  century.  After 
Carbry  Riada  the  successive  kings  of  Dalriada,  his  lineal 
descendants,  were  Kionga,  Felim  Lamh-foidh,  Eochy  Forta- 
mail,  Fergus  Uallach,  ^neas  Fort,  Eochy  Mun-reamhar, 
Earc,  and  Loarn;  the  last  named  was  the  last  king  of  the 
province  and  with  him  we  come  to  the  beginning  of  the  Scot- 
tish kings. 


OF    SCOTLAND    ^    ^    J-    ^ 












AS  was  shown  in  the  preceding  chapter,  toward  the 
conclusion  of  the  fourth  century  the  Dalriadinian 
Scots  were  one  of  the  powerful  ruling  peoples  of 
Ireland.  Previous  to  that  time  men  of  the  same  Scot  origin 
had  sailed  across  the  narrow  waters  between  Ireland  and  the 
larger  island  and  established  themselves  in  a  desultory  sort 
of  way  in  North  Britain.  There  they  had  come  more  or  less 
in  contact  with  the  Picts  who  were  already  located  in  that 
region  and  who,  as  distinguished  from  the  newcomers,  were 
of  Gothic  descent  instead  of  Gaelic.  Before  the  end  of  the 
fourth  century  larger  and  more  studied  invasions  of  Roman- 
ized Britain  were  made  by  the  Scots  from  Ireland.  On  one 
occasion,  in  360  B.C.,  they  were  repelled  by  the  natives  of  North 
Britain,  but  this  in  no  wise  dampened  their  ardor. 

This  immigration  continued  persistently,  if  not  strongly, 
for  several  centuries.  Ultimately  a  substantial  colony  from 
Irish  Dalriada  came  over  and,  settling  at  Kintyre  in  503, 
succeeded  in  establishing  firm  footing.  The  Dalriadinian 
Scots  affiliated  with  the  men  of  Scottish  origin  who  had  pre- 
ceded them  and  made  common  cause  against  the  more  bar- 
barous Picts.  Gradually,  as  time  wore  on,  they  became 
successful  in  their  fighting,  and  not  only  were  able  to  maintain 
themselves  in  their  newly  chosen  home  but  gradually  en- 
croached more  and  more  upon  the  territory  of  the  Picts. 



Bede,  the  historian,  says: 

"In  course  of  time,  Britain,  besides  the  Britons  and  Picts, 
received  a  third  nation,  Scotia,  who,  issuing  from  Hibernia, 
under  the  leadership  of  Reuda  (Riada)  secured  for  themselves, 
either  by  friendship  or  by  the  sword,  settlements  arqong  the 
Picts  w^hich  they  still  possess.  From  the  name  of  their  com- 
mander, they  are  to  this  day  called  Dalreudini;  for,  in  their 
language,  dal  signifies  a  part.  Dalriada  meant  Riada's 

Fergus  is  the  first  Scottish  king  recognized  in  the  line 
of  descent  from  the  Irish  kings  to  King  Kenneth  McAlpin 
of  a  later  generation.  Some  antiquarians  have  built  up  a 
pedigree  extending  many  generations  beyond  Fergus,  but 
their  conclusions  have  not  been  accepted  by  conservative  and 
more  reliable  investigators  and  scholars.  Scotland's  great 
historian,  George  Chalmers,  in  his  Caledonia  concedes  the 
beginning  of  the  line  of  Scottish  kings  in  Fergus  as  historically 
and  conclusively  established.  Other  historians  and  genealo- 
gists of  his  day  and  of  later  periods  who  have  made  a  particular 
study  of  the  earlier  and  somewhat  cloudy  periods  of  Scottish 
history,  unite  in  agreement  with  Chalmers.  Upon  the  strength 
of  their  conclusions  the  record  from  Fergus  is  received. 

Loam,  who  at  this  time  was  at  the  head  of  the  Dalriadinian 
Scots  in  Scotland,  was  closely  pressed  in  war  by  the  Picts, 
and  sent  to  his  tribesmen  in  Ireland  for  assistance.  His 
grandson,  Fergus  Mor  MacEarca,  went  over  to  assist  him. 
Fergus  was  a  son  of  Loarn's  daughter,  Earca,  and  of  Mure- 
dach  who  was  grandson  of  Niall  Mor,  known  as  Niall  of  the 
nine  hostages,  the  one  hundred  and  twenty-sixth  monarch 



of  Ireland.  It  was  in  498  that  Fergus  came  to  Scotland 
to  the  assistance  of  his  grandfather,  and  he  was  accompanied 
by  his  two  brothers,  Angus  and  Loarn.  Upon  the  death  of 
his  grandfather  Loarn  the  three  brothers  assumed  control 
of  affairs. 

Fergus  became  the  sole  monarch  of  the  Dalriadinian  Scots 
upon  the  death  of  Angus  and  Loarn.  However,  he  did  not 
long  survive  his  two  brothers  but  died  in  506.  An  ancient 
Gaelic  poem,  or  genealogical  account  of  the  Scoto-Irish 
kings,  applies  to  him  the  ephitet  ard,  which  means  great  in 
character  or  first  in  sovereignty.  His  reign  lasted  only  three 

"In  A.D.  498  Fergus  Mor  MacEarca  in  the  twentieth  year 
of  the  reign  of  his  father,  Murdoch,  son  of  Eugenius  or  Owen, 
son  of  Niall  of  the  nine  hostages,  with  five  more  of  his  brothers, 
viz.  another  Fergus,  two  more  named  Loarn  and  two  named 
Aongus  or  iEneas  with  a  complete  army,  went  into  Scotland 
to  assist  his  grandfather  who  was  King  of  Dalriada,  and  who 
was  much  oppressed  by  his  enemies  the  Picts,  who  were  in 
several  battles  and  engagements  vanquished  and  overcome 
by  Fergus  and  his  party.  Whereupon  on  the  king's  death, 
which  happened  about  the  same  time,  the  said  Fergus  was 
unanimously  elected  and  chosen  king  as  being  of  the  royal 
blood  by  his  mother;  and  the  said  Fergus  was  the  first  abso- 
lute King  of  Scotland  of  the  Milesian  race :  so  the  succession 
continued  in  his  blood  and  lineage  ever  since  to  this  day." 
[Annals  of  the  Four  Masters.]* 

DoMANGART,  son  of  Fergus,  followed  his  father  and  ruled 
the  turbulent  Scots  and  Picts  for  five  years,  dying  in  511,  his 

*  Annals  of  the  Irish  Kings,  by  John  O'Hart.    Fifth  Edition,  Vol.  II,  p.  641. 
13  193 


life  having  been  "full  of  troubles."  Comgal,  son  of  Doman- 
gart,  reigned  for  twenty-four  years — some  authorities  say 
thirty-two  years — and  in  this  long  period  widely  extended  the 
settlements  of  his  kingdom  and  consolidated  his  authority. 
It  was  written  that  "  his  reign  passed  away  without  reproach." 

Gauran,  brother  of  Comgal  and  son  of  Domangart,  suc- 
ceeded in  535  in  the  direct  line  from  Domangart  to  Kenneth 
McAlpin,  who  became  about  850  the  progenitor  of  the  great 
Scottish  royal  house.  His  reign  of  twenty-two  years  passed 
away  "without  reproach"  until  in  557  he  was  overpowered 
by  Bridei,  a  king  of  the  Picts.  Power  passed  into  the  hands 
of  his  nephew  Conal,  son  of  Comgal,  who  was  a  protector  of 
the  sainted  Columba,  but  Conal's  administration  of  fourteen 
years  was  unlucky  and  closed  in  571  in  civil  war. 

AiDAN,  son  of  Gauran,  after  the  fall  of  Conal,  successfully 
maintained  his  rights  to  the  inheritance  on  the  battlefield 
of  Loro.  In  574  he  was  inaugurated  at  lona  by  Columba, 
and  in  the  next  quarter  of  a  century  he  gained  many  victories 
over  his  rivals  in  his  own  family  and  over  the  Saxons  and  other 
fighting  men  of  that  period.  Frequently  beaten  by  the  Saxons, 
he  lost  his  sons,  Arthur,  Eocha-fin,  and  Domangart  in  battle, 
and  in  his  defeat  by  the  Northumbrians  under  iEthelfred 
at  the  battle  of  Dawstane  in  603  the  Dalriadini  were  then 
so  completely  overcome  that  for  many  generations  thereafter 
they  did  not  attempt  to  extend  their  territory  far  to  the  south. 
Aidan  was  the  greatest  of  the  Dalriadinian  monarchs  and 



was  called  "the  king  of  the  noble  portion."     He  died  quietly 
at  Kintyre,  at  the  age  of  eighty,  in  605. 

EocHA-Bui,  the  yellow  haired,  son  of  Aidan,  ruled  sixteen 
years,  605-21,  but  his  reign  closed  under  a  cloud  of  for- 
eign and  civil  war.  He  and  his  sons  won  many  victories 
over  their  neighbors,  but  when  he  died,  in  621,  he  left  his 
people  in  the  midst  of  troubles. 

Kenneth-Cear,  the  awkward,  son  of  Eocha-Bui,  "ruled 
happily"  during  three  months,  said  the  Gaelic  bard,  but  he 
was  slain  in  the  battle  of  Fedharvin  in  621  fighting  the 
Irish  chieftain  Cruitbne.  Following  the  death  of  Kenneth 
the  kingdom  was  controlled  by  Ferchar,  of  the  Loarn  line  of 
kings,  for  sixteen  years. 

Donal-Breac,  the  freckled,  a  son  of  Eocha-Bui,  in  637, 
upon  the  death  of  Ferchar,  obtained  the  sceptre  that  had 
fallen  from  the  hands  of  his  brother,  Kenneth-Cear.  He 
was  a  man  of  strong  character,  vehement  and  impetuous. 
Early  in  his  reign  he  invaded  Ireland  to  attack  King  Domnal 
II.,  and  there  he  was  overwhelmingly  defeated  on  the  plain  of 
Moyrath  in  637.  Again  in  the  following  year  he  was  beaten 
by  the  Picts  in  the  battle  of  Glenmoreson  and,  invading  the 
Clyde  in  642,  he  was  slain  at  Straith-Cairmaic  by  Hoan, 
one  of  the  reguli  of  Strathcluyd.  During  the  next  sixty  years 
the  sceptre  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Loarn  and  the  Comgal 
descendants  of  Ere,  and  the  record  of  those  years  is  a  record 
of  family  feuds. 



DoMANGART,  SOU  of  Donal-Breac,  was  not  able  to  succeed 
his  father  but  was  assassinated  in  672.  Then  it  was  not  until 
Ferchar-Fada,  the  tall,  of  the  family  of  Loam,  died  in  702, 
after  a  bloody  reign  of  twenty-one  years,  that  the  house  of 
Gauran  again  acquired  power. 

EocHA-RiNEVAL,  SOU  of  Domangart  and  grandson  of 
Donal-Breac,  rose  to  the  control  of  affairs,  but  he  had  a  reign 
that  was  short,  troublous,  and  inglorious.  In  705  he  was 
compelled  to  give  way  to  Ainbhcealach,  the  power  again  pass- 
ing to  a  rival  branch  of  the  family. 

EocHA  III.,  son  of  Eocha-Rineval,  asserted  his  rights  to 
the  succession  in  720,  and  finally  in  729  was  able  to  over- 
throw all  his  rivals,  the  whole  Scottish-Irish  kingdom  becom- 
ing united  under  him.  After  a  reign  of  nine  years  over  Kintyre 
and  Argyle,  and  four  years  over  all  the  Dalriadinian  tribes,  he 
died  in  733.  Following  his  death  a  contending  faction  again 
seized  the  sceptre  and  held  it  for  six  years. 

AoDH-FiN,  son  of  Eocha  III.,  came  to  the  head  of  the 
Dalriadinian  tribes  in  739.  He  proved  to  be  a  great  sov- 
ereign. During  his  reign  the  Scots  gained  a  decided  suprem- 
acy over  the  Picts  and  their  king  was  the  hero  of  many 
adventurous  exploits.  After  a  brilliant  reign  of  thirty  years 
he  died  in  769.  Fergus,  son  of  Aodh-Fin  succeeded  his 
father,  and  reigned  feebly  three  years.  After  him  the  sceptre 
was  lost  to  his  family  for  a  quarter  of  a  century. 



Eocha-Annuine,  another  son  of  Aodh-Fin,  reestablished  the 
line  of  the  Gauran  branch.  This  Eocha  IV.  is  the  Archaius 
of  the  Latin  annahsts.  His  reign  began  in  a  period  of  civil 
war,  but  he  held  himself  firmly  in  power  and  strengthened 
the  royal  position  of  his  family.  He  died  in  826  after 
a  prosperous  reign  of  thirty  years.  He  married  Urgusia, 
daughter  of  Urgusia  and  sister  of  Constantin  who  ruled  the 
Picts  from  791  to  821  and  of  Ungas  who  ruled  the  same 
tribes  in  821-30.  By  this  marriage  he  laid  the  foundations 
for  the  alliance  of  the  Scots  and  Picts  that  was  realized  when 
Kenneth  McAlpin,  his  grandson,  rose  to  power. 

Alpin,  son  of  Eocha-Annuine  and  Urgusia,  after  a  three 
years'  reign  by  Dungal,  of  the  house  of  Loarn,  took  up  the 
sceptre  but  did  not  distinguish  himself.  His  ambitions  for 
more  extensive  domains  and  the  control  of  a  richer  people 
than  he  ruled  over  impelled  him  in  836  to  lead  an  army  into 
the  country  beyond  the  Clyde.  He  laid  waste  to  the  territory 
between  the  Ayr  and  the  Doon,  but  in  an  engagement  near 
the  site  of  Laicht  castle  he  was  slain. 

Kenneth,  the  son  of  Alpin,  succeeded  his  father  in  836. 
He  was  a  man  of  enterprise,  power,  and  valor.  To  avenge 
the  death  of  his  father  he  made  several  invasions  south  of  the 
Clyde,  and  in  843,  after  he  had  reigned  over  the  Scots  for  seven 
years,  he  seized  the  ancient  sceptre  of  the  Pictish  kings  from 
Wred,  and  then  held  it.  By  virtue  of  his  descent  from  Urgusia 
the  Picts  were  willing  to  accept  him  as  their  sovereign  and  the 



two  peoples,  Scots  and  Picts,  were  united  into  one  nation. 
Notwithstanding  this  success  Kenneth  held  a  territory  that 
comprised  only  a  small  part  of  Scotland.  Power  over  the  rest 
of  the  country  was  established  gradually  as  the  nation  devel- 
oped. After  Kenneth  the  monarchs  were  called  kings  of 
Picts  and  then  kings  of  Alba,  and  it  was  not  until  the  tenth 
and  eleventh  centuries  that  the  name  of  Scotland  was  fully 
adopted.  The  substantially  complete  historical  account  of 
the  kings  of  Scotland  begins  with  Kenneth  McAlpin. 


CoNSTANTiN,  son  of  Kenneth,  did  not  immediately  succeed 
his  father  since  Donal,  his  uncle,  came  in  for  a  weak  inef- 
fectual reign  of  four  years.  He  was  crowned  king  at  Scone 
in  863,  and  at  once  engaged  in  the  work  of  correcting  the 
ills  that  his  immediate  predecessor  had  brought  upon  the  land 
and  in  extending  and  strengthening  the  domain  that  had  been 
secured  by  his  father.  Meantime  the  Northmen  who  had 
been  settled  in  Ireland  for  nearly  half  a  century  were  making 
predatory  incursions  to  the  shores  of  North  Britain.  Con- 
stantin  was  compelled  to  meet  these  invaders  soon  after  he 
began  to  reign.  For  nearly  a  decade  he  combated  them 
successfully,  but  in  the  end  he  was  overcome  and  killed  on  the 
shores  of  the  Forth  in  881.  He  married  a  daughter  of  a 
prince  of  Wales  and  by  her  had  two  sons  and  one  daughter. 

Donal  IV.,  the  son  of  Constantin,  came  to  the  throne  in 
893  after  the  intervening  reigns  of  Aodh  and  Eocha.     His 
reign  was  marked  mostly  by  fighting  against  the  Northmen 



who  continued  to  ravage  North  Britain  wherever  they  could 
gain  foothold.  Donal  defeated  them  at  Collin  on  the  Tay, 
near  Scone,  but  in  904  he  was  killed  while  battling  against 
an  army  of  Danes  led  by  Ivar  O'lvar.  The  Gaelic  bard  sang 
of  him  as  "Domhnal  Mic  Constantin  chain," — "Donal, 
Constantin's  son,  the  beloved,"  and  it  was  said  of  him  that 
he  was  "equally  dear  to  the  high  and  the  low." 


Malcolm  I.,  son  of  Donald  IV.,  received  the  kingdom 
after  Constantin  III.,  his  cousin,  at  the  end  of  a  forty  years' 
reign,  had  relinquished  the  sceptre  in  944  and  retired  to  a 
monastery  in  his  old  age.  Malcolm  inherited  a  turbulent 
dominion,  but  he  distinguished  himself  by  an  alliance  with 
England,  securing  Cumbria  from  King  Edmund,  and  in  later 
years  he  raided  Northumberland.  In  an  insurrection  of  the 
Moray  men  in  952  he  slew  Cellach  the  maormor  and  in  the 
following  year  at  Fetteressoe  fell  a  victim  to  the  revenge  of 
Cellach's  followers.  After  him  three  kings  of  another  line, 
Indulf,  Duff,  and  Culen  ruled  for  a  time  over  Scotland. 

Kenneth  III.,  son  of  Malcolm  I.,  came  to  the  throne  of 
his  forefathers  in  970.  He  waged  war  against  the  Britons 
and  ultimately  gained  the  important  object  of  his  ambitions 
in  annexing  the  kingdom  of  Strathcluyd  to  the  territories  of 
the  Scottish  kings.  In  a  decisive  combat  on  the  field  of  Lun- 
carty  near  Perth  he  overthrew  a  great  army  of  invading 
Danes  and  secured  freedom  from  the  forays  of  those  foes. 
Involved  in  domestic  war  by  an  insurrection  in  the  Merns,  he 



was  assassinated  by  Finella,  wife  of  the  maormorof  thelNIerns, 
in  revenge  for  the  death  of  her  son.  His  death  occurred  in 
994  at  the  close  of  a  long  reign  of  twenty-four  years.  He 
left  a  son  who  came  to  the  throne  as  Malcolm  II.,  a  son  who 
was  killed  in  1032,  and  a  third  son  Boidhe,  who  was  the  father 
of  the  celebrated  Gruoch,  Lady  Macbeth. 


Malcolm  II.,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  or  about 
954.  He  was  variously  known  as  King  of  Scots,  Malcolm 
MacCinseth,  King  of  Alban,  King  of  Monaidh,  King  of  Scotia, 
"the  most  victorious  king,"  and  "a  warrior  fortunate,  praised 
of  bards."  His  reign  began  in  1005  after  he  had  defeated 
his  cousin,  Kenneth  III.,  king  of  Alban,  in  battle  at  Mongie- 
vaird,  near  the  banks  of  the  river  Earn.  In  1010  he  achieved 
a  victory  over  the  Danes  and  as  a  thank-offering  he  founded 
the  monastery  of  Marthillach  or  Mortlach  where  the  battle 
was  fought.  During  his  reign  the  battle  of  Clontarf  in  Ire- 
land was  fought  and  the  battle  of  Carham  on  the  Tweed. 
In  1031  Malcolm  yielded  to  Canute  of  England,  becoming 
subject  to  the  Saxon  monarch. 

He  died  at  Glamis,  November  25,  1034,  at  the  age  of  eighty 
or  more  and  after  a  reign  of  nearly  thirty  years. 

Issue : 

1.  Bethoc  or  Beatrice.  She  married,  about  the  year  1000, 
Crinan  the  Thane,  hereditary  lay  abbot  of  Dunkeld  and 
seneschal  of  the  Isles.  Crinan  was  slain  in  battle  at  Dunkeld. 
Eleven  of  the  descendants  of  this  matrimonial  alliance  were 
Kings  of  the  Scots  between  1034  and  1285. 

2.  Donada.     She  married,  about  the  year  1004,  Finlaec, 



mormaer    of    Moray    and    had    Macbeth,    King   of    Scots, 

3.  Alice  or  Thora,  who  married  Sigurd,  Earl  of  Orkney, 
the  Norwegian  ancestor  of  the  Bruces. 


Duncan,  eldest  son  of  Crinan  and  Beothoc,  was  born  about 
103L  He  was  known  as  the  King  of  Scots,  King  of  Alban, 
and  Duncan  the  Wise,  and  was  the  gracious  Duncan  of 
Shakespeare's  play,  Macbeth.  He  was  made  king  of  the 
Cumbrians  before  1034,  and  upon  the  death  of  his  maternal 
grandfather,  Malcolm  IL,  he  succeeded  him  as  king*of  Scots. 
His  reign  was  short,  lasting  less  than  six  years,  and  in  military 
enterprises  was  not  brilliant.  He  unsuccessfully  besieged  the 
city  of  Durham  in  1040,  and  the  same  year  was  defeated 
in  battle  at  Torfness  by  his  cousin  Thorfinn,  earl  of  Orkney. 

He  was  murdered  at  Bothnagowan,  now  "Pitgaveny,  near 
Elgin,  by  Macbeth,  August  14,  1040.  Macbetn  was  a  cousin 
of  Duncan  and  a  commander  in  his  army  and  succeeded  him 
on  the  throne. 

He  married  a  cousin  of  Siward,  earl  of  Northumberland, 
about  1030. 

Issue : 

1.  Malcolm  of  whom  below. 

2.  Donald  Bane  who  was  twice  King  of  Scots. 

3.  Melmare. 


Malcolm  III.,  Canmore,  Great  Head  or  Chief,  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  born  about  1031.  He  became  the  greatest 
of  Scotland's  ancient  kings  and  was  called  "a  king,  the  best 



who  possessed  Alban."  For  fourteen  years  he  lived  at  the 
Court  of  England  and  received  an  excellent  education,  being 
accomplished  in  Latin  and  English  as  well  as  in  his  native 
Gaelic  tongue.  When  he  was  about  twenty-three  years  of 
age  he  became  king  of  the  Cumbrians  after  the  victory  of  his 
kinsman  Earl  Siward  over  King  Macbeth  at  Scone  in  July, 
1054.  After  he  had  defeated  and  killed  Macbeth  in  August, 
1057,  and  Lulach,  the  successor  of  Macbeth,  in  the  following 
March  he  became  king  of  Scots.  He  was  crowned  at  Scone, 
April  25, 1058. 

He  invaded  England  five  times,  waging  war  against  the  Nor- 
mans and  in  support  of  his  kinsmen,  the  Saxons.  His  first 
invasion  was  in  1061,  and  others  followed  in  1069,  1079, 1091, 
and  1093.  After  the  battle  of  Hastings  in  1066,  the  defeated 
Edger  the  Atheling  and  his  sisters  fled  from  the  victorious 
William  the  Conqueror  and  found  refuge  in  the  court  of  Scot- 
land's monarch.  Scotland  was  frequently  invaded  by  the 
Normans  during  his  reign,  and  parts  of  Malcolm's  kingdom 
were  from  time  to  time  annexed  to  England.  These  forays 
back  and  forth  were  the  beginning  of  that  long  and  bloody 
struggle  that  lasted  for  centuries  while  the  conquerors  of 
England  were  endeavoring  to  subdue  Scotland. 

He  was  killed  by  Morel  of  Bamborough  at  Alnwick,  in 
Northumberland,  November  13,  1093,  aged  about  sixty-two, 
after  a  reign  of  nearly  thirty-six  years.  He  was  buried  at 
Lynemouth,  but  afterwards  reinterred  at  Dunfermline. 

He  married,  first,  about  1059,  Ingibiorg,  daughter  of  Earl 
Finn  Arnason    and  widow  of   Thorfinn    Sigurdson,   earl  of 


luml/oj  Mui~^,fl  Ua,^u.'J  b^^.iUi.d  in  I'-lAtl). 


Orkney.  He  married,  second,  in  1068-9,  Margaret,  daughter 
of  Edward  the  Outlaw,  king  of  England.  She  died  November 
16,  1093. 

Issue  by  wife  Ingibiorg: 

1.  Duncan,  king  of  Scots,  as  Duncan  II.,  in  1094. 

2.  Malcolm. 

3.  Donald,  who  died  a  violent  death  in  1085. 

Issue  by  wife  Margaret: 

4.  Edward,  who  died  from  wounds  received  in  battle  at 
Alnwick  in  November,  1093. 

5.  Edmund.  He  ruled  parts  of  Scotia,  1094-97,  became 
a  monk,  and  died  at  Montague  in  Somersetshire. 

6.  iEthelred,  Abbot  of  Dunkeld. 

7.  Edgar,  King  of  Scots,  1097-1106, 

8.  Alexander,  King  of  Scots,  as  Alexander  I.,  1106-24. 

9.  David,  King  of  Scots,  of  whom  below. 

10.  Matilda,  "the  good  Queen  Maud."  She  married 
King  Henry  I.  of  England  in  May,  1100,  and  died  May  1, 1118. 

11.  Mary.  She  married  Eustace,  Count  de  Boulogne,  in 
1102  and  died  May  31,  1116. 


David,  the  ninth  and  youngest  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
born  about  1080.  His  youth  was  spent  at  the  court  of  King 
Henry  I.  of  England,  his  brother-in-law.  On  the  death  of 
his  brother,  King  Alexander  I.,  he  ascended  the  throne  of 
Scotland  as  David  I.,  in  April,  1124.  His  reign,  which  lasted 
twenty-nine  years,  was  eventful.  Cumbria  and  Lothian  were 
reunited  with  Alban  under  his  authority;  his  supporters  were 
successful  in  the  battle  of  Strikathro  against  the  men  of  Moray 
in  1130;  he  invaded  England  in  1136;  an  army  of  Scots 
defeated  the  English  at  Clitheroe  in  1138,  but  the  King  was 



overwhelmed  by  the  English  in  the  great  battle  of  the  Stand- 
ard in  the  same  year.  David,  who  was  the  first  feudal  king 
of  the  Scots,  was  a  man  of  fervent  piety  and  devoted  to  his 
people.  He  was  surnamed  St.  David  and  was  "a  pious  and 
God-fearing  man."  Much  of  his  time  and  means  was  given 
to  the  upbuilding  of  the  church  and  church  establishments. 
He  founded  monasteries  at  Selkirk  and  Jedburgh,  and  estab- 
lished or  reconstituted  six  bishoprics  and  ten  abbeys. 

He  died  at  Carhsle,  May  24,  1153,  and  was  buried  under 
the  pavement  before  the  high  altar  in  the  church  of  the  Holy 
Trinity,  at  Dunfermline. 

He  married,  about  1113,  Matilda,  daughter  and  heiress  of 
Waltheof,  earl  of  Huntingdon,  granddaughter  of  Siward, 
Earl  of  Northumberland,  and  widow  of  Simon  de  St.  Luz. 
She  died  between  April  23,  1130,  and  April  22,  1131,  and  was 
buried  at  Scone. 

Issue : 

1.  Malcolm  who  was  strangled  when  a  child  by  Donald 
Bane,  ex-king  of  Scots. 

2.  Claricia,  who  died  unmarried. 

3.  Hodierna,  who  died  unmarried. 

4.  Henry  of  whom  below. 


Henry,  younger  son  of  the  preceding,  did  not  live  to  mount 
the  throne,  dying  before  his  father,  June  12,  1152.  He  suc- 
ceeded to  the  earldoms  of  Northumberland  and  Huntingdon. 

He  married,  in  1139,  Ada  de  Warenne,  daughter  of  William, 
earl  of  Warenne.     She  died  in  1178. 



Issue : 

1.  Malcolm,  who  was  born  March  20,  1141-42.  From 
his  youthful  and  feminine  appearance  he  was  called  "the 
maiden."  He  succeeded  his  grandfather  and  was  King  of 
Scots,  1153-65,  as  Malcolm  IV.  He  died  unmarried  Decem- 
ber 9, 1165. 

2.  William,  who  was  born  in  1143.  He  was  the  famous 
King  of  Scots,  known  as  "William  the  Lion,"  and  was  a 
worthy  successor  of  his  great  ancestor  Malcolm  Canmore. 
His  reign  extended  from  the  death  of  his  brother  Malcolm  IV. 
to  December  4,  1214,  a  period  of  forty-nine  years.  He  died 
December  4,  1214.  He  married  in  1186,  Ermengarde,  daugh- 
ter of  Richard  vice  comes  de  Bellomonte;  his  son  Alexander 
II.  succeeded  him  on  the  throne. 

3.  David  of  whom  below. 

4.  Ada,  who  married  Florence  III.,  Count  of  Holland,  in 

5.  Margaret,  who  married,  first,  in  1160,  Conan  IV.,  Duke 
de  Bretagne,  Earl  of  Richmond;  second,  Humphrey  de 
Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford. 

6.  Matilda,  who  died  in  childhood  in  1152. 


David,  the  third  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  about  1144 
and  succeeded  to  the  title  of  earl  of  Huntingdon.  He  founded 
the  abbey  of  Lundors,  now  Lindores,  near  Fife. 

He  died  at  Jerdelay,  June  17,  1219,  and  was  buried  in  the 
abbey  of  Saltre  in  Huntingdonshire. 

He  married,  in  1190,  Maud,  daughter  of  the  earl  of  Chester. 


1.  Robert,  who  died  young. 

2.  Henry,  who  died  unmarried. 

3.  John  le  Scot,  Earl  of  Chester  and  Earl  of  Huntingdon. 
He  died  without  issue. 



4.  Margaret,  who  married  Alan,  Lord  of  Galloway,  in 
1209.  Her  daughter  Dervorgilla  married  John  Baliol;  their 
son  John  Baliol  was  the  successful  competitor  for  the  throne 
of  Scotland  in  1291,  and  their  son-in-law,  John  Comyn  senior, 
was  also  a  competitor  and  father  of  the  John  Comyn  whom 
Robert  Bruce  killed  in  1305. 

5.  Isabella,  who  married  Robert  Bruce  of  Annadale. 





IN  preceding  chapters  it  has  been  shown  how  the  Bruces 
of  Scotland  were  descended  from  noble  and  royal 
ancestors  of  Normandy,  Denmark,  Norway,  Scotland, 
and  Ireland,  inheriting  their  preeminence  as  a  royal  family 
from  the  great  warriors  who,  violent  and  masterful,  and  yet 
with  some  display  of  rude  statesmanship,  opened  the  way 
for  modern  civilization  on  the  western  part  of  the  Continent 
of  Europe  and  the  adjacent  islands.  Another  royal  descent 
was  theirs;  that  of  the  Saxon  kings  who  in  the  early  centuries 
of  the  Christian  era  came  to  the  island  of  Britain  and  laid 
the  foundations  for  the  wonderful  nation  that  has  in  time 
been  built  to  the  admiration  of  all  peoples.  Every  schoolboy 
knows  the  story,  how  the  Romans  failed  in  the  attempt  to 
subdue  the  rude  inhabitants  of  Britain,  and  abandoning  their 
task  left  the  islands  to  the  semi-barbarous  tribes  that  they 
had  found  there. 

Shortly  the  German  tribes  began  to  give  attention  to  the 
island  as  a  promising  place  for  emigration  and  subjugation. 
Hengist  and  Horsa  led  the  Jutes  from  Denmark  in  449, 
and  settled  in  Kent,  becoming  kings  of  that  section.  Then 
Aella  came  in  490  with  his  three  sons,  and  made  himself 
king  of  Sussex.  Five  years  thereafter,  in  495,  Cerdic  arrived 
with  his  son  Cynric,  and  established  the  kingdom  of  the  West 
Saxons,   afterwards   conquering  the   Isle   of  Wight.     Cerdic 

14  209 


was  really  the  first  king  of  the  long  Saxon  line  which,  for 
several  centuries,  held  the  land  and  its  people,  foreign  and 
native,  full  in  control  and  finally  developed  the  nation  of 
England  out  of  this  raw  material.  He  has  been  called  "the 
third  monarch  of  the  Englishmen."  His  ancestry  has  been 
traced  through  eight  generations  to  Odin,  the  great  Scandi- 
navian lord.*  Gibbon  called  him  "one  of  the  bravest  of  the 
children  of  Wodin." 

Cerdic  came  with  a  great  force  of  ships  and  men,  and  from 
the  time  of  his  first  landing,  which  was  made  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Itchin,  he  was  uniformly  successful  in  all  his  movements 
and  in  beating  back  the  natives  further  and  further  to  the 
interior  of  the  island.  His  progress  of  conquest,  although 
slow,  was  continuous  and  decisive,  and  finally  he  was  able 
firmly  to  establish  throughout  the  valley  of  the  lower  Avon 
those  who  came  with  him  and  others  who  followed  after. 
There  he  became  king  of  the  West  Saxons  in  519.  He 
died  in  534,  but  not  until  he  had  seen  his  followers  fixed 
in  their  new  home,  and  could  look  forward  with  much  of  cer- 
tainty to  the  future  growth  and  development  of  a  people 
already  beginning  to  bear  the  impress  of  nationality. 

It  was  a  century  and  a  half,  however,  after  the  reign  of 
Cerdic,  before  the  compact  nation  that  we  now  know  as  Eng- 
land had  come  surely  into  stable  existence.  In  the  course  of 
time  seven  different  Saxon  kingdoms,  known  in  history  as 
the  heptarchy,  existed  in  Britain.  Of  these  the  most  powerful 
was  that  of  Wessex  where  the  descendants  of  Cerdic  ruled. 

*  Manuel  d'Hisloire,  de  Genealogie  et  de  Chronologic,  by  A.  M.  H.  J.  Stokvis. 



From  Cerdic  to  Egbert  there  were  many  kings  in  direct  line 
of  descent  who  ruled  over  Wessex.  Rivals  to  them  were  the 
kings  of  the  other  Saxon  states  and  all  were  continually  in 
war  with  each  other. 

Gradually  Wessex,  or  West  Saxon,  grew  more  and  more 
powerful  until  it  finally  engulfed  all  the  other  Saxon  states, 
Kent,  Northumberland,  East  x\nglia,  Mercia,  Essex,  and 
Sussex.  The  situation  was  somewhat  similar  to  that  which 
existed  in  Denmark  before  the  time  of  Harald  Harfagra  who 
conquered  the  other  independent  earls  about  him  and  con- 
solidated their  principalities  into  the  kingdom  of  Norway. 
The  difference  was  that  in  Britain  the  several  Saxon  kings 
were  more  powerful  and  more  independent  and  possessed 
royal  power  as  well  as  royal  descent,  holding  themselves  in 
that  respect  not  inferior  to  the  kings  of  Wessex.  But  the 
descendants  of  Cerdic  finally  acquired  suflScient  strength  to 
dominate  the  other  kingdoms  and  maintain  themselves  as  the 
sole  royal  house  in  Southern  and  Western  England.  This  was 
the  condition  of  things  when  Ealhmund,  the  direct  descend- 
ant in  male  line  from  Cerdic,  was  the  ruling  king  of  the  West 
Saxons.  With  his  son  Egbert  began  what  is  generally  accepted 
as  the  Saxon  line  of  the  kings  of  England. 

Egbert  or  Ecgberht,  son  of  Ealhmund,  was,  in  his  youth, 
driven  from  England  by  the  joint  action  of  Offa,  king  of 
Mercia,  and  Beorhtric,  king  of  Wessex.  He  found  safe 
refuge  in  the  court  of  Charles,  king  of  the  Franks,  afterward 
the  Emperor  Charlemagne,  where  he  remained  nearly  thir- 



teen  years.  It  is  supposed  that  he  was  banished  in  789, 
and  upon  his  return  to  England  on  the  death  of  Beorhtric  in 
802,  being  well-accompHshed  in  the  arts  of  war,  diplomacy, 
and  government,  he  was  accepted  by  the  West  Saxons  as  their 
king.  At  once  on  assuming  control  of  affairs  he  was  beset 
by  uprisings  of  the  people  of  Wales,  Mercia,  Northumbria, 
and  other  kingdoms,  but  compelled  submission  until  he  had 
united  all  the  English  race  under  one  over-lordship.  He  was 
not  wholly  king  of  England,  but  the  kings  over  the  different 
divisions  of  the  country  were  dependent  upon  him  and  ac- 
knowledged his  authority.  In  834  he  met  a  great  force 
of  invading  Northmen  in  Dorsetshire  and  was  defeated  by 
them,  but  two  years  later  he  was  more  successful  in  routing 
the  same  enemies.  He  died  in  839,  having  reigned  more 
than  thirty-seven  years.  He  married  Redburga.  His  children 
were  Ethelwulf,  of  whom  below;  Aethelstan,  who  ruled  over 
Kent  and  Essex;  Editha,  who  became  abbess  of  Pellesworth. 

Ethelwulf,  son  of  Ecgberht,  during  his  father's  lifetime, 
took  part  in  the  battling  for  the  control  of  England,  and 
succeeded  to  the  kingship  of  Wessex  on  the  death  of  his 
father  in  839.  Soon  after  he  was  mounted  on  the  throne  he 
lost  his  disposition  for  military  affairs  and  endeavored  to 
lead  a  quiet  life,  leaving  to  followers  the  work  of  defending 
the  kingdom.  In  his  times  the  Danes  renewed  their  onslaughts 
but  suffered  defeat  and  the  loss  of  many  men,  so  that  tem- 
porarily they  abandoned  all  efforts  to  conquer  the  land  of 
the  English. 



He  married,  first,  Osburgha,  daughter  of  Oslac,  the  thane. 
Oslac  was  a  Goth  descended  from  Stuf  and  Withgar  who, 
the  best  commentators  agree,  were  probably  grandsons  of 
Cerdic  and  sons  of  a  sister  of  Cynric.  He  was  a  pincerna, 
butler  or  cup-bearer,  of  England,  that  being  an  ofiice  fre- 
quently held  by  nobles  of  distinction.  He  belonged  to  one  of 
the  ancient  princely  lines  of  the  Jutes  of  Wight,  established 
on  that  island  after  its  subjugation  by  Cerdic.  Ethelwulf 
married,  second,  Judith,  daughter  of  Charles  the  Bold,  king 
of  France.  His  children  by  Osburgha  were:  Ethelstan, 
king  of  Kent,  who  died  in  852;  Ethelbald,  who  helped 
his  father  to  achieve  the  victory  over  the  Northmen  at  Ockley, 
in  Surrey,  in  851,  became  king  of  the  West  Saxons  during 
his  parent's  life  and,  after  his  father  died,  married  his  father's 
widow,  Judith,  this  scandalous  union  bringing  upon  him 
both  church  and  secular  condemnation;  Ethelbert,  king  of 
Kent  after  the  death  of  Ethelstan;  Ethelred,  king  of  Wessex, 
after  the  death  of  Ethelbald  in  866;  Alfred,  of  whom 
below;  Ethelswith,  who  married  Burhred,  king  of  Mercia, 
and  died  a  nun  in  889. 

Alfred  or  Aelfred,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  Want- 
age, Berkshire,  in  849.  Early  in  life  he  engaged  actively 
in  the  fighting  that  had  been  going  on  for  generations  to  keep 
the  Danes  out  of  England,  and  by  880  he  had  enlarged 
the  bounds  of  his  kingdom  and  had  made  himself  recognized 
as  the  only  English  power  in  Britain  able  to  bring  the  whole 
country    into    union    and    independence.     Further    warfare 



ensued,   but   the   country   was   nearly   free   from   Danes    by 

As  a  warrior,  patriot,  and  legislator  Alfred  became  the  most 
famous  of  the  race  of  Cerdic.  An  English  writer  says  of  him 
that  he 

"is  the  one  great  character  of  our  early  history  whose  name 
still  lives  in  popular  history.  .  .  .  Popular  belief  has  made 
him  into  a  kind  of  embodiment  of  the  national  being;  he  has 
become  the  model  English  king,  indeed  the  model  English- 
man." * 

The  same  writer,  asserting  that  he  has  received  credit  for 
many  things  that  he  did  not  do,  adds : 

"and  yet  even  the  legendary  reputation  of  Alfred  is  hardly 
too  great  for  his  real  merits.  No  man  recorded  in  history 
seems  ever  to  have  united  so  many  great  and  good  qualities."  ■\ 

Historians  of  all  ages  have  united  in  his  praise.  Keightly 
compared  him  with  Marcus  Aurelius,  Mirabeau  esteemed 
Charlemagne  as  his  inferior,  and  Voltaire  maintained  that 
there  never  existed  on  the  earth  a  man  more  worthy  of  pos- 
terity's respect.     He  died  October  28,  901. 

He  married,  in  868,  Ealhswith,  daughter  of  Ethelred,  sur- 
named  the  Mickle,  earldorman  of  Mercia,  and  his  wife 
Eadburk.  She  died  between  the  years  902  and  905.  His 
children  were:  Eadward,  of  whom  below;  Ethelward,  who 
was  born  in  880  and  who  died  in  922;  Ethelfleda,  who 
married  Ethelred,  duke  of  Mercia,  became  known  as  The 
Lady  of  Mercia  and,  after  the  death  of  her  husband,  adminis- 

*  t  Dictionary  of  National  Biography,  by  Leslie  Stephen. 

LINE     OF    THE    SAXON     KINGS 

tered  the  affairs  of  the  kingdom  with  marked  ability;  Ethel- 
giva,  abbess  of  Shaftesbury;  Elfthryth,  or  Alfritha,  who 
married  Baldwin  II.,  count  of  Flanders,  and  was  the  great- 
great-great-grandmother  of  Baldwin  V.,  count  of  Flanders, 
whose  daughter  Matilda  was  the  consort  of  Williar  the 
Conqueror;  she  died  in  929. 

Edward,  or  Eadward,  called  the  Elder,  eldest  son  of  King 
Alfred  and  Ealhswith,  bore  the  title  of  king  as  early  as  898, 
being  recognized  as  his  father's  chief  supporter  and  assistant. 
Upon  the  death  of  his  parent  he  was  chosen  by  the  witan  to 
succeed  to  the  throne.  He  ably  carried  on  the  work  of  up- 
building and  strengthening  the  kingdom  that  had  been  begun 
by  his  predecessor  and  his  success  brought  to  him  the  title 
of  "the  unconquered  king,"  as  recorded  by  the  historian 
Florence  of  Worcester.  He  died  at  Farndon  in  Northampton- 
shire in  924  in  the  twenty-fourth  year  of  his  reign. 

He  married,  first,  Ecgwyn  or  Egwina,  a  lady  of  high  rank; 
second,  Elfreda  or  Aelfaed,  daughter  of  Earl  Ethelhelm  and 
his  wife  Ealhswith;  third,  Edgiva,  or  Eadgifu,  daughter  of 
the  Earl  Sigelline,  lord  of  Meapham,  Culings,  and  Lenham 
in  Kent.  His  children  by  Egwina  were:  Athelstan,  who 
was  born  about  894  or  895  and  succeeded  his  father  on 
the  throne  and  under  whom  the  sovereignty  of  the  whole 
island  was  achieved  and  the  kingdom  of  England  fully  estab- 
lished before  his  death  in  941;  Editha,  or  Eadgyth,  who 
married  Sightric,  the  Danish  king  of  Northumbria.  The 
children    of    Edward    by    Elfreda    were:     Edward;  Edwin, 



drowned  at  sea  in  933;  Elsfeda,  a  nun  at  Wilton  or 
Ramsey;  Egvina,  or  Eadgiful,  who  married,  first,  in  919, 
Charles  the  Simple,  king  of  France,  by  whom  she  had  King 
Louis  and  a  daughter  Giselle,  first  wife  of  Rollo,  Duke  of 
Normandy;  Ethelhild,  a  nun  at  Wilton;  Ethelda  or  Eadhild, 
who  married  Hugh  the  Great,  Count  of  Paris;  Elfgifu  or 
Adela,  who  married,  about  936,  Eblus,  son  of  the  Count 
of  Aquitaine;  Edith,  or  Eadgyth,  who  married,  in  930, 
Otto,  afterwards  emperor  of  Germany,  and  who  died  in 
947.  The  children  of  Edward  by  Edgiva  were:  Edmund, 
of  whom  below;  Edred,  who  came  to  the  throne  and  died  in 
955;  Edburga,  a  nun  at  Winchester;  Eadgifu,  or  Edgiva, 
who  married  Lewis,  king  of  Aries  or  Provence;  Gregory, 
abbot  of  Einsiedlen. 

Edaiund  the  Elder,  son  of  Edward  the  Elder  and  his  wife 
Edgiva,  was  born  about  922.  He  succeeded  to  the  throne 
after  the  death  of  his  elder  half-brother  in  941.  His  reign 
of  nearly  six  years  was  strenuous,  for  he  was  in  constant  war- 
fare with  the  Danes,  the  Norwegians,  and  the  northern  Celts. 
He  died  in  946.  At  a  banquet  in  celebration  of  the  feast 
of  St.  Augustine  he  was  stabbed  to  death  by  an  outlaw  named 
Liofa.  He  married,  first,  Elgiva,  or  Elfgifu,  a  princess  of 
exemplary  piety  who  died  in  944  and  was  hallowed  as  a 
saint.  He  married,  second,  Ethelflaid,  daughter  of  Elfgar, 
an  earldorman.  His  children  by  Elgiva  were:  Edwy  or 
Eadwig;  Edgar,  or  Eadgar,  of  whom  below. 















Edgar  the  Peaceful,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in 
944,  the  year  of  his  mother's  death.  Before  he  ascended 
the  throne,  Edred  his  uncle  and  Edwy  his  brother  ruled,  the 
first  for  nine  years  and  the  second  for  four  years.  There 
was  some  fighting  in  the  early  part  of  his  reign,  with  the  Welsh 
and  the  Northumbrians,  but  on  the  whole  his  rule  was  "a 
period  of  national  consolidation,  peace,  and  orderly  govern- 
ment." He  was  particularly  successful  in  the  pacification 
of  the  Danish  people  settled  in  Britain.  Although  he  held 
the  scepter  from  959,  he  was  not  crowned  until  973,  the 
ceremony  taking  place  at  Bath  on  Whitsunday.  After 
the  coronation  he  sailed  to  Chester  and  it  is  recorded  *  that 
there  eight  Anglo-Saxon  kings,  Kenneth  of  Scotland,  Malcolm 
of  Cumberland,  MacOrric  of  Anglesey  and  the  Isles,  Inkel 
of  Westmoreland,  Jago  of  Galloway;  and  Howel,  Dyfnwal, 
and  Griffith  of  Wales — met  him  and  swore  to  be  faithful 
to  him,  and  to  be  his  fellow  workers  by  sea  and  by  land. 

Edgar  was  devoted  to  the  church  and  a  generous  patron 
of  the  monks,  and  enacted  wise  laws  for  the  government 
of  his  people.  The  characteristic  of  his  reign  which  most 
impressed  the  men  of  his  own  time  was  well  expressed  in  the 
saying  "God  granted  that  he  dwelt  in  peace."  He  died 
July  8,  975,  at  the  early  age  of  thirty-two  and  was  buried 
at  Glastonbury.  Fifty  years  later  he  was  reverenced  as  a 
saint.  He  married,  first,  about  961,  Wulfrid  or  Wulfthryth; 
second,  Elfleda,  or  Ethelflaed,  known  for  her  beauty  as 
"the  white  duck,"  daughter  of  Ordmar,  earldorman  of  East 

*  Chronicles  of  Florence  of  Worcester. 

n  o  o  K    ()  F    h  R  T-  r  e 

Anglia;  third,  Elfrida  or  Elfthn-th,  daughter  of  Ordgar, 
earldorman  of  De\'onshire.  His  children  by  Wulfrid  were: 
Edith,  or  Eadgjih,  who  was  bom  in  962,  became  a  nun 
of  Wilton,  where  her  mother  is  said  to  have  been  abbess,  and 
was  sainted  after  her  death  in  984  at  the  early  age  of 
twenty-three;  Edward,  who  was  king  in  975  and  Wing 
assassinated  in  978,  at  the  instigation  of  his  stepmother 
Elfreda,  became  known  as  Edward  the  MartjT.  HLs  children 
by  Elfrida  were:  Ethelred,  of  whom  below;  Edmund,  who 
died  in  971  or  972. 

Ethelred  II.,  sumamed  the  Unready,  son  of  Edgar  and 
Elfrida,  was  bom  either  in  968,  or  in  969.  Succeeding  his 
brother  Edward  he  was  crowned  at  Kingston  by  the  Arch- 
bishop Dunstan  in  978  or  the  next  year.  From  the  beginning 
of  his  reign  evil  was  prophesied  concerning  him  and  events 
bore  out  the  prognostications.  The  Danes  and  Northmen 
renewed  their  attacks  upon  the  coasts  of  England  and  for  nearly 
a  quarter  of  a  century  carried  on  their  depredations.  Various 
expedients  were  adopted  to  free  the  country  from  these  marau- 
ders. Treaties  were  made  with  them;  from  time  to  time  their 
departure  was  purchased  by  the  paj-ment  of  large  ransoms; 
occasionally  they  were  ^^aten  in  battle;  in  10O2  there  was  a 
cold-l>looded  massacre  of  those  then  living  in  England. 

Still  the  invasions  continued  until,  in  1013,  Swend  of  Den- 
mark, who  had  already  led  many  expeditions  thither,  came 
again  with  a  splendid  fleet  and  received  the  submission  of  all 
northern  England.     Ethelred  fled  to  Normandy  for  safety. 


LINE     OF     THE     SAX  OX     KIXGS 

He  returned  shortly  after  and  drove  out  the  Danes  under 
Canute,  but  his  triumph  was  only  temporary  and  with  him 
the  Saxon  rule  of  England  practically  came  to  an  end.  He 
died  in  London.  April  ^l>.  1016. 

He  married,  tirst.  in  0S4.  Elgiva  or  Elfgifu.  daughter 
of  Thored.  an  English  earl;  second,  in  1003.  Emma,  called 
for  her  beauty.  "  the  {^>earl  of  Xormandy."  daughter  of  Richard 
I.,  duke  of  Xormandy.  His  children  by  Elgiva  were:  Ethel- 
stan.  who  died  in  1010:  Ecgberht.  who  died  about  lf>Oo; 
Eadmund.  of  whom  below;  Eadred;  Eadwig.  who  was;  ban- 
ished by  King  Canute  and  slain  by  his  order  in  1017;  Eadgar; 
Eadward;  Wulfhild.  who  marrietl  Ilfc_\-tel.  earldorman  of 
East  Anglia;  Eadgyth.  who  married  Eadric  Streona.  earl- 
dorman of  the  Mercians;  Elfgifu.  who  married  Earl  I'hti-ed. 
His  children  by  Emma  of  Xormandy  were:  Eadward,  who 
was  born  in  SO^.  ascended  the  throne  on  the  death  of  the 
Danish  king  Harthcanut  in  104'i.  and  was  known  as  the 
Confessor,  his  devotion  to  religion  and  his  munificence  to 
the  church  winning  ecclesiastical  commendation  so  that  in 
1101  he  was  canonized  by  Poj>e  Alexander  HI.:  Aelfred, 
who  was  slain  in  10;>0  by  Earl  Godwin;  Godgifu.  who  married, 
first.  Drogo.  Count  of  Mantes,  and.  second,  Eustace.  Count 
of  Boulogne. 

Edmund  11..  or  E.\dmuxd.  called  Ironside,  son  of  Ethelred 
the  Unready,  was  born  after  9S1.  He  inherited  the  throne 
on  the  death  of  his  father  in  1016  and  made  a  bold  etfort  to 
revive  the  falling  fortunes  of  his  house.     He  could  not  wholly 



overcome  the  Danes  under  Canute  and  finally  was  forced  to 
divide  the  kingdom  with  the  Danish  rival  for  the  throne. 
He  died  suddenly  November  30,  1016.  The  cause  of  his 
death  is  left  uncertain  by  the  chronicle  writers,  but  there  is 
very  general  agreement  that  he  was  assassinated  at  the  insti- 
gation of  his  brother-in-law  Eadric  Streona.  He  married, 
in  1015,  Algita  or  Ealdgyth,  widow  of  the  Danish  earl  Sige- 
ferth.  His  children  were:  Edmund,  who  fled  with  his 
brother  from  England  to  escape  from  the  victorious  Danes, 
and  was  protected  and  educated  by  Solomon,  King  of  Hungary, 
Edward,  of  whom  below. 

Edward,  surnamed  the  Outlaw,  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
long  an  exile  from  his  native  land  during  the  reigns  of  the  last 
kings  of  his  line.  He  lived  at  the  court  of  Hungary  until 
recalled  by  his  uncle  Edward  the  Confessor  in  1057  that  he 
might  be  made  heir  to  the  throne.  He  died  within  a  month 
after  reaching  London.  He  married  the  Princess  Agatha, 
daughter  of  Henry  II.,  Emperor  of  Germany.  His  children 
were:  Edgar,  the  Atheling;  Christiana,  a  nun;  Margaret,  who 
married  Malcolm  III.  of  Scotland  and  became  the  ancestress 
of  the  Bruces. 


BRUCE  ANCESTRY    J-    J^    J. 







AS  has  been  already  shown  in  other  chapters,  the 
Bruces  of  Scotland  derived  their  claims  to  regal 
rights  and  honors  from  the  ancient  Scottish  kings 
and  the  Irish  kings  who  preceded  those  first  conquerors  of 
North  Britain,  and  also  from  the  original  Saxon  line  of  Eng- 
lish kings.  Beyond  that  they  had  the  distinction  of  being 
allied  to  the  princes  and  earls  of  Scandinavia,  as  was  pointed 
out  in  the  chapter  on  their  Scandinavian  origin.  Their  royal 
ancestry  was  not,  however,  limited  to  those  pedigrees,  for  they 
could  boast  also  of  descent  from  the  great  ruling  houses  of 
Continental  Europe  which,  in  the  opening  centuries  of  the 
Christian  era,  were  dominant  in  the  control  and  direction  of 
affairs  in  that  part  of  the  world. 

By  the  marriage  of  the  seventh  Robert  Bruce  with  a  de- 
scendant in  the  sixth  generation  from  William  the  Conqueror, 
subsequent  Bruce  generations  had  the  inheritance  of  the  blood 
of  the  masters  of  Western  Europe.  From  William  the  Con- 
queror they  went  back  through  the  dukes  of  Normandy  until 
this  line  of  their  pedigree  met  an  ancestor  who  was  the  com- 
mon founder,  on  the  male  side,  of  both  the  Bruce  house  and 
that  of  Normandy.  Also  through  the  line  of  William  the 
Conqueror  they  traced  to  the  Emperor  Charlemagne  and  his 
ancestors  of  the  Carlovingian  line  of  princes,  to  the  house  of 



Vermandois,  and  to  other  famous  overlords  of  mediseval  times 
in  Germany  and  France.  Through  Matilda,  the  consort  of 
William  the  Conqueror,  they  went  back  to  the  house  that 
produced  the  celebrated  and  powerful  counts  of  Flanders  and 
to  the  noble  families  that  were  allied  to  and  became  part  of 
that  line. 

RoLLO,  who  was  the  founder  of  the  ducal  house  of  Nor- 
mandy, was  the  son  of  Rognvald,  Earl  of  North  Mere  and 
South  Mere  in  Norway,  by  his  wife  Hilda,  daughter  of  Rolf 
Nefia.  Einar,  who  became  an  earl  of  Orkney  and  was  in 
the  direct  male  line  of  Bruce,  was  his  half-brother.  He 
was  a  very  tall  man  and  wherever  he  went  he  marched  a-foot 
rather  than  ride  on  the  small  Norwegian  ponies.  For  this 
peculiarity  he  was  nicknamed  Ganger  or  Walker,  and  was 
thus  known  throughout  his  life.  When  he  came  to  mature 
years  he  developed  into  a  man  of  ambitious  and  turbulent 
character.  And  it  was  soon  apparent  that  he  was  marked  by 
destiny  for  greater  things  than  were  possible  in  the  narrow 
field  of  his  native  land. 

King  Harald  of  Norway  was  then  engaged  in  his  eflfort  to 
bring  the  lesser  chieftains  or  earls  of  that  country  under  his 
centralized  control  and  to  bind  them  into  something  that 
should  resemble  a  united  nation.  One  of  the  first  measures 
that  he  instituted  for  the  accomplishment  of  this  end  was 
to  interdict  the  predatory  warfare  that  these  independent 
or   semi-independent    lords    had    hitherto   been    accustomed 



to  wage  upon  each  other,  his  plan  being  to  make  them  more 
and  more  interdependent  and  to  establish  more  kindly  relations 
between  them.  Rollo  was  impatient  of  this  exercise  of 
authority  by  Harald  and  would  not  yield  to  the  domination 
of  that  prince  who  was  so  rapidly  growing  in  power  and  influ- 
ence. Holding  himself  entirely  free  from  Harald  and  the  other 
earls  who  had  already  acknowledged  themselves  as  depend- 
ents of  Harald,  he  continued  to  plunder  according  as  oppor- 
tunity offered. 

"Rolf  would  be  ever  a-harrying  in  the  East-lands;  and 
on  a  summer  when  he  came  to  the  Wick  from  his  Eastland 
harrying  he  had  a  strand-slaughtering  there.  King  Harald 
was  in  the  Wick  at  that  time,  and  was  very  wroth  when  he 
heard  hereof,  for  he  had  laid  a  great  ban  upon  robbing  in 
the  land.  Wherefore  at  a  Thing  (or  assembly)  he  gave  out 
that  he  made  Rolf  outlaw  from  all  Norway.  But  when  Hild, 
the  mother  of  Rolf,  heard  thereof  she  went  to  the  King  and 
prayed  him  for  the  peace  of  Rolf;  but  the  King  was  so  wroth 
that  her  prayers  availed  nought.     Then  sang  Hild: 

'Thou  hast  cast  off  Nefia's  namesake; 
Brave  brother  of  the  barons. 
As  a  wolf  from  the  land  thou  drivest. 
Why  waxeth,  lord,  thy  raging  ? 
Ill  to  be  wild  in  quarrel 
With  a  wolf  of  Odin's  warboard. 
If  he  fare  wild  in  the  forest 
He  shall  waste  thy  flock  right  sorely.'"  * 

Thereupon  Rollo  decided  that,  rather  than  yield  to  Harald, 
he  would  break  with  that  prince  and  hold  to  his  independence. 
He  brought  together  a  small  fleet  of  vessels  and  manned  them 

*  Heimskringla,  by  Snorre  Sturlason. 
15  225 


with  followers  who  were  as  independent  and  as  venturesome 
as  himself,  and  sailed  away  from  Norway  seeking  new  adven- 
tures. First  he  went  to  the  Hebrides,  overrunning  those 
islands,  and  it  is  said  that  he  even  planned  to  invade  the  greater 
island  of  Britain  from  its  north  shores  and  attempt  the  con- 
quest of  the  people  there.  It  is  a  singular  coincidence  that, 
having  been  diverted  from  this  project,  it  was  left  to  his  descend- 
ants several  generations  later  to  accomplish  the  same  purpose 
by  entering  England  from  the  south  and  acquiring  domina- 
tion of  the  land  that  their  far-away  ancestor  had  cast  covetous 
eyes  upon. 

With  Rollo  at  this  time  other  councils  prevailed,  and  he 
turned  the  prows  of  his  vessels  toward  the  mainland  of  Europe, 
stopping  on  the  way  thither  to  conquer  Friezeland.  Arriving 
at  the  continent  he  established  himself  and  his  companions 
in  Neustria,  making  the  city  of  Rouen  his  headquarters. 
Years  of  fighting  with  King  Charles  of  France  followed, 
but  his  mastery  of  Neustria  was  finally  acknowledged  and 
that  province  was  erected  into  the  duchy  of  Normandy.  The 
first  duke  was  a  man  of  uncommon  wisdom  and  energy  and 
before  he  died  he  had  established  Normandy  firmly  among 
the  powerful  nations  of  the  world.  He  accepted  Christianity, 
in  form  at  least,  and  upon  being  baptized  received  the  name  of 

He  died  about  931.  He  married,  first,  Gisele,  daughter  of 
King  Charles  the  Simple  of  France ;  second,  Papia,  daughter 
of  Berengier,  Count  of  Bayeaux.  His  children,  by  his  wife 
Papia,  were:     WiUiam,  Duke  of  Normandy,  of  whom  below; 



Robert,  Count  of  Corbeil,  whose  descendants  became  the 
ancestors  of  the  noble  EngHsh  families  of  Gloucester  and 
Granville;  Crispina,  who  married  Grimaldus  I.,  Prince  of 
Monaco;  Gerletta,  who  married  William  II.,  Duke  of  Aqui- 
taine,  their  great-great-granddaughter  Eleanor,  Duchess  of 
Aquitaine,  becoming  the  wife,  first,  of  Louis,  King  of  France, 
and,  second,  of  Henrv  II.,  King  of  England. 

William,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  surnamed  Longa 
Spatha,  or  Long  Sword.  He  succeeded  to  the  ducal  throne 
upon  the  death  of  his  father  in  931.  His  reign  was  short 
and  troublesome,  and  he  left  a  record  of  feebleness  as  a  gov- 
erning prince.  He  was  well-intentioned,  but  his  abilities  were 
of  less  marked  character  than  those  of  his  father.  He  was 
surnamed  Sans  Peur,  a  sufficient  indication  of  his  character 
and  of  the  popular  estimation  in  which  he  was  held.  His 
death  was  accomplished  through  the  treachery  of  Arnulph, 
Count  of  Flanders.  Disagreements  existed  between  him  and 
the  princes  of  adjoining  kingdoms,  and  he  was  persuaded  to  a 
conference  to  discuss  the  difficulties  and  an  arrangement  of 
terms  for  peace.  There,  however,  he  met  death  instead  of 
peace,  being  murdered  by  Arnulph.  He  died  in  December, 
943.  He  married  Adela,  daughter  of  Hubert,  Count  of 

Richard  I.,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  933,  and 
therefore  was  only  ten  years  old  when  his  father's  death  put 
upon  him  the  burden  of  the  dukedom.     Following  a  regency 



of  a  few  years  he  assumed  personal  direction  of  affairs  and 
reigned  for  fifty-five  years.  During  his  hfetime  wars  with 
other  nations  were  incessantly  waged  by  him,  with  varying 
results  but  generally  to  the  success  of  the  arms  of  Normandy. 
Among  the  great  contests  that  he  was  called  upon  to  engage 
in  were  those  with  Hugh  the  Great  of  France,  and  Otho  of 
Grermany.  He  was  renowned  for  his  bounty  to  the  clergy, 
and  built  the  cathedral  at  Rouen,  and  other  religious  edifices. 
In  his  succession  to  the  dukedom  he  was  Richard  I.  He 
married  Gonnor,  a  lady  of  high  birth,  and  by  her  had  four 
sons  and  three  daughters.  His  daughter  Emma  married, 
first,  Ethelred  of  England,  and  after  the  death  of  her  husband, 
married,  second,  Canute  the  Great  of  England,  and  became 
the  mother  of  Hardicanute.  This  alliance  constituted  the 
substantial  basis  for  the  claim  which  several  generations  later 
the  famous  descendant  of  Duke  Richard  I.,  William  the  Con- 
queror, set  up  and  successfully  maintained  for  the  possession 
of  England. 

Richard  II.,  the  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  sur- 
named  the  Good.  He  reigned  thirty  years  after  succeeding 
to  the  dukedom  upon  the  death  of  his  father,  and  during 
that  time  was  celebrated  for  his  display  of  desire  for  justice, 
for  his  courage,  and  for  his  religious  disposition.  He  was 
well  beloved  by  the  people  over  whom  he  was  on  the  whole 
a  beneficent  ruler.  He  won  the  esteem  of  the  neighboring 
princes  and  nobles  and  was  less  in  war  than  most  of  his  pre- 
decessors or  contemporaries.     He  was  a  strong  ally  of  the 



King  of  France  and  assisted  that  monarch  in  the  conquest 
of  Burgundy. 

He  died  in  Fecamp,  August  23,  1026.  He  married,  first, 
Judith,  daughter  of  the  Duke  of  Brittany,  by  whom  he  had 
six  children;  second,  Estrith,  sister  of  King  Canute  and 
daughter  of  Swene,  King  of  Denmark;  third,  Papia,  a  Danish 
lady  of  good  family.  By  his  wife  Judith  he  had  Richard, 
the  third  Duke  of  Normandy,  who  died  in  1027  without 
issue,  and  Robert,  who  succeeded  his  brother.  Leonore,  his 
daughter,  married  Baldwin  IV.  of  Flanders,  who  was  the 
father  of  Baldwin  V.  and  the  grandfather  of  Matilda,  who 
became  the  wife  of  William  the  Conqueror,  the  grandson  of 
this  Richard. 

Robert,  Duke  of  Normandy,  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
surnamed  Le  Diable,  although  his  character  seemed  anything 
but  deserving  of  that  nickname,  for  according  to  one  of  the 
old  chroniclers  he  was  "courteous,  joyous,  debonnaire  and 
benign."  He  was  better  called  the  Magnificent,  and  after 
he  had  succeeded  to  the  dukedom  he  was  engaged  actively 
in  measures  to  broaden  the  extent  of  his  possessions  and  to 
strengthen  his  power.  He  helped  to  restore  King  Henry  of 
France  to  the  throne  from  which  that  monarch  had  been 
excluded,  and  in  1051  made  an  important  visit  to  the  English 
court  for  the  purpose  of  securing  his  recognition  by  Edward 
the  Confessor  as  a  possible  heir  to  the  English  throne.  Already 
a  Norman  party  had  developed  in  England  and  Duke  Robert 
evidently  considered  the  time  opportune  to  press  the  interests 



of  his  family  in  that  direction.  In  the  eighth  year  of  his  reign 
he  made  a  journey  to  the  Holy  Land,  and  on  his  way  home 
he  died  in  Nice  in  June,  1035,  and  was  buried  in  a  church  in 
that  city. 

William,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  Falaise  in 
1027  or  1028.  He  was  a  favorite  with  his  father  who,  as  soon 
as  the  boy  came  to  maturity,  began  to  plan  to  have  him  as 
his  successor,  although  by  birth  he  was  not  entitled  to  that 
advancement.  When  Duke  Robert  set  out  on  the  pilgrim- 
age to  the  Holy  Land  that  ended  in  his  death,  he  called  his 
nobles  and  other  followers  about  him  and  indicated  in  the 
strongest  terms  his  desire  that  William  should  be  accepted 
as  his  successor.  The  nobles  yielded  to  his  wishes  and  there- 
fore upon  his  death  in  1035  William  was  recognized  as  the 
head  of  the  house.  The  new  duke  proved  to  be  ^  man  of 
wonderful  energy  and  discretion  and  of  marked  skill  as  an 
administrator  of  government. 

The  agitation  in  England  for  the  reception  of  the  Normans 
as  a  ruling  house,  that  had  been  begun  in  the  reign  of  his 
grandfather,  had  developed  to  a  high  point  by  this  time  and 
it  was  clearly  recognized  that  Duke  William  had  before  him 
every  opportunity  that  an  ambitious  man  in  those  days  could 
desire  to  add  the  island  across  the  Channel  to  his  own  already 
large  and  powerful  domain.  Upon  the  death  of  Edward  the 
Confessor  the  contest  for  the  rich  prize  waxed  strong  between 
Edgar,  the  last  of  the  Saxon  line,  Harold  Godwm,  of  an 
ambitious  but  not  royal  house,  and  the  Duke  of  Normandy. 



Every  reader  of  history  knows  the  result.  In  the  battle  of 
Hastings,  in  1066,  Willianj  of  Normandy  overthrew  the  Saxon 
rule  of  England  and  planted  himself  so  firmly  upon  the 
island  of  Britain  that  the  old  Saxon  authority  forever  disap- 
peared. For  over  twenty  years  he  ruled  as  King  of  England 
and  at  the  same  time  was  Duke  of  Normandy;  elevating  himself 
and  his  family  into  a  position  of  the  highest  rank  and  the  great- 
est power  among  the  then  known  kings  and  princes  of  Europe. 
He  died  September  8,  1087,  and  dividing  his  great  kingdom 
he  gave  Normandy  to  his  son  Robert,  and  England  to  his 
son  William  Rufus.  To  his  son  Henry  he  gave  a  large  sum 
of  money  only.  He  married  Matilda,  daughter  of  Baldwin 
v.,  Count  of  Flanders  and  Artois. 

Henry,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  1068.  In  his 
early  years,  after  the  death  of  his  father,  he  was  engaged 
in  constant  contention  with  his  brothers,  King  William 
Rufus  of  England,  and  Robert,  Duke  of  Normandy,  prin- 
cipally over  the  possession  of  Normandy  and  the  right  of 
succession  in  England.  Upon  the  death  of  William  Rufus 
the  witan  chose  Henry  to  be  King  of  England,  and  he  became 
Henry  I.  in  1100,  when  he  was  thirty-two  years  of  age.  He 
made  a  record  as  an  active  and  industrious  king,  considerate 
of  the  people,  and,  like  all  the  princes  and  nobles  of  that  age,- 
a  benefactor  to  the  church.  He  spent  considerable  time  in 
Normandy  and  was  of  course  drawn  into  the  contentions  that 
were  constantly  carried  on  between  the  different  kings  of 
Western  Europe.     He  died  near  Lyons,  France,  in  December, 



1135.  He  married  Matilda,  daughter  of  Malcolm  Canmore, 
King  of  Scotland.  His  daughter  Matilda  married  the  Em- 
peror Henry  of  Germany  in  1114  and  afterwards  Geoffrey 
of  Anjou.  These  matrimonial  alliances  involved  him  in 
plotting  and  warring  during  the  greater  part  of  his  life. 

Robert,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  favorite  son  of 
his  father  who  created  him  Earl  of  Gloucester  and  endowed 
him  with  considerable  property.  He  died  in  Bristol,  Eng- 
land, October  21,  1147.  He  married  Mabel,  who  by  some 
authorities  is  named  Matilda  and  by  others  Sybil,  a  daughter 
of  Robert  Fitz-Hamon,  and  had  six  children.  His  son 
William,  the  second  Earl  of  Gloucester,  was  the  father  of 
Amicia  who  married  Ralph  de  Clare  and  had  Gilbert,  Earl 
of  Gloucester,  whose  daughter  Isabel  de  Clare,  married 
Robert  Bruce,  seventh  of  the  name,  in  1240. 

Matilda,  who  married  William  the  Conqueror  and  was 
the  ancestress  of  the  Isabel  de  Clare  who  married  the  seventh 
Robert  Bruce,  belonged  to  the  house  of  the  Counts  of  Flan- 
ders, who  ruled  that  important  domain  for  hundreds  of  years, 
and  who  were  connected  in  marriage  with  the  Carlovingian 
kings  and  other  princes  of  that  period. 

Baldwin,  Count  of  Flanders,  surnamed  Bras  de  Fer,  or 
Iron  Arm,  was  a  great-grandson  of  Lyderic,  Count  of  Harle- 
bec,    the    first    hereditary    governor    of    Flanders.     Baldwin 



became  Count  of  Flanders  in  858.  He  died  in  879.  He  mar- 
ried, for  his  second  wife,  -in  863,  Judith,  who  was  the  widow 
of  Ethelwulf  of  England  and  a  daughter  of  Charles  the  Bold, 
a  grandson  of  Charlemagne. 

Baldwin,  the  second  Count  of  Flanders  and  Artois,  son 
of  the  preceding,  was  surnamed  the  Bold.  He  died  January 
2,  918.  During  his  lifetime  he  was  engaged  actively  in  war 
against  the  kings  of  France,  Eudes  and  Charles  the  Simple. 
He  married,  in  889,  Alfritha,  or  Aelfthryth,  daughter  of  Alfred 
the  Great  of  England. 

Aenulf  I.,  Count  of  Flanders  and  Artois,  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, was  surnamed  the  Great.  He  died  at  the  extreme  age 
of  ninety-two.  He  married,  in  923,  Alisa  or  Alice,  daughter  of 
Heribert,  Count  of  Vermandois,  who  was  in  the  fifth  gener- 
ation from  Charlemagne. 

Baldwin  III.,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  next  Count 
of  Flanders  and  Artois.  He  ruled  from  958  to  961.  He  mar- 
ried, in  951,  Matilda,  daughter  of  Herman  Billung,  Duke 
of  Saxony. 

Aenulf  II.,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  to  the  title  of 
Count  of  Flanders  and  Artois.  He  died  in  988.  He  mar- 
ried Rosala,  daughter  of  Beranger  II.,  King  of  Provence  and 
Marquis  of  Friuli. 

Baldwin  IV.,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  named  the  Fair- 
beard,   and  became  Count  of  Flanders  and  Artois  in    988. 



He  was  a  man  of  much  energy  and  made  large  additions 
to  the  family  domain  by  conquest,  especially  Valenciennes. 
The  Emperor  Henry  II.  endowed  him  with  the  island  of 
Wacheren.  He  married  either  Origina,  daughter  of  Fred- 
erick, Count  of  Moselle,  or  Eleanor,  daughter  of  Richard  II., 
Duke  of  Normandy. 

Baldwin  V.,  of  Lille,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  known 
as  the  Pious  and  also  as  the  Debonnaire.  During  the  minority 
of  his  nephew.  King  Philip  I.  of  France,  he  was  a  regent  of 
that  kingdom.  His  military  activities  were  never-ceasing, 
and  he  conquered  Hainault  and  also  helped  his  son-in-law, 
William  of  Normandy,  in  that  monarch's  enterprises.  He 
died  in  1067.  He  married,  in  lO'-JT,  Adele,  daughter  of 
Robert,  King  of  France,  who  was  a  son  of  Hugh  Capet. 
She  died  in  1079.  Their  daughter  Matilda  married  William 
the  Conqueror. 

J*  J»  JK  Jfi  JK  4^  t^ 

In  the  young  centuries  of  the  Christian  era  two  great 
powers  existed  in  Continental  Europe,  the  Franks  and  the 
Lombards,  preceding  the  growth  to  power  of  the  Carlovin- 
GiAN  Kings.  Western  Europe  was  beginning  to  emerge  from 
the  barbarism  in  which  the  Romans  had  found  and  left  it,  and 
masterful  lords  were  developing  among  the  different  tribes 
in  that  part  of  the  world  and  making  their  people  into  nations. 
Clovis,  the  first  great  leader  of  the  Franks,  was  supreme 
over  Gaul  about  the  year  500.  He  was  of  the  Merovingian 
dynasty,  of  which  Merowig  was  the  founder,  and  which  had 



become  supreme  among  the  powers  then  existing.  Follow- 
ing the  death  of  Clovis,  in  511,  the  kingdom  began  to  split 
up  and  finally  after  the  time  of  Dagobert,  the  last  Frankish 
king,  the  realm  had  become  divided  principally  into  Aus- 
trasia,  Neustria,  and  Burgundy. 

Pepin  of  Landen  came  into  control  in  Austrasia.  He  was 
a  prince  who  held  the  rank  of  mayor  of  the  palace,  but  prac- 
tically he  was  the  ruler  of  the  country,  the  nominal  king  being 
merely  a  figurehead.  One  of  his  daughters  married  An- 
seghis  who  was  the  son  of  Arnulf,  Bishop  of  Metz,  through 
whose  influence  Pepin  had  been  elevated  to  the  position  that 
he  held 

Pepin  of  Herstal,  son  of  Anseghis  by  the  daughter  of  Pepin 
of  Landen,  not  only  strengthened  himself  in  the  kingdom 
of  Austrasia,  but  also  conquered  Neustria  and  welded  the  two 
kingdoms  under  one  control.  Although  he  found  the  Carlo- 
vingian  family  already  established  in  high  rank  among  the 
lords  of  Austrasia  and  regarded  with  deference  by  the  nobles 
of  other  countries,  he  advanced  its  prestige  still  higher  and 
increased  its  power.  He  did  not  hesitate  to  lead  a  revolt 
against  King  Dagobert,  and  overcoming  that  monarch, 
received  the  title  of  the  Duke  of  Franks.  In  time  he  subdued 
all  Northern  Gaul  and  became  the  acknowledged  ruler  of 
the  entire  Frankish  empire.     He  died  in  720. 

Charles,  son  of  the  preceding  by  his  wife  Alpaida,  became 
one  of  the  most  distinguished  monarchs  in  his  line  previous 



to  the  advent  of  the  greater  Charlemagne.  He  was  Duke 
of  Austrasia  and  mayor  of  the  palace  of  the  Frankish  kings. 
Early  in  life  he  was  engaged  in  rebellion  against  his  step- 
mother who  was  planning  to  secure  the  succession  to  the 
throne  for  her  son  to  the  exclusion  of  Charles.  By  his  superior 
talent  and  energy,  he  was  able  to  subvert  the  plans  of  his 
stepmother  and  his  half-brother  and  to  ingratiate  himself 
with  the  other  Austrasian  nobles.  His  supporters  made  him 
Duke  of  Austrasia,  and  he  conquered  Neustria  which  had 
endeavored  to  break  away  from  the  alliance  that  had  been 
made  by  his  father  Pepin. 

For  a  time — some  twenty  years — he  allowed  the  throne 
that  his  father  had  bequeathed  to  him  to  lie  vacant,  but  in 
742  he  became  lord  of  the  united  kingdom  of  Austrasia 
and  Neustria.  In  several  campaigns  that  he  inaugurated 
against  the  German  nations  he  was  preeminently  successful, 
but  he  gained  his  greatest  fame  by  repelling  the  Moslems 
who,  starting  from  Spain  and  sweeping  northward,  endeavored 
to  bring  all  Western  Europe  under  their  control,  or  to  lay 
waste  to  it.  He  met  the  Moslem  forces  at  Poictiers  in 
752,  and  defeated  them  so  completely  that  they  were  hurled 
back  a  mass  of  disorganized  soldiery  into  the  mountains  of 
Spain.  From  this  victory  he  got  the  name  Martel,  or  hammer, 
thus  being  known  to  history  as  Charles  Martel.  He  annexed 
to  the  Frankish  empire  all  of  Aquitania,  and  when  he  died 
left  the  kingdom  which  he  had  received  from  his  father  so 
well  established  that  it  was  fast  becoming  one  of  the  great 
nations  of  the  continent. 



Pepin  II.,  son  of  Charles  Martel,  was  born  about  715. 
He  was  surnamed  le  Bteuf,  the  Short,  but  beUed  his  nick- 
name by  proving  to  be  a  man  of  extraordinary  prowess  and 
of  physical  ability.  Receiving  from  his  father  the  control 
of  Neustria,  Burgundy,  and  Provence,  he  governed  those 
countries  with  diligence  and  skill.  He  did  not  personally 
ascend  the  throne,  but  for  diplomatic  reasons  placed  thei'eon 
a  Merovingian  prince,  Childeric  II.,  who  made  an  imposing 
figurehead  but  had  no  real  power.  Pepin  had  a  brother, 
Caroloman,  who  for  a  time  divided  authority  with  him,  but 
upon  the  death  of  this  brother  he  became  the  recognized 
ruler  over  all  that  territory  that  in  subsequent  times  became 
France.  He  sent  Childeric  to  a  monastery,  and  supported 
by  the  church  and  other  nobles,  came  forward  as  the  real 
monarch  and  was  crowned  in  752.  One  of  the  most 
brilliant  achievements  of  his  life  was  his  victory  over  the 
Lombards  in  755,  as  a  result  of  which  he  founded  that 
temporal  sovereignty  that  has  ever  since  been  part  of  the 
Holy  See.  For  eight  years,  760-68,  he  was  engaged  in  a  de- 
structive war  with  Aquitania  which  resulted  in  his  triumph 
over  the  opposing  nation.     He  died  in  768. 

Charlemagne,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  April  2, 
742.  His  brother  Caroloman  preceded  him  in  authority, 
but  after  the  death  of  his  father  Pepin  and  his  brother,  he 
attained  position  at  the  head  of  the  entire  Prankish  kingdom. 
Unquestionably  he  was  the  greatest  figure  in  his  age  in  the 
world.     He  became  master  of  all  Gaul  and  West  Germany 



and  maintained  himself  impregnable  against  all  rivalry  and 
against  all  enmity.  Near  the  beginning  of  his  career  he  was 
particularly  fortunate  in  wars  with  Italy,  Spain,  Germany, 
and  other  nations,  and  by  the  close  of  the  eighth  century  had 
enlarged  his  kingdom  until  it  had  become  an  enormous  em- 
pire extending  from  the  Baltic  and  the  North  Seas  on  the 
north  to  the  Mediterranean  and  the  Adriatic  on  the  south, 
and  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the  Oder  and  other  eastern 
rivers  of  Germany. 

Not  only  was  Charlemagne  noted  as  a  warrior  and  as  a 
founder  of  empire,  but  he  was  even  more  famous  perhaps  as  a 
law-giver  and  as  a  patron  of  art,  science,  and  learning.  Not 
only  did  he  unite  the  Germanic  and  Prankish  peoples,  but  he 
taught  them  again  the  arts  of  literature  and  science  which  had 
been  wellnigh  forgotten  in  the  dark  ages.  He  encouraged 
trade  and  bent  his  energies  more  toward  making  his  people 
pacific  than  warlike.  He  revived  learning  in  a  way  that  has 
made  his  name  synonymous  with  culture,  establishing  some 
of  the  most  famous  schools  of  learning  that  the  world  had 
known  up  to  that  time  outside  of  Greece  and  Rome.  He 
was  one  of  those  few  great  men  who  have  arisen  at  far  dis- 
tantly separated  periods  of  time,  who,  with  power  of  mind 
and  mastery  of  execution  and  energy  of  purpose,  have  by 
their  efforts  changed  the  face  of  the  world,  altered  the  trend 
of  history,  and  inaugurated  a  new  era  of  civilization.  In 
addition  to  his  other  varied  accomplishments  he  was  a  man 
of  literary  skill  and  was  the  author  of  many  works  of  im- 
portance.    He  died  in  814. 



Louis  le  Debonnaire,  son  of  Charlemagne  by  his  wife 
Hildegarde  of  Swabia,  w'as  named  not  only  the  Complaisant 
but  also  the  Pious,  for  the  many  good  deeds  that  distinguished 
his  life.  He  was  born  in  Casseneuil,  Aquitania,  in  778.  As 
a  child  he  received  the  title  of  King  of  Aquitania,  but  was 
not  active  in  ruling  until  after  the  death  of  his  father,  in 
814,  when  as  the  only  surviving  son  he  succeeded  to  the  head 
of  the  nation  that  his  father  had  brought  together.  His 
disposition  was  not  entirely  toward  government,  and  he  felt 
that  his  kingdom  was  fast  becoming  unwieldy.  Accordingly, 
in  817  he  divided  it  with  his  sons,  giving  Aquitania  to  Pepin, 
Bavaria  to  Louis,  and  Italy  to  Lothair. 

This  division,  instead  of  pacifying  the  ambitions  of  the 
sons,  served  to  stir  up  rivalries  and  animosities  and  hence- 
forward Louis  was  in  constant  trouble  with  the  members 
of  his  family.  Ultimately  he  was  deposed  and  his  wife  was 
imprisoned  in  a  convent.  In  830,  however,  the  people 
of  Germany,  who  were  much  attached  to  him,  restored  him 
to  his  throne  and  released  his  wife  from  the  convent.  His 
position  was  maintained  only  for  a  short  time,  for  again  he 
was  overthrown  by  his  son  Lothair  who  with  unfilial  spirit 
subjected  him  to  great  indignities.  For  the  third  time,  after 
considerable  fighting,  he  remounted  the  throne  in  835,  but 
it  continued  to  be  a  troublous  seat  for  him,  although  he  was 
able  to  maintain  himself  thereon  until  the  end  of  his  life.  He 
died  June  20,  840,  and  with  him  began  the  dissolution  of  the 
Carlovingian  empire.  He  married  Judith  the  Fair,  daughter  of 
Welphus  I.,  Count  of  Altorf ,  Switzerland ;  she  died  April  19, 843. 



Charles  le  Chauve,  the  Bold,  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
born  in  Frankfort-on-Maine  in  823.  He  became  Emperor 
of  the  West  in  succession  to  his  father  Louis,  and  was 
also  King  of  France  and  Neustria.  In  fact  his  inheritance 
comprised  nearly  the  entire  western  empire,  but  he  was  not 
permitted  to  enjoy  this  quietly,  for  his  brothers  were  ambitious 
of  territory  and  desirous  of  elevating  themselves  in  kingly 
positions.  Establishing  his  authority  over  the  territory  now 
known  as  France,  he  became  Emperor  in  875.  His 
brother,  Louis  of  Bavaria,  retained  Germany,  while  Charles 
in  the  end  confined  himself  almost  exclusively  to  the  kingdom 
of  France.  He  died  October  6,  878.  He  married  Richilda, 
daughter  of  Bovinus,  Count  Aldemir  Waldi. 

Judith,  daughter  of  the  preceding,  married,  first,  Baldwin 
Bras  de  Fer,  and  second,  in  October,  863,  Ethelwulf  of 
England.  By  her  husband,  Baldwin  Bras  de  Fer,  she  be- 
came the  ancestress  of  Matilda,  the  wife  of  William  the 
Conqueror,  and  through  her,  the  ancestress  of  the  Bruces 
of  later  generations. 

Robert  the  Strong  was  at  the  head  of  the  noble  house 
that  claimed  the  kinship  of  France  in  rivalry  with  the  Carlo- 
vingians  and  that  included  the  founder  of  the  Capetian 
Dynasty.  He  was  a  Saxon  warrior  who  held  in  fief  the 
province  of  Anjou,  and  afterwards  was  possessed  of  the  duchy 
of  Ile-de-France.  He  was  best  known  for  his  brilliant  strug- 
gle in  keeping  the  Norman  invaders  of  France  at  bay  in   the 



ninth  century ;   and  thereby  he  won  enduring  popularity  with 
both  the  nobles  and  the  commonalty.     He  died  in  866. 

Robert,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  father 
as  royal  claimant,  and  was  the  leader  of  the  barons  who 
rose  against  the  Carlovingian  kings  and  maintained  warfare 
with  more  or  less  success.  He  married  Beatrix,  daughter  of 
Heribert  I.,  Count  of  Vermandois. 

Hugh  the  Great,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  father. 
He  was  Count  of  Paris  and  Orleans  and  Duke  of  France  and 
Burgundy.  He  held  under  control  the  vast  dominion  that 
extended  from  the  Loire  to  the  frontier  of  Picardy.  He 
married  Hedwiga,  daughter  of  Henry  I.,  Emperor  of  Germany. 
Henry  of  Germany,  called  the  Fowler  or  the  Falconer,  was 
the  first  Saxon  king  of  Germany.  He  was  born  in  876, 
the  son  of  Otho,  the  illustrious  Duke  of  Saxony.  He  suc- 
ceeded his  father  to  the  dukedoms  of  Saxony  and  Thuringia, 
and  upon  the  death  of  Conrad,  Duke  of  the  Franks,  he  was 
chosen  to  that  dukedom  in  910.  He  consolidated  all  Ger- 
many under  his  rule,  defeated  the  Hungarians  in  933,  and 
the  Danes  in  934,  and  achieved  other  successes  in  war.  He 
died  in  936  after  an  eighteen  years'  reign,  leaving  a  large 
and  oowerful  kingdom  soundly  established. 

Hugh  Capet,  son  of  Hugh  the  Great  by  his  wife  Hed- 
wiga, and  grandson  of  Emperor  Henry  I.  of  Germany,  was 
born  about   940.     He   is  celebrated   as   the   founder   of   the 

16  241 


Capetian  dynasty,  the  third  race  of  French  kings.  He 
inherited  from  his  father  the  duchy  of  France  and  the  county 
of  Paris  and  soon  became  one  of  the  most  powerful  princes  of 
his  age.  Upon  the  death  of  Louis  V.,  the  last  of  the  Carlo- 
vingian  kings,  the  nobles  and  bishops  assembled  and  selected 
Hugh  Capet  to  hold  the  throne.  He  was  crowned  July  3, 
987.  His  reign  was  illustrious  beyond  that  of  any  of  his 
predecessors,  and  he  ended  by  making  the  crown  an  hereditary 
possession  of  his  family,  bequeathing  it  directly  to  his  son 
Robert.     He  died  in  996. 

Robert  I.,  king  of  France,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born 
in  971.  He  had  a  long  but  inglorious  reign,  remaining 
on  the  throne  twenty-five  years.  He  was  of  an  easy,  kindly 
disposition  and  was  never  able  to  quiet  the  turbulent  nobles 
who  surrounded  him.  His  ambitious  queen  and  her  fol- 
lowers made  particular  trouble  for  him,  and  it  is  said  that 
he  felt  quite  resigned  when  the  approach  of  death  indicated 
that  he  was  to  be  liberated  from  the  cares  of  his  lifetime. 
He  died  in  1031.  He  married  Constance,  daughter  of 
William,  Count  of  Toulouse. 

Adele,  daughter  of  the  preceding,  married,  first,  Richard 
III.,  Duke  of  Normandy,  and  second,  Baldwin  V.,  Count  of 
Flanders.  Matilda,  daughter  of  Count  Baldwin  and  Adele, 
married,  as  we  have  before  seen,  William  the  Conqueror, 
and  became  the  ancestress  of  the  Bruces. 

Jm  Jm  ^  ^  J^  J^  _  Jm 



Pepin,  founder  of  the  house  that  produced  the  Counts 
OF  Vermandois,  was  one  of  the  sons  of  Charlemagne.  He 
became  King  of  Italy,  and  of  other  countries  of  Europe. 
He  died  in  810. 

Bernard,  son  of  the  preceding,  died  in  818. 

Pepin,  son  of  the  preceding,  manifested  little  disposition 
for  the  strenuous  life  of  that  period,  and  does  not  appear  to 
have  been  in  any  way  conspicuous  in  the  battling  for  power 
and  possessions  that  absorbed  the  attention  of  most  of  the 
men  of  that  age. 

Heribert,  son  of  the  preceding,  became  the  first  Count 
of  Vermandois  and  maintained  himself  securely  in  master- 
ship over  that  little  kingdom.     He  died  in  902. 

Heribert,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  to  the  throne  of 
Vermandois  in  902.  He  died  in  943,  after  a  long  and  peace- 
ful reign. 

Alisa,  daughter  of  the  preceding,  married  Arnulf  I.,  Count 
of  Flanders  and  Artois,  from  whom,  in  the  sixth  generation, 
descended  Matilda,  who  married  William  the  Conqueror.- 





FROM  the  beginnings  of  its  long  career  the  house  of 
Bruce  became  connected  in  marriage,  generation 
after  generation,  with  most  of  the  powerful  families 
of  Scotland.  The  Bruce  strength  as  claimant  to  the  throne 
of  Scotland  was  decidedly  reinforced  by  these  alliances, 
which  also  added  the  increased  distinction  of  notable  ances- 
tral traditions  through  various  collateral  lines.  The  sons  and 
daughters  of  Bruce  were  naturally  sought  in  marriage  by 
the  other  noble  families  with  whom  they  were  associated  and 
especially  since  few  of  those  had  any  trace  of  royal  descent 
such  as  made  the  Bruces  conspicuous  among  their  con- 
temporaries. Almost  alone  in  rivalry  on  the  ground  of  this 
royal  origin  were  the  Baliols  and  the  Cumyns  who  traced  to 
the  ancient  kingly  house  of  Scotland  the  same  as  the  Bruces. 
But  even  they,  notable  though  they  were,  had  not  behind  them 
the  royal  ancestry  in  other  lines  that  the  Bruces  possessed. 

Genealogically,  therefore,  the  history  of  the  Bruces  clearly 
includes  the  history  of  the  largest  proportion  of  the  promi- 
nent families  of  Scotland  from  the  year  1000  onward,  and 
afterwards  of  many  of  the  foremost  noble  families  of  Eng^ 
land  as  well.  So  far  as  the  marriages  of  the  Bruces,  either 
on  the  male  or  female  lines,  into  these  families  is  concerned, 
the  distinction  achieved  by  them  becomes  part  of  the  dis- 
tinction naturally  belonging  to  the  Bruce  stock.     In  other 



chapters  of  this  book  special  attention  has  been  given  to  the 
inheritances  that  came  to  the  Bruces  through  marriage  and 
intermarriage  into  several  of  the  more  conspicuous  families 
of  that  age,  such  as  the  Stewarts  and  the  Cavendishes. 
Scarcely  of  lesser  interest  is  the  history  of  other  families,  of 
lesser  fame  only  to  those  just  mentioned. 

ijv  Jw  f2^  V*  (^*  (^*  ^* 

By  the  marriage  of  Lady  Mary,  daughter  of  Donald,  the 
tenth  Earl  of  Mar,  to  King  Robert  Bruce  I.,  the  line  of  one 
of  the  oldest  noble  houses  of  Scotland  was  connected  with  that 
of  Bruce.  Concerning  the  title  of  Mar,  Lord  Hailes  remarks 
that  it  is  one  of  the  earldoms  whose  origin  has  been  lost  in  the 
mists  of  antiquity.  The  first  Earl  of  Mar  of  whom  there  is 
any  record  is  Martacus  who  was  living  under  King  Malcolm 
Canmore  in  1065.  Gratnach,  son  of  Martacus,  is  recorded 
as  one  of  the  witnesses  to  the  foundation  charter  given  by 
Alexander  I.  to  the  monastery  at  Scone  in  1114.  Morgundus, 
son  of  Gratnach,  was  the  third  Earl  of  Mar,  and  lived  in  the 
time  of  King  Malcolm  IV.  Gillocher,  son  of  Morgundus, 
was  living  in  1163  and  was  the  fourth  Earl  of  Mar. 

MoRGUND,  son  of  Gillocher,  was  living  in  1171  and  was  the 
fifth  Earl  of  Mar.  According  to  a  curious  writing  preserved 
by  the  historian  Selden,  he  received  in  1171  from  King  William 
I.  a  renewal  of  the  investures  of  the  earldom.  He  donated 
much  property  to  the  church  and  gave  lands  to  the  Priory  of 
St.  Andrew's  "for  the  welfare  of  the  souls  of  himself  and 
his  wife  Agnes."     He  had  five  sons:    Gilbert,  who  was  the 



sixth  Earl  of  Mar;  Gilchrist,  who  was  the  seventh  Earl  of 
Mar;  Duncan,  who  was  \he  eighth  Earl  of  Mar;  Malcolm,  and 

Duncan,  third  son  of  the  preceding,  became  the  eighth 
Earl  of  Mar,  succeeding  his  two  elder  brothers  who  died 
without  issue.  He  was  living  in  the  reign  of  King  Alexander 
II.  and  made  donations  to  the  church  of  St.  Mary  of  Mony- 
munk,  being  also  a  benefactor  of  the  monks  of  Culdees. 
He  died  some  time  before  1234.  He  married  Isabella, 
daughter  of  William,  son  of  Nessius,  lord  of  Latherisk. 

William,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  father  and 
became  the  ninth  Earl  of  Mar.  He  was  a  trusted  counsellor 
of  King  Alexander  III.  and  was  one  of  the  nobles  who  guar- 
anteed the  treaties  of  Scotland  with  England  in  1237  and  1244. 
When  the  party  of  Henry  III.  prevailed  in  Scotland  in  1255 
he  was  removed  from  his  official  position  in  the  government 
of  King  Alexander,  but  in  1258  he  was  chosen  a  regent  of 
Scotland,  and  in  1264  was  made  Great  Chamberlain  of  Scot- 
land. He  was  sent  on  a  special  mission  to  King  Henry  HI. 
of  England  in  1270  and  died  shortly  after  that  time.  He 
married  Elizabeth  Cumyn,  daughter  of  William  Cumyn, 
Earl  of  Buchan.  She  died  in  1267.  He  had  two  sons, 
Donald  and  Duncan. 

Donald,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  tenth  Earl  of 
Mar.     He  was  knighted  by  King  Alexander  III.  at  Scone, 



September  29,  1270.  He  was  one  of  the  Scottish  nobles  who 
in  February,  1283-4,  bound  themselves  to  support  the  right 
of  succession  of  Margaret  of  Norway  to  the  throne  of  Scot- 
land in  the  contingency  that  King  Alexander  III.  should  die 
without  leaving  a  male  heir.  He  was  witness  to  the  contract 
between  Margaret  of  Scotland  and  King  Eric  of  Norway  in 
1281,  and  was  otherwise  prominent  in  all  the  great  events 
of  his  age.  He  died  in  1294.  His  daughter,  Lady  Isabel, 
married  King  Robert  Bruce  I.,  and  his  daughter,  Lady  Mary, 
married  Kenneth,  the  third  Earl  of  Sutherland. 

Gratney,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his  father  in  the 
earldom  in  1294.  He  died  some  time  before  1300.  He 
married  Christiana  Bruce,  daughter  of  Robert  Bruce,  Earl 
of  Carrick,  and  sister  of  King  Robert  Bruce.  Besides  his 
son  Donald,  he  had  a  daughter  who  married  Sir  John  Men- 

Donald,  son  of  the  preceding,  became  the  twelfth  Earl 
of  Mar  upon  the  death  of  his  father  in  1300.  He  was  in- 
timately associated  with  his  royal  uncle.  King  Robert  Bruce, 
in  the  early  campaigns  of  that  monarch.  When  the  Bruce 
was  defeated  in  1306  the  Earl  of  Mar  was  made  a  prisoner 
by  the  English  and  was  detained  in  captivity  until  the  battle 
of  Bannockburn  in  1314.  He  was  one  of  the  party  of  Scotch 
prisoners,  which  included  the  wife,  sister,  and  daughter  of 
Bruce,  who  after  that  event  were  exchanged  for  the  Earl  of 
Hereford.     For  a  short  time  he  resided  in  England,  but   in 



1318  he  was  a  member  of  the  ParUament  that  met  at  Scone. 
He  was  appointed  by  King  Edward  II.  of  England  as  the 
guardian  of  the  Castle  of  Bristol  which  he  afterwards  de- 
livered to  the  Queen,  and  himself  returned  to  Scotland.  In 
the  invasion  conducted  into  England  by  Randolph  and 
Douglas  in  1327  he  had  a  small  command.  After  the  death 
of  Randolph,  who  was  then  Regent  of  the  kingdom.  Mar 
was  elected  by  Parliament  to  the  vacancy.  As  Regent  he 
assumed  command  of  the  Scottish  army,  but  was  defeated  by 
Edward  Baliol  in  1332  and  killed  in  the  rout  that  followed. 
He  married  Isabel,  daughter  of  Sir  Alexander  Stewart  of 
Bonkill,  and  had,  besides  his  son  Thomas,  a  daughter  Mar- 

Thomas,  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  to  the  earldom 
of  Mar.  He  was  conspicuous  in  public  transactions  in  the 
time  of  King  David  II.,  and  held  many  important  official 
positions.  He  was  entrusted  with  the  mission  to  England 
to  plead  for  the  liberation  of  King  David  II.  from  captivity 
in  1351.  When  King  David  was  released  in  1357  he  was  one 
of  the  seven  lords  of  Scotland  from  whom  three  were  selected 
as  hostages  for  the  fulfillment  of  the  terms  of  the  treaty.  He 
was  Great  Chamberlain  of  Scotland  in  1358  and  ambassador 
to  England  in  1362.  He  held  many  lands  and  was  made  a. 
pensioner  by  King  Edward  III.  He  was  married  three  times, 
but  died  without  issue  and  with  him  the  male  line  of  the 
earls  of  Mar  became  extinct. 

«^  ^*  t?*  «^  (^  ^*  j^ 



"No  surname  in  Scotland  can  boast  of  a  more  noble  origin 
than  that  of  Dunbar;  being  sprung  from  the  Saxon  kings 
of  England,  the  princes  and  earls  of  Northumberland."* 

Crinan,  the  first  of  the  family  of  whom  there  is  any  record, 
was  a  nobleman  before  the  conquest  of  England  by  William 
of  Normandy.  He  was  probably  of  the  royal  line  of  Athol, 
for  it  is  recorded  that  Crinan  was  the  father  of  Duncan  who 
attacked  Macbeth  in  1045.  The  Irish  annalists  say  that 
Crinan,  the  Abbott  of  Dunkeld,  and  many  with  him,  even 
twenty  heroes,  were  engaged  in  that  affair.  Crinan  married 
Algitha,  daughter  of  Uchtred,  Earl  of  Northumberland,  by 
Elgiva,  his  wife,  who  was  a  daughter  of  King  Ethelbert  of 

Maldred  was  a  son  of  the  preceding. 

CosPATRic,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  in  Scotland  before 
1068.  He  was  created  Earl  of  Northumberland  by  William 
the  Conqueror,  but  was  soon  deprived  of  that  honor  on  account 
of  some  disagreement  with  his  royal  master.  Thereupon  he 
fled  to  Scotland  where  he  was  received  by  King  Malcolm 
Canmore  who  gave  to  him  Dunbar  and  lands  adjoining. 
Not  only  was  he  an  earl  but  he  became  a  monk  of  Durham, 
and  dying  in  December,  1069,  was  buried  in  the  monks'  bury- 
ing ground  at  Durham. 

CosPATRic,  son  of    the  preceding,  was    the  second  Earl. 

*  Douglas'  Baronage  of  Scotland. 


He  was  a  great  benefactor  to  the  Abbey  of  Kelso.     He  died 
August  16,  1139. 

CosPATRic,  son  of  the  preceding,  belonged  to  the  brother- 
hood of  Kelso.     He  died  in  1147. 

CosPATRic,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  fourth 
earl.  He  founded  the  Cistercian  convents  of  Coldstream 
and  Eccles,  in  Berwick  County,  and  was  a  benefactor  of  the 
Abbey  of  Melrose.  He  died  in  1166,  leaving  two  sons  by 
his  wife  Derder. 

Waldere,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  fifth  earl, 
but  the  first  to  have  the  territorial  designation  of  Dunbar. 
He  was  one  of  the  hostages  for  the  due  performance  of  the 
treaty  for  the  liberation  of  King  William  I.  He  died  in  1182. 
He  married  Aelina  and  left  two  sons  and  one  daughter. 

Patricius,  or  Patrick  Dunbar,  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
the  sixth  earl.  He  was  justiciary  of  Lothian  and  keeper  of 
Berwick.  In  1218  he  founded  the  House  of  the  Red  Friars 
at  Dunbar,  and  when  advanced  in  years  retired  to  a  monas- 
tery. He  died  in  1232.  He  married,  first,  Ada,  daughter  of 
King  William  the  Lion;  second,  Christina.  By  his  first 
wife  he  had  four  sons  and  one  daughter. 

Patrick  Dunbar,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the 
seventh  earl  in  1232.     He  was  a  powerful  noble  of  the  first 



rank  and  was  a  crusader  under  King  Louis  IX.  He  gave  a 
house  to  the  monks  of  Dryebergh  and  lands  to  Melros.  In 
1235  he  commanded  the  army  sent  against  Thomas  Dow- 
mac-Allan  of  Galloway,  the  usurper,  and  made  him  submit. 
He  was  a  witness  to  the  treaty  between  King  Alexander  II. 
of  Scotland  and  King  Henry  II.  of  England  at  York  in  1237, 
and  one  of  the  guarantors  of  it,  and  also  of  another  treaty 
in  1244,  between  the  same  monarchs.  He  was  killed  at  the 
siege  of  Damietta  in  1248.  He  married  Eupheme,  second 
daughter  of  Walter,  High  Steward  of  Scotland. 

Patrick  Dunbar,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  eighth 
earl.  Taking  a  prominent  and  active  part  in  Scotch  politics, 
he  stood  with  the  EngUsh  party.  After  the  death  of  King 
Alexander  III.  he  was  one  of  the  regents,  and  one  of  "the 
seven  earls  of  Scotland,"  a  body  wholly  distinct  from  the 
other  estates  of  the  kingdom.  He  died  in  1289.  He  was 
the  first  to  sign  himself  Earl  of  March,  which  he  did  in  1248. 
He  commanded  the  left  wing  of  the  Scottish  army  at  Largs. 
He  married  Christiana  Bruce,  daughter  of  Robert  Bruce, 
Lord  of  Annandale.  She  founded  "  ane  house  of  religione  in 
ye  toune  of  Dunbar." 

Patrick  Dunbar,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  ninth 
earl  of  Dunbar  and  also  bore  the  title  of  Earl  of  March. 
He  was  surnamed  Blackbeard.  He  was  a  steadfast  supporter 
of  the  English  interests,  in  1298  was  King  Edward's  lieu- 
tenant in  Scotland,  and  in  1300  was  on  the  English  side  at 



the  siege  of  Carlaverock.  He  married  Marjory  Cumyn, 
daughter  of  Alexander  Cpmyn,  Earl  of  Buchan,  and  as  his 
wife  sided  with  the  Scottish  party  Dunbar  was  not  always 
able  to  meet  the  demands  of  fealty  to  the  English  sovereign. 

Patrick  Dunbar,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  tenth 
Earl.  He  was  with  his  father  at  Carlaverock  and  after  the 
battle  of  Bannockburn  assisted  King  Edward  III.  to  escape. 
Making  peace  with  King  Robert  Bruce,  he  was  appointed 
governor  of  Berwick  castle  and  valiantly  held  that  fortress 
against  King  Edward  III.  At  the  battle  of  Durham  he 
commanded  the  left  wing  of  the  Scottish  army.  He  died 
in  1369.  He  married  Agnes,  daughter  of  Thomas  Randolph, 
Earl  of  Moray.  His  countess,  known  in  history  as  Black 
Agnes,  was  a  grand-niece  of  King  Robert  Bruce.  In  January, 
1337-8,  during  a  siege  of  nineteen  weeks,  she  made  a  gallant 
and  successful  defence  of  the  castle  of  Dunbar  against  the 
assaults  of  the  English  led  by  the  Earl  of  Salisbury.  This 
affair  is  memorable  in  Scottish  annals  and  has  been  the 
subject  of  many  a  minstrel's  song. 

j»  j»  Jt  Jt  j»  j»  j» 

In  an  interpolated  passage  in  Fordun's  monumental  work 
on  early  Scotland*  is  the  following  account  of  the  origin  of 
the  name  of  Scrimgeour. 

"Early  in  the  reign  of  King  Alexander  I,  who  ascended 
the  Scottish  throne  in  1107,  some  of  the  men  of  Mearns  and 
Moray  assaulted  the  residence  of  his  majesty,  who  escaped 

♦  Scotochronicon,  by  John  of  Fordim. 


by  the  assistance  of  one  of  his  bed  chamber  men,  called 
Alexander  Carron,  through  a  private  passage.  The  King 
raising  forces  went  in  pursuit  of  the  rebels  and  came  in  sight 
of  them  on  the  other  side  of  the  Spey.  The  river  was  then 
high;  but  the  King  giving  his  standard  to  Carron,  whom  he 
knew  to  excel  in  courage  and  resolution,  that  brave  oflBcer 
crossed  the  Spey  and  planted  the  standard  on  the  other  side 
in  sight  of  the  rebels.  The  royal  army  followed,  the  adver- 
saries taking  to  flight.  In  reward  of  the  gallant  service  of 
Alexander  Carron  the  King  constituted  him  and  his  heirs 
heritable  standard-bearers  of  Scotland;  made  him  a  grant 
of  lands  and  conferred  on  him  the  name  of  Scrimgeour, 
signifying  a  hardy  fighter." 

Alexander  Scrimgeour,  descended  from  Alexander  Car- 
ron, the  original  holder  of  the  name  of  Scrimgeour,  was  one 
of  the  most  active  and  most  valiant  associates  of  William 
Wallace  in  that  patriot's  glorious  attempt  to  restore  the 
liberties  of  Scotland.  When  Wallace  was  constituted  gov- 
ernor of  Scotland,  in  recognition  of  the  services  of  Scrim- 
geour he  conferred  upon  him  the  constabulary  of  the  castle 
of  Dundee,  giving  this  grant  for  his  "faithful  aid  in  bearing 
the  banner  of  Scotland  which  service  he  actually  performs." 
This  grant  was  dated  at  Torphichen  March  29,  1298. 

NicoLL  Scrimgeour,  or  Skyrmeschour,  as  the  name  is 
sometimes  spelled  in  the  records,  son  of  the  preceding,  had 
from  King  Robert  I.  a  charter  of  the  office  of  standard-bearer 
and  also  grants  of  lands  in  the  barony  of  Inverkeithing, 
forfeited  by  Roger  Moubray. 

Alexander   Scrimgeour,   son   of  the   preceding,   had  a 



charter  of  lands  near  Dundee  in  1357,  and  a  letter  of  safe 
conduct  into  England  in  1366.  In  a  charter  of  1378  by 
King  Robert  II.  he  is  spoken  of  as  Constable  of  Dundee.  He 
died  in  1383. 

Sir  James  Scrimgeour,  son  of  the  preceding,  in  several 
charters  of  his  time  by  King  Robert  II.  and  King  Robert  III., 
also  is  mentioned  as  Constable  of  Dundee.  Among  those 
who  accompanied  Alexander,  Earl  of  Mar,  to  Flanders,  in 
the  service  of  the  Duke  of  Burgundy  in  1408  was: 

"Schere  James  Scremgeoure  of  Dundee, 
Comendit   a  famous  Knight  was  he, 
The  Kingis  banneoure  of  fe, 
A  lord  that  wele  aucht  lovit  be."* 

He  fought  at  the  battle  of  Harlaw,  July  24,  1411,  under  the 
same  Alexander,  Earl  of  Mar,  against  Donald,  Lord  of  the 
Isles,  and  was  there  killed.  The  name  of  his  wife  was  Egidia. 
He  had  a  daughter  Egidia  who  married  James  Maitland, 
second  son  of  Sir  Robert  Maitland  of  Leithington. 

Sir  John  Scrimgeour,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  also 
Constable  of  Dundee.  Previous  to  April,  1413,  he  was  for 
many  months  a  prisoner  in  the  tower  of  London,  presumably 
for  political  reasons.  In  1444  he  had  a  charter  from  Alex- 
ander, Earl  of  Ross,  Lord  of  the  Isles  and  Baron  of  Kin- 
cardine, of  lands  in  Kincardinshire.  One  of  his  daughters 
married  Robert  Bruce,  second  Baron  of  Cultmalindie. 

1^  jli  J^  J^  J*  ^  «^ 

*  De  Orygynale  Cronykil  of  Scotland,  by  Andrew  of  Wyntoun. 
17  257 


The  earldom  of  Gloucester  was  a  foundation  by  King 
Henry  I.  of  England.  It  dates  from  the  early  part  of  the 
twelfth  century. 

Robert,  the  first  Earl  of  Gloucester,  was  the  son  of  King 
Henry  I.,  and  was  born  in  Caen,  France.  Upon  the  occasion 
of  his  marriage  his  father  gave  to  him  large  properties  in 
Normandy,  Wales,  and  England,  so  that  he  was  one  of  the 
richest  men  of  his  time.  Among  these  properties  was  the 
"honour  of  Gloucester"  which  the  King  formed  into  the  earl- 
dom that  afterwards  became  so  distinguished.  Robert  was 
intimately  associated  with  his  father  in  all  that  monarch's 
battling  in  Normandy  and  elsewhere.  He  was  his  father's  most 
beloved  son,  and  was  preferred  far  beyond  any  other  mem- 
ber of  the  family. 

He  was  the  only  child  present  at  his  father's  death,  and 
following  that  event  he  was  urged  by  his  father's  followers 
and  by  others  to  lay  claim  to  and  contest  the  crown  of  Eng- 
land. But,  without  ambition  in  that  direction,  he  declined  the 
proffered  honor,  contenting  himself  with  the  earldom.  His 
birth  gave  him  unusual  prominence  and  he  could  not  keep 
entirely  out  of  the  rivalries  and  contests  of  the  period.  King 
Stephen  especially  disliked  him,  and  quarreled  with  him  fre- 
quently, but  Robert  succeeded  in  maintaining  his  independ- 
ence and  keeping  himself  aloof  during  the  war  that  was 
waged  against  Stephen.  Nevertheless  he  felt  himself  con- 
strained to  go  to  the  assistance  of  his  half-sister  Matilda  in 
Normandy  in  1138. 



Subsequently,  in  1141,  through  King  Stephen's  warring 
against  Matilda,  he  found  himself  drawn  into  that  contest 
and  was  captured  in  the  battle  at  Winchester  at  the  same 
time  that  Stephen  was  captured  by  the  opposing  forces. 
The  two  warriors  were  exchanged  for  each  other.  He  always 
championed  the  cause  of  his  sister  and  was  the  main  support 
of  the  Angevin  party  that  was  promoted  by  Geoffrey  of  An- 
gevin, Matilda's  second  husband.  He  was  a  warrior,  states- 
man, and  scholar,  and  left  a  deep  impress  upon  the  age  in 
which  he  lived.  He  died  in  Bristol,  October  31,  1147.  He 
married  Mabel,  or  Matilda,  or  Sybil,  daughter  of  Robert 
Fitz  Hamon  and  had  by  her  six  children. 

The  ancient  family  of  Fitz  Hamon  was  derived  from 
an  ancestor,  Richard  Fitz  Hamon,  who  was  a  son  or 
nephew  of  RoUo,  the  first  Duke  of  Normandy.  Its  repre- 
sentatives were  in  Neustria  from  the  very  beginning  of  the 
invasion  of  that  territory  by  the  Normans,  and  they  were 
possessed  of  important  lordships  in  various  parts  of  the 
country  under  the  rule  of  the  dukes  of  Normandy.  The 
house  was  old  and  illustrious  and  had  many  distinctions 
long  before  the  appearance  of  Robert  Fitz  Hamon  in  England. 

Robert  Fitz  Hamon  came  from  Normandy  with  William 
the  Conqueror,  and  after  the  battle  of  Hastings  settled'  in 
Kent  where  he  became  possessed  of  extensive  lands.  When 
the  Normans  pushed  their  way  into  Wales  for  the  purpose 
of  conquering  that  section  of  Britain  this  noble  had  a  con- 
spicuous and  useful  part  in  the  campaign.     He  was  really 



the  leader  in  the  invasion,  and  it  was  wholly  due  to  his  efforts 
that  Glamorgan  was  conquered.  So  complete  was  his 
success  that,  with  the  approval  of  King  William,  he  established 
himself  in  Wales  permanently,  beginning  the  construction  at 
Cardiff,  in  1080,  of  a  castle  which  in  after  years  and  for  many 
generations  was  the  seat  of  the  family.  It  has  been  well  said 
of  him  that  he  really  founded  in  Wales  a  county  palatinate. 
He  added  much  to  the  possessions  of  Tewksbury  Abbey 
and  was  called  the  second  founder  of  that  institution.  He 
also  endowed  the  monks  with  many  titles  and  was  especially 
liberal  to  the  Abbey  of  St.  Paul's  in  Gloucestershire.  Devoted 
to  the  cause  of  King  William  I.,  he  was  a  close  confidant  of 
King  William  Rufus,  King  William's  son  and  successor, 
until  the  death  of  the  latter  monarch.  Then  he  attached 
himself  to  the  cause  of  King  Henry  I.,  and  was  a  stalwart 
defender  of  that  king  in  all  the  difficulties  that  assailed  his 
throne.  At  the  siege  of  Calais  he  was  wounded  and  as  a 
result  died  in  March,  1107.  He  married  Sybil  of  Mont- 

William,  son  of  Robert,  the  first  Earl  of  Gloucester,  by 
his  wife  Mabel  Fitz  Hamon,  succeeded  his  father  and  be- 
came the  second  Earl  of  Gloucester.  He  married  Hawse, 
daughter  of  Robert,  surnamed  Bossu,  Earl  of  Leicester. 
He  died  in  1173,  leaving  no  son  but  three  daughters,  and 
with  him  the  earldom  of  Gloucester  in  the  male  line  of  his 
family  ceased. 







Amicia,  daughter  of  the  preceding,  married  Richard  de 
Clare,  and  was  the  grandmother  of  Isabel  de  Clare  who 
married  Robert  Bruce. 

The  Huntingdon  family  to  which  belonged  David,  Earl  of 
Huntingdon,  whose  daughter,  Isabella  of  Huntingdon,  married 
Robert  Bruce,  was  of  ancient  Saxon  origin  as  well  as  of  the 
royal  family  of  Scotland. 

Waltheof,  son  of  Syward  the  Saxon,  who  was  Earl  of 
Northumberland,  lived  in  the  time  of  King  William  I.  of 
England.  He  received  from  King  William  the  earldoms  of 
Huntingdon  and  Northampton,  on  the  occasion  of  his  marriage 
with  Judith,  daughter  of  a  sister  of  King  William  on  his 
Norman  mother's  side.  Subsequently  Waltheof  disagreed 
with  his  royal  uncle  and  took  part  in  a  conspiracy  to  expel 
him  and  the  Normans  from  England.  In  this  he  was  un- 
successful and  in  consequence  thereof  was  beheaded  in  1075. 

Maud,  or  Matilda,  daughter  of  Waltheof,  married  for 
her  second  husband,  David,  son  of  King  Malcolm  of  Scot- 
land, and  through  her  David  became  possessed  of  the  earl- 
doms of  Huntingdon  and  Northumberland.  Subsequently 
he  became  King  of  Scotland. 

Henry,  son  of  the  preceding,  obtained  from  King  Stephen 
of  England  the  earldom  of  Huntingdon.  He  married  Ada, 
sister  of  William,  Earl  of  Warren  and  Surrey. 



David,  son  of  Prince  Henry  and  great-grandson  of  Wal- 
theof ,  first  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  had  by  his  wife,  who  was  the 
daughter  of  Hugh,  Earl  of  Chester,  Isabel  who  married 
Robert  Bruce. 

The  DE  Clare  or  de  Claire  family  which  became  con- 
nected with  the  house  of  Bruce  was  descended  from  Richard 
de  Claire  who  came  into  England  with  William  the  Conqueror. 
Geoffrey,  son  of  Richard  I.,  Duke  of  Normandy,  was  its 
ancestor.  He  had  a  son  Giselbert,  named  Crispin,  who  was 
earl  of  Brion  in  Normandy.  Dugdale  gives  this  ancestry 
of  Richard  de  Clare,  although  Hornby  says  that  he  was  the 
son  of  Gilbert,  officiary  Earl  of  Auci  or  Owe  in  Normandy. 

Richard  de  Clare  received  great  honors  and  possessions 
from  William  the  Conqueror.  At  the  time  of  the  survey  he 
was  called  Richard  de  Tonebruge  (Tunbridge),  Kent,  from 
the  seat  which  he  had  established  there.  He  had  thirty- 
eight  lordships  in  Surrey,  thirty-five  in  Essex,  three  in  Cam- 
bridge, and  ninety-five  in  Sussex.  Among  other  places  that 
he  owned  was  Benfield,  in  Northamptonshire,  from  which 
he  was  called  Ricardus  de  Benefacta.  From  his  manor  in 
Suffolk  he  had  the  name  of  Richard  de  Clare.  In  a  few 
years  that  became  the  seat  of  the  family  and  his  heirs  took 
the  title  of  Lords  of  Clare.  It  is  said  that  he  was  killed  by  the 
Welsh  while  on  a  hostile  expedition  into  that  country.  He 
married  Rohesia,  daughter  of  Walter  Gifford,  Earl  of  Buck- 



ingham,  and  had  six  sons  and  two  daughters.  His  son, 
Richard  de  Clare,  became  Abbot  of  Ely,  and  his  son,  Robert 
de  Clare,  was  steward  of  King  Henry  I.  of  England. 

Gilbert  de  Clare,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded 
to  the  possession  of  his  father's  lands  in  England  and  resided 
at  Tonebruge.  He  was  engaged  in  rebellion  against  King 
William  Rufus,  but  after  a  time  became  reconciled  to  that 
monarch.  He  married  in  1113  Adeliza,  daughter  of  the 
Earl  of  Claremont,  and  had  five  sons  and  one  daughter. 
His  son,  Gilbert  de  Clare,  was  Earl  of  Pembroke,  and  had  a 
son  who  became  the  celebrated  Richard  Strongbow  and 
conquered  Ireland. 

Richard  de  Clare,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  established 
himself  in  Wales,  and  his  family  remained  there  for  generations. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  to  hold  the  title  of  Earl  of 
Hertford.  He  was  killed  by  the  Welsh  in  1139.  He  married 
Alice,  sister  of  Ranulph,  second  Earl  of  Chester,  and  had 
two  sons  and  one  daughter.  His  son,  Gilbert  de  Clare,  be- 
came the  second  Earl  of  Hertford,  but  died  in  1151  without 
issue.  His  daughter,  Alice  de  Clare,  married  Cadwallader- 
ap-GriflBth,  who  was  a  prince  of  North  Wales. 

Roger  de  Clare,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded 
his  brother,  Gilbert  de  Clare,  and  became  third  Earl  of 
Hertford.  From  the  king  he  obtained  large  grants  of  land  in 
Wales,  and  built  and  fortified  many  castles  there.     In  the 



tenth  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Henry  II.,  he  was  one  of  the 
earls  present  at  the  recognition  of  the  ancient  customs  and 
liberties  confirmed  by  his  ancestors.  For  his  works  of  piety 
he  was  surnamed  "the  good."  He  died  in  1173.  He  married 
Maud,  daughter  of  James  de  St.  Hillary,  and  had  one  son. 

Richard  de  Clare,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  fourth 
Earl  of  Hertford.  He  was  one  of  the  twenty-five  barons 
who  bound  themselves  to  enforce  the  observance  of  Magna 
Charta.  He  died  in  1218.  He  married  Amicia,  daughter  of 
William,  the  second  Earl  of  Gloucester,  and  through  his 
wife  became  possessed  of  that  earldom. 

Gilbert  de  Clare,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  fifth 
Earl  of  Hertford,  and  the  first  Earl  of  Gloucester  and  Hert- 
ford jointly.  He  was  one  of  the  twenty-five  barons  who 
opposed  the  arbitrary  proceedings  of  King  John  and  upheld 
the  Magna  Charta.  He  was  also  prominent  in  the  Barons' 
War  and  supported  the  cause  of  the  Dauphin  Louis  of  France. 
At  the  battle  of  Lincoln  in  1217  he  was  taken  prisoner,  but 
afterwards  made  his  peace  with  the  king.  He  died  in  1230. 
He  married  Isabel,  daughter  of  William  Mareschal,  Earl  of 
Pembroke.  His  youngest  daughter,  Isabel,  married  Robert 

J*  ut  J*  Jt  jt  ^  Jt 

The  founder  of  the  house  of  Carrick  of  Scotland  was 
Fergus,  Lord  of  Galloway,  who  married  Elizabeth,  daughter 



of  King  Henry  I.     At  liis  death  in  1161  he  left  two  sons, 
Gilbert  and  Uchtred,  between  whom  his  lands  were  divided. 

Gilbert,  with  his  brother  Uchtred,  attended  King  William 
the  Lion  in  the  invasion  of  England  in  1174,  but  subsequently 
sought  the  favor  of  King  Henry  II.  In  the  same  year  he 
procured  the  assassination  of  his  brother,  and,  although  for 
some  time  he  was  held  in  royal  disfavor  on  this  account,  he 
was  received  into  the  presence  of  King  Henry  two  years  later 
and  was  pardoned.  Under  the  protection  of  the  English 
monarch  he  carried  war  into  Scotland  in  1184,  but  before 
hostilities  were  concluded  he  died,  in  January,  1185-6. 

Duncan,  son  of  the  preceding,  in  the  endeavor  to  heal  the 
family  difficulties,  entered  into  an  amicable  conclusion  with 
his  cousin  Roland,  son  of  the  murdered  Uchtred.  He  was 
also  a  vassal  of  King  William  of  Scotland,  defended  the  dis- 
trict of  ancient  Galloway,  and  was  confirmed  in  the  possession 
of  the  territory  of  Carrick  in  1186.  Carrick  was  the  southern- 
most of  the  three  districts  into  which  the  county  of  Ayr  was 
divided  and  gave  title  to  the  earldom.  Duncan  was  created 
Earl  of  Carrick  by  King  Alexander  11. ,  founded  the  Abbey  of 
Crossramore,  or  Crossregal,  for  the  Cluniac  monks,  and  also 
endowed  other  monkish  orders  of  Paisley  and  Melrose. 

NiEL  Carrick,  son  of  the  preceding,  followed  the  example 
of  his  father  in  acts  of  piety,  making  liberal  gifts  to  the  mon- 
asteries of  Crossramore,  or  Crossregal,  and  of  Sandale  in 
Kintyre.     He   was   received    under   the   protection   of   King 



Henry  III.  in  1255  and  the  same  year  was  appointed  one  of 
the  regents  of  Scotland  and  guardian  of  Alexander  III.  and 
that  monarch's  queen.  He  died  June  13,  1256.  He  married 
Margaret,  daughter  of  Walter,  High  Steward  of  Scotland. 
His  daughter  Marjory  (Carrick)  de  Kilconcath  married  the 
eighth  Robert  Bruce  and,  becoming  Countess  of  Carrick  in 
her  own  right,  brought  to  her  husband  and  transmitted  to 
her  descendants  the  earldom  of  Carrick.  This  matrimonial 
alliance  of  the  Bruces  with  the  house  of  the  High  Steward 
of  Scotland  was  recalled  several  generations  later  when 
Marjory  Bruce,  daughter  of  King  Robert  Bruce,  married 
Walter,  the  head  of  the  house  of  Stewart  of  Scotland. 

UcHTRED,  the  second  son  of  Fergus,  Lord  of  Galloway, 
married  Guinolda,  who  was  the  daughter  of  Waldeve  of  the 
Dunbar  family.  Waldeve  was  the  grandson  of  Crinan,  the 
founder  of  the  noble  house  of  Dunbar,  and  succeeding  his 
brother,  Cospatric,  who  died  in  1139,  had  the  barony  of 
AUandale  and  other  lands,  maintaining  his  home  at  Cocker- 
mouth  castle.     He  married  Sigarith,  a  Saxon  lady. 

Roland,  of  Galloway,  son  of  the  preceding,  after  the 
death  of  his  uncle  Gilbert  who  had  murdered  his  father, 
defeated  the  vassals  of  Gilbert,  slaying  their  commander 
Gilpatrick  in  July,  1185.  He  finally  came  into  possession  of 
the  whole  of  Galloway  which  he  stubbornly  held  against  all 
enemies.  He  married  Elena  Morville,  daughter  of  Richard 
Morville,  by  whom  he  had  several  sons. 



Alan,  of  Galloway,  son  of  the  preceding,  had  by  his  first 
wife,  whose  name  is  unknown,  a  daughter,  Elena,  who  married 
Roger  de  Quincey,  Earl  of  Winchester.  He  married, 
second,  in  1209,  Margaret,  the  eldest  daughter  of  David, 
Earl  of  Huntingdon,  and  had  a  son,  Thomas,  and  two  daugh- 
ters, Christiana  and  Dervorgill.  The  last  named  married 
John  Baliol  of  Bernard  Castle  and  had  John  Baliol,  the 
competitor,  who  in  1292  was  successful  in  prosecuting  his 
claim  to  the  throne  of  Scotland  against  Robert  Bruce  and 
other  rivals.  Thus  a  branch  of  the  house  of  Carrick  became 
associated  with  the  fortunes  of  the  Bruces  in  another  and  less 
agreeable  way. 

The  DE  Burgh  family  from  which  King  Robert  Bruce 
chose  his  second  wife  was  originally  of  Ireland  where  it  was 
of  special  distinction,  being  connected  with  one  of  the  first 
royal  houses  of  that  land. 

Richard  de  Burgh,  surnamed  the  Great  Lord  of  Con- 
naught,  son  of  William  FitzAdelm  de  Burgh,  Lord  Deputy  of 
Ireland  in  the  time  of  Hervig  II.,  was  also  Viceroy  of  that 
kingdom  1227-29.  He  built  the  castle  of  Galway  in  1232  and 
died  in  1243.  He  married  Una,  or  Agnes,  daughter  of  Hugh 
O'Conor,  King  of  Connaught,  son  of  Cathal  Crobhdearg,  or 
the  Red  Hand. 

Walter  de  Burgh,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  Lord 



of  Connaught,  and  in  right  of  his  wife  became  Earl  of  Ulster 
in  1243.  He  married  INIaud,  daughter  and  heir  of  Hugh  de 
Laci,  Earl  of  Ulster,  and  had  four  sons. 

Richard  de  Burgh,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the  second 
Earl  of  Ulster.  He  was  a  great  warrior  and  statesman,  and 
commanded  all  the  Irish  forces  in  Ireland,  Scotland,  Wales, 
and  Gascoigne.  He  founded  the  Carmelite  monastery  at 
Loughren  and  built  the  castles  Ballymote,  Carran,  and  Sligo. 
In  his  declining  years  he  retired  to  the  monastery  of  Athassail. 
He  died  June  28,  1326.  He  married  Margaret  de  Burgo, 
daughter  of  John  de  Burgo,  Baron  of  Lanville,  who  was  a 
great-grandson  of  Hubert,  Earl  of  Kent.  Elizabeth  Aylmer 
de  Burgh,  daughter  of  Richard  de  Burgh  and  his  wife  Mar- 
garet de  Burgo,  was  the  second  wife  of  King  Robert  Bruce. 

William  de  W^arrenne,  Earl  of  Warrenne  in  Normandy, 
was  a  kinsman  of  William  the  Conqueror.  He  was  among  the 
Norman  nobles  at  Hastings,  and  after  the  conquest  of  England 
received  great  honors  from  the  King.  He  married  Gundred, 
a  daughter  of  William  the  Conqueror.  Old-time  authori- 
ties made  this  Gundred  a  daughter  of  William  by  his  wife 
Matilda  of  Flanders.  Recent  investigations,  however,  con- 
clusively show  that  she  was  the  daughter  of  William  by 
another  wife. 

William    de    Warrenne,    eldest    son    of   the    preceding, 





built  the  castle  of  Holt  and  founded  the  priory  of  Lewes  in 
Sussex.  He  made  his  home  principally  in  Lewes,  although 
he  had  castles  also  in  Norfolk  and  at  Coningsburg  and  Sandal. 
Dugdale  gives  the  following  quaint  account  of  his  closing 
hours : 

"  It  is  reported  that  this  Earl  William  did  violently  detain 
certain  lands  from  the  monks  of  Ely;  for  which  being  often 
admonished  by  the  Abbot  and  not  making  restitution  he 
died  miserably.  And  though  his  death  happened  very  far 
off  the  isle  of  Ely,  the  same  night  he  died,  the  Abbot  lying 
quietly  in  his  bed,  and  meditating  on  heavenly  things,  heard 
the  soul  of  this  earl,  in  its  carriage  away  by  the  devil,  cry  out 
loudly,  and  with  a  known  and  distinct  voice;  'Lord  have 
mercy  on  me.  Lord  have  mercy  on  me.'  And  moreover 
on  the  next  day  after  the  Abbot  acquainted  all  the  monks  in 
chapel  therewith.  And  likewise  that  about  four  days  after 
there  came  a  messenger  to  them  from  the  wife  of  this  earl, 
with  one  hundred  shillings  for  the  good  of  his  soul,  who  told 
them  that  he  died  the  very  hour  that  the  Abbot  had  heard 
the  outcry.  But  that  neither  the  Abbot  nor  any  of  the 
monks  would  receive  it;  not  thinking  it  safe  for  them  to 
take  the  money  of  a  damned  person.  ...  If  this  part  of 
the  story,  as  to  the  Abbot's  hearing  the  noise,  be  no  truer 
than  the  last,  viz.,  that  his  lady  sent  them  one  hundred  shil- 
lings, I  shall  deem  it  to  be  a  mere  fiction,  in  regard  the  lady 
was  certainly  dead  about  three  years  before." 

This  William  de  Warrenne  joined  Robert  de  Belesme, 
Earl  of  Arundel  and  Shrewsbury,  in  supporting  Robert' Curth- 
ose,  son  of  King  William  I.,  against  his  brother  King  Henry  I. 
The  rebellion  was  short-lived,  however,  and  subsequently 
William  de  Warrenne  was  faithful  to  the  cause  of  King 
Henry.     He  married  Isabel,  daughter  of  Henry  the  Great, 



Earl  of  Vermandois,  and  widow  of  Robert,  Earl  of  Mellent. 
Adeline,  his  youngest  daughter,  married  Prince  Henry  of 
Scotland,  son  of  King  David,  and  was  the  grandmother  of 
Isabella  de  Huntingdon  who  married  Robert  Bruce. 

The  Elphinston  family  derived  its  name  from  the  lands 
of  Elphinston  in  the  vicinity  of  Edinburgh.  It  was  famous 
among  the  barons  of  Scotland  before  the  thirteenth  century. 

Alexander  de  Elphinston  acquired  the  land  of  Erthberg, 
county  Stirling,  from  his  mother  Agnes  de  Erthberg. 

Alexander  de  Elphinston  had  a  charter  of  lands  from 
King  David  II.  in  1362. 

Sir  William  de  Elphinston  had  a  charter  of  lands  in 
1399.  He  had  three'sons.  His  son  Alexander  de  Elphinston 
was  killed  in  a  conflict  with  the  English  at  Piperdean  Septem- 
ber 30,  1435.  His  son  Henry  de  Elphinston  succeeded  him. 
His  son  William  de  Elphinston  was  the  first  Earl  of  Blyths- 
wood  in  Larnarkshire,  and  married  Mary  Douglas.  A 
younger  son  of  William  Elphinston  and  Mary  Douglas  was 
William  Elphinston,  Bishop  of  Ross  and  Aberdeen,  High 
Chancellor  of  Scotland,  and  founder  of  the  University  of 

Henrt  Elphinston,  second  son  of  the  preceding,  was  of 
Pittendriech,  which  he  had  under  charter  in  1477.     He  also 



held  Erthberg,  Strickshaw,  and  other  honors.     He  had  two 
sons,  James  and  Andrew. 

James  Elphinston,  son  of  the  preceding,  died  before  his 
father,  having  had  two  sons,  John  and  Alexander. 

Sir  John  Elphinston,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  had 
charter  for  the  lands  of  Pittendriech,  Erthberg,  and  Cragrossy. 
He  had  a  charter  of  the  barony  of  Erthberg,  and  in  1503  the 
honors  of  Chawmyrlane  and  Cragoroth  were  erected  into  a 
barony  to  be  called  Elphinston,  the  title  of  which  was  first 
conferred  upon  him; 

Alexander  Elphinston,  son  of  the  preceding,  had 
numerous  grants  of  lands  and  had  the  custody  of  the  king's 
castle  of  Kildrummie  in  Aberdeenshire  in  1508.  He  was 
raised  to  the  peerage  in  1509  as  Alexander,  Lord  Elphinston. 
He  also  had  charters  of  lands  in  Fife,  Stirlingshire,  Banff- 
shire, and  elsewhere.  He  fell  at  Flodden  Field,  where  he 
was  fighting  in  the  support  of  James  IV.  on  that  fateful  day 
in  September,  1513.  He  married  Elizabeth  Barlow,  a  noble 
Englishwoman,  who  was  maid  of  honor  to  Mary,  Queen  of 
King  James  IV.  His  son,  Alexander  Elphinston,  succeeded 
him.  His  daughter,  Elizabeth  Elphinston,  married  Sir  David 
Somerville.  His  daughter,  Eupheme  Elphinston,  was  the 
mother  of  Robert  Stewart,  Earl  of  Orkney,  by  King  James 
v.,  and  subsequently  married  John  Bruce  of  Cultmalindie. 

jft  jit  *  ^  jit  j)t  jt 



The  ancient  family  of  Oliphant  was  of  Norman  origin. 
Its  first  ancestors  known  in  connection  with  English  history 
were  settled  in  Northamptonshire  and  held  land  there. 

David  Olifard,  or  Oliphant,  was  the  first  bearer  of  the 
surname.  He  was  intimately  associated  with  King  David 
I.  of  Scotland,  who  was  his  godfather.  He  befriended  his 
royal  master  during  the  conspiracy  of  King  Stephen,  and 
was  secretary  of  King  David  I.  after  the  rout  of  the  forces  of 
Matilda  at  Winchester  in  1141.  He  thereupon  went  to  Scot- 
land and  was  rewarded  with  lands.  He  was  associated  in 
charters  with  Duncan,  Earl  of  Fife;  Ferteth,  Earl  of  Strath- 
earn;  Gilbride,  Earl  of  Angus;  Malcolm,  Earl  of  AthoU;  and 
others.  He  was  justiciary  of  Scotland  in  1165  under  King 
David  I.,  and  also  under  King  William  the  Lion.  He  died  in 

David  Olifard,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  succeeded  his 
father  in  his  estates  and  in  the  justiciary.  He  died  toward 
the  end  of  the  twelfth  century. 

Sir  Walter  Olifard,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  inherited 
the  estates  of  his  father  and  was  justiciary  under  King  Alex- 
ander n.  He  died  in  1249.  He  married  Christiana,  daughter 
of  the  Earl  of  Strathearn. 

Walter  Olifard,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  also  justiciary. 
He  died  after  1250. 



Sir  William  Oliphant  of  Aberdalgy,  eldest  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  a  prominent  figure  in  all  the  campaigning  of 
King  Robert  Bruce  for  the  throne  of  Scotland.  About  1296, 
after  the  battles  of  Berwick  and  Dunbar,  he  was  seized  and 
held  in  prison  until  some  time  in  the  following  year.  In 
1299  Stirling  Castle,  which  had  been  fully  garrisoned  after 
the  English  had  been  driven  out  of  it,  was  committed  to  his 
care.  He  held  control  of  this  fortress  for  years  and  skil- 
fully defended  it  for  three  months  against  the  determined 
siege  of  King  Edward  in  1304.  Following  the  downfall  of 
that  fortress  he  was  a  prisoner  for  four  years  in  the  Tower 
of  London.  In  1311  he  held  Perth  as  a  deputy  for  King 
Edward.  At  the  siege  of  Perth  by  Robert  Bruce  he  was 
taken  prisoner  and  sent  into  banishment  in  the  Western 
islands.  After  King  Robert  had  fully  established  himself 
in  the  kingdom,  Oliphant  came  into  favor,  received  grants  of 
land,  and  was  present  at  Parliament  in  1320  and  in  1326. 
He  died  February  5,  1329. 

Sir  Walter  Oliphant  of  Aberdalgy,  son  of  the  preceding, 
married  Elizabeth,  youngest  daughter  of  King  Robert  Bruce. 

Walter  Oliphant  of  Aberdalgy,  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  a  sheriff  of  Stirling  and  keeper  of  Stirling  Castle  in  1368. 
He  married  Mary  Erskine,  daughter  of  Sir  Robert  Erskine 
of  Erskine. 

Sir  John  Oliphant  of  Aberdalgy,  eldest  son  of  the  pre- 
ceding, was  knighted  by  King  Robert  11.     He  died  about 

18  27S 


1420.     He  married,  first,  a  daughter  of  Sir  William  Borth- 
wick;  second,  a  daughter  of  Sir  Thomas  Home. 

Sir  William  Oliphant  of  Aberdalgy,  eldest  son  of  the 
preceding  by  his  first  wife,  was  one  of  the  hostages  in  England 
for  the  ransom  of  King  James  I.  in  1424.  He  married  Isa- 
bel Stewart,  daughter  of  John  Stewart  of  Innermeath,  Lord 
of  Lome. 

Sir  John  Oliphant  of  Aberdalgy,  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  by  his  marriage  drawn  into  the  long  existing  feud  between 
the  Ogilvys  and  the  Lindsays.  In  one  of  these  family  quar- 
rels he  was  slain  at  Arbroath  January  25,  1445-6.  He  mar- 
ried Isabel,  daughter  of  Walter  Ogilvy  of  Auchterhouse. 

Sir  Laurence  Oliphant  of  Aberdalgy,  eldest  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  created  a  lord  of  Parliament  before  1467. 
He  sat  in  the  first  Parliament  of  King  James  IV.  in  1488;  was 
a  privy  councillor;  a  justiciary  in  1490,  and  a  peace  com- 
missioner to  treat  with  England  in  1491.  He  died  about 
1531.  He  married  Isabel  Hay,  youngest  daughter  of  William 
Hay,  first  Earl  of  Errol. 

Sir  John  Oliphant,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the 
second  Lord  Oliphant.  Succeeding  his  father,  he  sat  in  Parlia- 
ment in  1503  and  afterward.  He  died  in  1516.  He  married 
Lady  Elizabeth  Campbell,  third  daughter  of  Colin  Campbell, 
first  Duke  of  Argyle. 



Colin  Oliphant,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  fought  with 
his  brother,  William  Oliphant,  on  the  fatal  field  of  Flodden 
in  support  of  King  James,  both  brothers  being  killed.  He 
married  Lady  Elizabeth  Keith,  second  daughter  of  William 
Keith,  who  was  the  third  Earl  of  Mareschal. 

Sir  Laurence  Oliphant,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  the 
third  Lord  Oliphant,  succeeding  to  the  title  on  the  death  of 
his  grandfather  in  November,  1526.  He  took  his  seat  in  the 
Scottish  Parliament  in  1526  and  was  a  member  in  many  sub- 
sequent years.  He  was  a  consistent  opponent  of  the  prog- 
ress of  the  Reformation  and  was  constantly  in  trouble  on 
account  thereof.  At  the  rout  of  Solway  he  was  captured  by 
Dacre  and  Musgrave  in  November,  1542,  was  locked  up  in 
the  Tower  of  London  for  some  time,  but  was  ransomed  the 
following  year  and  returned  to  Parliament.  He  died  at 
Aldwick  in  Caithness  March  26,  1566.  He  married  Margaret 
Sandilands,  eldest  daughter  of  James  Sandilands  of  Cruvie. 

Sir  Laurence  Oliphant,  eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was 
the  fourth  Lord  Oliphant.  He  was  born  in  1529  and  suc- 
ceeded to  the  title  in  1566,  having  also  the  barony  of  Aber- 
dalgy,  Gask,  and  Galray.  He  joined  the  association  in 
behalf  of  Queen  Mary  at  Hamilton  in  1568,  and  was  always 
a  devoted  partisan  of  that  queen.  He  was  frequently  in  Par- 
liament and  a  conspicuous  figure  in  all  the  politico-religious 
controversies  and  struggles  of  that  period.  He  died  in 
Caithness  June  16,   1593,  and  was  buried  m  the  church  of 



Wick.  An  old  diary  of  that  time  contains  this  brief  notice: 
"  1593  January  16.  Laurens.  L.  Oliphant  diet  in  Kathnes, 
and  buriet  in  the  Kirk  of  Wik."  He  married,  in  1552,  Lady 
Margaret  Hay,  second  daughter  of  George  Hay,  seventh 
Earl  of  Errol.  His  daughter,  Jean  Oliphant,  married  Alex- 
ander Bruce  of  Cultmalindie.  Both  she  and  her  husband 
were  direct  descendants  from  King  Robert  Bruce,  she  in 
the  eleventh  generation  and  he  in  the  tenth. 

Bards  and  historians  say  that  the  predecessors  of  the  house 
of  Campbell,  which  has  been  one  of  the  most  numerous  and 
most  powerful  in  Scotland,  were  Lords  of  Lochow  in  Argyle- 
shire  as  early  as  the  year  404.  The  first  appellation  that  they 
bore  was  O'Dwbin  or  O'Dwin,  a  name  that  was  assumed 
by  Diarmed,  a  brave  warrior.  In  Gaelic  the  descendants  of 
this  Diarmid  are  called  Scol  Diarmid  or  offspring  of  Diarmed. 
From  Diarmed  O'Dwbin  followed  a  long  series  of  barons  of 
Lochow  until  the  male  line  ended  in  Paul  O'Dwbin,  Lord 
Lochow,  called  Inspuran  because  he  was  the  king's  treasurer. 

GiLLESPiCK  Campbell,  an  Anglo-Norman  of  distinction, 
married  the  daughter  of  Paul  O'Dwbin,  Lord  Lochow. 

Duncan  Campbell  of  Lochow  lived  in  the  reign  of  King 
Malcolm  IV. 

Colin  Campbell  of  Lochow  was  a  subject  of  King  William 
the  Lion  in  the  latter  part  of  the  twelfth  century. 





GiLLESPicK  or  Archibald  Campbell  of  Lochow  lived  in 
the  reign  of  King  Alexander  I.  He  married  Finetta,  daughter 
of  John  Eraser,  Lord  of  Tweeddale. 

Duncan  Campbell  of  Lochow  was  also  living  in  the  reign 
of  King  Alexander  I.  He  married  a  daughter  of  the  house 
of  Comyn.  His  son,  John  Campbell  (1250-86),  was  a  famous 

Sir  Gillespick  or  Archibald  Campbell  of  Lochow,  the 
eldest  son  of  the  preceding,  was  living  in  the  reign  of  King 
Alexander  III.,  and  married  a  daughter  of  William  de  Somer- 
ville.  Baron  of  Carnwath. 

Sir  Colin  Campbell  was  so  successful  as  a  soldier  that 
he  was  named  More  or  Great.  From  him  the  chiefs  of  this 
family  have  ever  since  been  styled  MacCalan  More.  He  was 
knighted  in  1280  by  King  Alexander  III.  He  married  a 
daughter  of  the  house  of  Sinclair. 

Sib  Niel  Campbell  of  Lochow,  the  eldest  son  of  the 
preceding,  was  knighted  by  King  Alexander  III.  He  early 
allied  himself  to  the  fortunes  of  King  Robert  Bruce,  and 
adhered  to  that  monarch  through  prosperity  and  adversity. 
After  the  battle  of  Bannockburn  he  was  one  of  the  commis- 
sioners sent  to  York  in  1314  to  negotiate  a  peace  with  Eng- 
land. He  was  among  the  great  barons  who  sat  in  the  Parlia- 
ment at  Ayr  in  131.5.  He  died  in  1316.  He  married  Lady 
Mary  Bruce,  a  sister  of  King  Robert  Bruce. 



In  subsequent  generations  the  descendants  of  this  Sir  Niel 
Campbell  ranked  among  the  most  distinguished  people  of 
Scotland.  His  descendant.  Sir  Duncan  Campbell,  first  as- 
sumed the  title  of  Duke  of  Argyle,  and  other  titles  were  also 
borne  by  representatives  of  the  name.  Descendants  of  King 
Robert  Bruce  several  generations  later  married  and  inter- 
married with  the  family. 










DURING  the  more  than  nine  centuries  that  have 
elapsed  since  the  Bruce  stock  was  established  in 
Scotland  it  has,  both  in  its  main  line  and  in  its 
collateral  branches,  been  identified  with  nearly  all  the  fa- 
mous historical  places  of  the  Northern  Country.  In  successive 
generations  its  representatives  owned  castles  which  are  now 
in  ruins,  while  memories  of  them  and  of  their  ancestors  are 
indissolubly  attached  to  such  religious  and  national  shrines 
as  lona,  Dunfermline,  and  others.  An  account  of  some  of 
the  most  important  of  these  castles  and  churches  reveals  how 
large  a  part  the  Bruces  had  in  the  life  of  their  times  and  how 
tradition  and  romance  have  lovingly  dwelt  upon  whatever 
the  Bruce  name  has  enriched  in  historical  association. 


No  island  in  the  waters  that  roll  upon  the  coast  of  Scotland 
has  been  more  renowned  than  lona,  the  ancient  burial  place 
of  the  Scottish  kings  before  the  time  of  Malcolm  Canmore, 
the  royal  ancestor  of  the  Bruces.  As  Dr.  Johnson  Expressed 
it  in  one  of  his  letters  it  is : 

"The  illustrious  island  which  was  once  the  luminary  of  the 
Caledonian  regions,  whence  savage  clans  and  roaming  bar- 
barians derived  the  benefit  of  knowledge  and  the  blessings 



of  religion.  .  .  .  That  man  is  little  to   be    envied  .  .  .  whose 
piety  would  not  grow  warmer  among  the  ruins  of  lona." 

Before  the  sixth  century  the  island  was  a  great  centre  of 
Druidism.  About  the  year  563  the  Irish  saint  Columba 
emigrated  thither  and  upon  that  spot  set  up  the  cross  and 
propagated  the  Christian  faith. 

Columba,  who  made  lona  famous  and  sacred,  was  born  in 
521,  the  son  of  Felim,  who  was  a  son  of  Neill,  the  great  king 
of  Ireland.  He  was  highly  educated  and  travelled  widely. 
Before  he  was  twenty-eight  years  of  age  he  built  churches 
in  Ireland  and  then  sailed  away  from  his  home  to  carry  his 
religion  to  the  lands  of  the  Picts.  King  Brudius  granted 
him  possession  of  lona  and  there  he  established  himself  to 
preach  and  teach  the  doctrines  of  Christianity.  It  was  not 
long  before  lona  became  celebrated  throughout  the  civilized 
world.  The  institutions  there  planted  and  perfected  were 
the  foundations  of  the  church  in  that  part  of  the  world,  and 
the  library  of  Columba  was  known  as  one  of  the  richest  in 
literary  treasures  in  that  age.  The  name  of  the  island,  Icolm- 
kill,  or  cell  of  Columba,  was  derived  from  its  famous  monastic 
establishments.  Relics  which  still  exist  indicate  the  former 
greatness  of  the  place.  In  an  enclosure  adjoining  St.  Oran's 
Chapel  were  buried  sixty-one  kings;  forty-eight  Scottish, 
four  Irish,  eight  Norwegian,  and  one  French. 

Paulus  Jovius,  writing  in  the  sixteenth  century,  said  of 

"In  the  church  of  lona  there  are  preserved  very  ancient 
annals   and  parchment   rolls,   containing  laws   and  charters 



signed  by  the  kings  and  sealed  with  their  effigies  on  seals  of 
gold  or  wax.  It  is  also  reported  that  in  the  same  library 
there  are  ancient  works  of  Roman  history,  from  which  we 
may  expect  the  remaining  decades  of  Titus  Livius,  which, 
indeed,  we  have  lately  heard,  letters  from  Scotland  have 
promised  to  Francis,  King  of  France."* 

In  1595  the  sanctuary  of  lona  was  quaintly  thus  described 
by  another  historian: 

"Within  this  ile  of  Columkill  there  is  ane  sanctuary  or 
kirkzaird,  callit  in  Erische  Religioran,  (the  cemetery  of  St. 
Ouran  who  was  one  of  the  companions  of  St.  Columbus  at 
the  foundation  of  the  monastery)  quhilk  is  a  very  fair  kirk- 
zaird and  Weill  biggit  about  with  staine  and  lyme.  Into  this 
sanctuary  there  is  three  tombes  of  staine,  formed  like  little 
chapelis,  with  ane  braid  gray  marble  or  quhin  staine  in  the 
gavill  of  ilk  ane  of  the  tombes.  In  the  stain  of  the  ain  tombe 
there  is  written  in  Latin  letters,  'Tumulus  Regum  Scotise' 
that  is,  the  tombe  or  grave  of  the  King  of  Scotts.  Within 
this  tombe  according  to  our  Scotts  and  Erische  cronikells 
there  layes  forty-eight  crouned  Scotts  Kings,  through  the 
whilk  this  ile  lies  been  richlie  dotat  be  the  Scotts  Kings,  as 
we  have  said.  The  tombe  on  the  south  syde  forsaid,  lies  this 
inscription  'Tumulus  Regum  Hybernise,'  that  is,  the  tombe 
of  the  Irland  Kinges;  for  we  have  in  our  auld  Erische  croni- 
kells, that  ther  wes  foure  Irland  Kinges  eirdit  in  the  said 
tombe.  Upon  the  north  side  of  our  Scotts  tombe  the  inscrip- 
tion bears  'Tumulus  Regum  Norwegie,'  that  is,  the  tomb  of 
the  Kings  of  Norroway,  in  the  quhilk  tombe,  as  we  find  in 
our  ancient  Erische  cronikells,  ther  layes  eight  Kings  of-Nor- 
roway,  and  also  we  find  that  Coelus,  King  of  Norroway, 
commandit  his  noblis  to  take  his  bodey  and  burey  it  at  Colm- 
kill  if  it  chanced  him  to  die  in  the  Isles,  but  he  wes  so  dis- 
comfitit  that  ther  remained  not  so  maney  of  his  armey  as  wald 

♦  Descriptione  Brittanige,  by  Paulus  Jovius,  Venetia,  1548. 


burey  him  ther;  therfor  he  was  eirded  in  Kyle,  after  he  stroke 
ane  field  against  theScotts,  and  wesvanquist  be  them.  Within 
this  sanctuary  also  lyes  the  maist  part  of  the  Lordis  of  the 
Isles,  with  their  lineage,  Twa  Clan-Lynes  (Clan  Lean)  with 
their  lynage,  M'Kynnon  and  M'Guarrie  with  their  lynages, 
with  sundrie  utheris  inhabitants  of  the  hail  isles;  because 
this  sanctuary  wes  wont  to  be  the  sepulture  of  the  best  men 
of  the  Isles  and  also  of  our  Kings,  as  we  have  said,  because  it 
was  the  maist  honerabil  and  ancient  place  that  was  in  Scot- 
land in  thair  dayes,  as  we  reid."  * 


The  town  of  Scone  in  the  sheriffdom  of  Perth  is  situated  on 
the  north  bank  of  the  river  Tay  near  the  centre  of  Scotland. 
Its  name,  in  the  Gothic,  is  Skorn  and  in  the  Anglo-Saxon,  Scon, 
meaning  beautiful.  It  was  famous  particularly  for  the  abbey 
that  was  founded  there  by  King  David  I.  for  the  monks  of  St. 
Augustine.  Some  historians  assert  that  a  religious  house 
was  established  here  for  the  Culdees  monks  by  King  Alexan- 
der I.  During  the  life  of  that  monarch  the  place  was  occa- 
sionally the  royal  residence  and  under  the  monks  it  was  a 
trading  centre,  with  customs  payable  to  the  monastery.  The 
abbey  wall  enclosed  about  twelve  acres  of  land.  In  the 
Reformation  the  abbey  and  the  king's  palace  were  destroyed. 

"So  was  that  abay  and  plaice  appointed  to  sockage;  in 
doing  whereof  they  tuk  no  long  deliberation,  bot  committed 
the  hoUe  to  the  merciment  of  fyre,  guhairat  no  small  number 
of  us  war  offendit."t 

At   Scone   was   held   the   earliest   ecclesiastical   council  of 

*  Description  of  the  Western  Isles;  by  Donald  Munro,  High  Dean  of  the  Isles, 
t  Knox's  Historic,  p.  146. 



Scotland   of   which   there   is   any   authentic   record.     In   the 
Pictish  Chronicle  it  is  said: 

"  Constantine,  the  son  of  Ed,  and  Kellach  bishop,  to- 
gether with  the  Scots,  solemnly  vowed  to  observe  the  laws 
and  discipline  of  faith,  the  rights  of  the  churches  and  of  the 
gospel,  on  the  Hill  of  Credulity,  near  the  royal  city  of  Scone. 
Henceforward  this  hill  deserved  this  name,  i.e.  (Collis  Cre- 
dulitatis)  of  the  Hill  of  Credulity." 

Few  traces  of  the  old  monastery  have  come  down  to  mod- 
ern times.  The  contemporaneous  church  and  buildings  are  of 
the  seventeenth  century  and  later.  Many  memories  of  the 
hapless  Stewarts  cling  to  the  place.  Queen  Mary  was  often 
there  and  the  king's  room  where  James  I.  and  perhaps  Charles 
II.  slept  on  the  eve  of  their  coronations  is  still  shown. 

Scone  was  particularly  endeared  to  the  Scots  as  the  ancient 
place  of  coronation  of  the  Scottish  kings.  There  was  the  fa- 
mous coronation  stone,  or  stone  of  destiny,  seated  on  which 
the  monarchs  received  the  crown  and  sceptre.  It  is  a  small 
block  of  red  sandstone  imbedded  with  pebbles  and,  as  the 
royal  emblem  of  Scotland,  was  always  regarded  with  the 
deepest  veneration. 

According  to  ancient  traditions  the  history  of  this  stone 
went  back  to  the  Tuatha  de  Danaans,  the  Scythian  family  that 
invaded  Ireland,  immediately  preceding  the  Milesian  con- 
quest, coming  from  Persia  or  Greece.  They  were  skillful 
far  above  the  native  people  about  them  and  for  that  reason 
were  regarded  as  possessed  of  magic  powers.  It  is  told  of 
them  that  when  they  came  to  Ireland  they  brought  with  them 
a  remarkable  stone  called  lia  fail,  "the  stone  of  fate  or  des- 


BOOK     OF     BRUCE 

tiny";   and  from  this  Ireland  received  the  name  Inis  Fail  or 
Island  of  Destiny. 

"This  Ha  fail  was  held  in  the  highest  veneration;  and 
sitting  on  it  the  ancient  monarchs  of  Ireland  both  in  Pagan 
and  in  Christian  times  were  inaugurated  at  Tara." 

It  is  stated  that  whenever  a  legitimate  king  of  the  Milesian 
race  was  inaugurated  the  stone  would  emit  a  peculiar  sound, 
an  effect  produced  probably  by  some  mechanical  contrivance 
of  the  clever  druids. 

One  account  has  it  that  in  the  beginning  of  the  sixth  cen- 
tury Fergus  MacEarca,  who  had  become  King  of  Scotland, 
requested  the  Irish  monarch  Murtogh  MacEarca,  his  brother, 
to  send  him  the  lia  fail  to  be  used  on  the  occasion  of  his  in- 
auguration so  that  he  might  have  security  to  his  throne  in 
accord  with  the  ancient  prophecy  that  the  Scotic  race  would 
continue  to  rule  as  long  as  this  stone  should  be  in  its  posses- 
sion. Another  account  says  that  the  stone  was  not  brought 
to  Scotland  until  the  ninth  century,  when  Aldus  Finliath,  King 
of  Ireland,  sent  it  to  his  father-in-law  Kenneth  McAlpin, 
King  of  all  Scotland.  The  lia  fail  was  preserved  with  great 
care  and  veneration  for  centuries,  first  in  the  monastery  of 
St.  Columbkill,  on  lona  Island;  afterwards  at  Dunstaffnage 
in  Argyleshire,  the  first  royal  seat  of  the  Scottish  kings  of  the 
Irish  race,  and  later  at  Scone,  to  which  place  it  was  taken  by 
King  Kenneth  and  where  it  was  preserved  until  1296,  when 
King  Edward  I.  carried  it  away  to  England  with  other  regal 
appurtenances  and  deposited  it  in  Westminster  Abbey. 

This  stone  of  destiny  has  been  Latinized  as  saxum  fatale 



C  A  S  T  L  F:  S     A  X  D     C  II  f  II  C  II  E  S 

and  lias  been  called  by  some  writers  Jacob's  stone,  from  the 
tradition  that  it  is  part  of  the  stone  called  Jacob's  pillow  at 
Bethel,  as  related  in  the  book  of  Genesis.  The  stone  is 
mentioned  by  Boethius  and  other  early  Scottish  historians 
and  the  following  Irish  verse  concerning  it  is  classic: 

"Cineadh  Scuit,  saor  an  fhine, 
Mun  budh  breag  an  fhaisdine, 
Mar  a  ffuighid  an  Liagh  Fail 
Dlighid  flaitheas  do  ghabhail." 

"If  Fate's  decrees  be  not  announced  in  vain. 
Where'er  this  stone  is  found  the  Scots  shall  reign." 


Associated  as  it  is  with  the  tragedy  of  Macbeth,  Glamis 
castle,  in  Forfarshire,  probably  enjoys  a  wider  fame  than  al- 
most any  other  building  in  Scotland.  The  present  structure 
preserves  little  likeness  to  that  which  existed  in  the  time  of 
Duncan,  and  indeed  changes  have  been  made  in  it  since  the 
poet  Gray  described  it,  in  176.5,  as  follows: 

"  Rising  proudly  out  of  what  .seems  a  great  and  thick  wood 
of  tall  trees,  with  a  cluster  of  hanging  towers  on  top  .  .  .  the 
house  from  the  height  of  it,  the  greatness  of  its  mass,  the 
many  towers  atop,  and  the  spread  of  its  wings  has  really  a  very 
singular  and  striking  apf>earance." 

Rebuilt  and  altered  as  it  has  been,  it  is  even  now  one  of  the 
noblest  buildings  of  its  kind  in  the  Land  of  the  Thistle,  archi- 
tecturally dating  from  the  fifteenth  century  and  since.  Fordun 
and  other  chroniclers  tell  that  in  the  vicinity  of  Glamis  Mal- 



colm  II.  was  attacked  and  mortally  wounded  in  1034,  and  that 
his  assassins  were  drowned  by  breaking  through  the  ice  as 
they  attempted  to  cross  the  neighboring  loch  of  Forfar.  The 
earliest  proprietary  notices  of  Glamis  show  it  to  have  been 
a  thanedom,  and  its  lands  regal  domains.  In  1372,  King 
Robert  II.  by  charter  granted  it  to  Sir  John  Lyon,  designating 
it  as  "our  lands  of  the  thainage  of  Glammis." 

Sir  Walter  Scott  spent  a  night  in  the  castle  in  1793,  and  he 
thus  concluded  a  curious  account  of  his  sensations  on  the 
occasion : 

"In  spite  of  the  truth  of  history,  the  whole  night  scene  in 
Macbeth's  castle  rushed  at  once  upon  me,  and  struck  my 
mind  more  forcibly  than  even  when  I  have  seen  its  terrors 
represented  by  John  Kemble  and  his  inimitable  sister." 


Dunfermline  in  Fifeshire,  some  fifteen  miles  from  Edin- 
burgh, and  the  burial  place  of  King  Robert  Bruce,  is  indis- 
solubly  associated  with  the  memory  of  the  kings  of  Scotland 
from  the  time  of  Malcolm  Canmore  to  the  days  of  the  Bruces. 
The  town  is  beautifully  situated  on  the  brow  of  a  gentle  emi- 
nence that  overlooks  the  surrounding  country  and  the  waters 
of  Forth.  For  centuries  it  was  the  favorite  royal  residence, 
and  in  modern  times  it  has  been  the  home  of  the  Earls  of  Elgin, 
descendants  of  King  Robert  Bruce.  Its  antiquities  are  many, 
but  of  the  ancient  tower  of  King  Malcolm  III.  only  the  ruin  re- 
mains, two  low  broken  walls.  The  tower  was  probably  built 
about  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  century.     Fordun,  Canon  of 



Aberdeen,  the  early  Scottish  historian,  thus  describes  it  in 
giving  an  account  of  the  marriage  of  King  Malcolm  III. : 

"The  nuptials  were  magnificently  celebrated  a.d.  1070 
at  Dunfermline  which  the  reigning  king  then  held  prooppide" 
(his  town  or  fortified  residence)  "for  that  place  was  naturally 
well  defended  in  itself,  being  surrounded  by  a  very  thick  wood, 
and  fenced  with  precipitous  rocks,  in  the  middle  of  which  was 
a  pleasant  level  ground,  also  strengthened  by  rock  and  water, 
so  that  this  might  be  supposed  to  be  said  of  it ; 

"  Non  homini  facilis,  vox  adeunda  feris. 

"  Not  easy  for  man,  scarcely  to  be  approached  by  wild 
beasts."  * 

This  tower  or  castellated  palace  was  not  a  spacious  edifice 
nor  does  it  appear  to  have  been  sumptuous.  Still,  here  the 
famous  monarch,  ancestor  of  Robert  Bruce,  lived  with  his 
Queen,  Margaret,  daughter  of  Edward,  son  of  Edmund  Iron- 
side, King  of  England.  Not  far  away  from  the  hill  on  which 
the  tower  stands  is  St.  Margaret's  cave,  where  the  Queen  was 
accustomed  to  retire  for  her  secret  devotions.  The  tower  is 
referred  to  in  the  ballad  of  Sir  Patrick  Spens : 

"The  King  sits  in  Dunfermline  toun 
Drinken  the  blood  red  wine, 
Whare  sail  I  find  a  skeely  skipper 
Will  sail  this  ship  o'  mine." 

A  short  distance  from  the  tower  are  the  ruins  of  a  palace 
that  was  once  the  residence  of  the  sovereigns  of  Scotland. 
Only  a  small  portion  of  the  wall,  two  hundred  and  fifty  feet 
in  length  and  sixty  feet  in  height,  supported  by  buttresses,  now 

*  Scotichronicon,  by  John  Fordun. 
19  289 


remains.  At  the  western  end  is  a  high  window,  completely 
covered  with  ivy,  and  a  chimney  of  the  room  in  which,  tra- 
dition says,  the  ill-fated  Stewart  monarch,  Charles  I.,  was 
born.  Subterranean  passages  and  crypts  are  still  intact. 
The  palace  was  probably  built  before  1100.  The  last  mon- 
arch who  occupied  it  was  Charles  II.,  in  1650. 

Most  interesting  of  the  antiquities  of  Dunfermline  are  the 
ruins  of  the  old  abbey  which  was  destroyed  at  the  time  of  the 
Reformation.  It  was  built  "at  great  expense."  John  Leslie, 
Bishop  of  Ross,  an  old  historian,  wrote  of  it  as  "templum,  in 
civitate  Dunfermilingensi  magnifice  suis  impensis  extructum, 
sanctiss.  Trinitate  dicavit."  Turgot  relates  that  "it  was 
enriched  with  numerous  ornaments,  vessels  of  solid  gold,  and 
an  inestimable  crucifix,  formed  of  gold,  silver,  and  precious 
stones."  Originally  built  by  Malcolm  Canmore,  additions 
were  made  from  time  to  time  by  the  successors  of  that  mon- 
arch, particularly  Alexander  I.,  David  I.,  Alexander  II.,  and 
James  VI. 

The  monastery  was  dedicated  to  Margaret,  the  Queen  of 
Malcolm  Canmore,  who  died  in  1093.  Queen  Margaret  was 
canonized  in  1249  and  on  June  13  in  the  following  year  the 
bones  of  the  sainted  one  were  transferred  from  the  place 
where  they  were  originally  deposited  "in  the  rude  altar  of 
the  Kirk  of  Dunfermline"  to  the  choir  of  the  Abbey  Church. 
The  young  king,  Alexander  III.,  with  his  mother  and  a  large 
company  of  nobles  and  clergy  were  present  to  witness  the 
ceremony.  The  remains  were  placed  in  a  silver  sarcophagus, 
which,  the  chroniclers  state,  was  adorned  with  precious  stones; 



and  then  a  miracle  occurred.  King  Malcolm  had  been  buried 
beside  his  queen,  and  &t  first  all  the  strength  of  many  men  were 
not  suflBcient  to  remove  the  relics  of  the  sainted  Margaret 
from  the  spot  until  those  of  her  husband  had  first  been  lifted 
and  deposited  in  the  place  where  hers  were  destined  to  lie. 
Wyntoun  in  his  Cronykil  tells  of  this  miracle : 

"With  all  thare  powere  and  thare  slycht. 
Her  body  to  rays  thai  had  na  mycht. 
Na  lift  her  anys  owt  of  that  plas, 
Quhar  sho  that  tyme  lyand  was, 
For  all  thare  devotyownys 
Prayeris  and  yret  orysownys, 
That  the  persownys  gaddryd  there 
Dyd  in  devot  manere: 
Quhell  fyrst  thai  tuk  upe  the  body 
Of  hyr  lord  that  lay  thereby 
And  bare  it  bene  into  the  quere 
Lysrly  syne  in  fayre  manere 
Her  cors  thai  tuk  up  and  bare  ben, 
And  thame  enteryd  togyddyr  then. 
Swa  trowd  thai  all  than  gadryd  thare 
Quhat  honour  till  hyr  lord  scho  bare." 

Following  the  reinterment  of  the  remains  of  St.  Margaret 
and  her  husband,  the  abbey  became  the  burial  place  of  the 
royal  family  of  Scotland.  It  succeeded  in  this  respect  the 
island  of  lona,  which  for  generations  had  been  the  ancient  place 
of  sepulture  of  the  Scottish  monarchs.  Besides  Malcolm, 
his  Queen  Margaret  and  his  son  Prince  Edward,  there  were 
interred:  King  Edgar,  King  Alexander  I.,  King  David  II., 
King  Malcolm  IV.,  King  Alexander  III.  and  his  first  Queen 
Margaret;    King  Robert  Bruce  and  his  Queen  Elizabeth; 



Prince  David  and  Prince  Alexander,  sons  of  Alexander  III.; 
Mathildis,  daughter  of  King  Robert  Bruce;  Malcolm,  Earl 
of  Atholl,  and  his  Countess;  Annabella  Drummond,  Queen 
of  King  Robert  III.  and  mother  of  King  James  I. ;  the  Earls 
of  Elgin,  and  others  of  the  royal  Bruce  blood. 
Of  Queen  Margaret,  Sir  Walter  Scott  wrote : 

"She  did  all  in  her  power,  and  influenced  as  far  as  possible 
the  mind  of  her  husband  to  relieve  the  distresses  of  her  Saxon 
countrymen,  of  high  or  low  degree,  assuaged  their  afflictions, 
and  was  jealous  in  protecting  those  who  had  been  involved 
in  the  ruin  which  the  battle  of  Hastings  brought  on  the  royal 
house  of  Edward  the  Confessor.  The  gentleness  and  mild- 
ness of  temper  proper  to  this  amiable  woman,  probably  also 
the  experience  of  her  prudence  and  good  sense,  had  great 
weight  with  Malcolm,  who,  though  preserving  a  portion  of  the 
ire  and  ferocity  belonging  to  the  king  of  a  wild  people,  was 
far  from  being  insensible  to  the  suggestions  of  his  amiable 
consort.  He  stooped  his  mind  to  hers  on  religious  matters, 
adorned  her  favorite  books  of  devotion  with  rich  bindings, 
and  was  often  seen  to  kiss  and  pay  respect  to  the  volumes 
which  he  was  unable  to  read." 

King  Robert  Bruce  was  buried  in  the  choir  of  the  church 
before  the  high  altar.  His  body  was  embalmed  and  a  rich 
tomb  or  cenotaph  was  erected  above  the  spot.  The  tomb 
was  made  in  Paris,  of  white  marble  in  Gothic  work  and  richly 
gilt.     Barbour  wrote : 

"And  quhen  thai  lang  thus  sorrowit  had. 
Thai  haiff  had  him  to  Dunferlyne: 
And  hym  solemply  erdyt  syne. 
In  a  fayr  tomb,  intill  the  quer." 

Nearly  five  hundred  years  passed  and  the  gilded  marble 



tomb  had  disappeared,  perhaps  purposely  destroyed,  or  over- 
whelmed in  the  ruins  of  the  church.  Workmen,  digging 
for  the  foundations  of  the  new  church  in  1878,  discovered  a 
large  leaden  coffin,  which,  upon  official  inspection,  was  found 
to  contain  the  skeleton  of  Scotland's  great  king.  After  ex- 
amination the  remains  were  reinterred  in  a  sealed  coffin,  on 
the  spot  where  they  had  been  found ,  and  there  they  now  rest. 

The  abbey  of  Dunfermline  was  the  meeting  place  of  the 
Scottish  nobles  during  the  long  warfare  between  the  Baliols 
and  the  Bruces  and  in  the  revolts  against  the  English.  It 
thus  fell  under  the  marked  disfavor  of  King  Edward.  When 
the  English  king  journeyed  to  Scotland  in  1303  he  spent  the 
winter,  from  December  until  the  following  May,  in  the  abbey, 
where  he  was  magnificently  entertained.  When  he  and  his 
court  departed  in  the  spring  his  soldiers  set  fire  to  the  building, 
either  in  recklessness  or  under  instructions  from  the  king, 
who  has  been  accused  of  thus  venting  his  spite  against  those 
whom  he  considered  his  rebellious  subjects.  Again  during 
the  same  war  the  buildings  were  set  on  fire  by  the  English 
troops,  but  the  church  was  saved.  In  the  Reformation  the 
abbey  was  a  special  object  of  disfavor  of  the  covenanters 
who  could  not  forget  the  eminence  that  it  had  attained  as 
a  churchly  institution  of  the  monastic  period.  Lindsay  of 
Pittscottie,'  in  chronicling  the  events  of  May,  1530,  briefly 
tells  of  its  destruction  by  the  Protestants: 

"Upoun  the  28  day  thairof,  the  whoU  lordis  and  baronis 
that  war  on  this  syd  of  Forth,  passed  to  Stirling,  and  be  the 
way,  hest  down  the  Abbey  of  Dumferling." 




One  of  the  finest  and  strongest  fortresses  belonging  to  the 
Bruces  was  Kildrummie  castle,  which  came  to  the  family  in 
the  thirteenth  century  by  the  marriage  of  Isabel,  daughter 
of  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  to  Robert  Bruce,  the  fourth 
Baron  of  Annandale.  It  was  a  home  much  loved  by  the 
Bruces  but  in  a  later  generation  it  was  the  scene  of  disaster 
to  Queen  Elizabeth,  consort  of  King  Robert  Bruce,  and  the 
Scotch  patriots  who  surrounded  her. 

Ruins  of  this  stronghold  remain  in  the  Curgarff  mountains 
of  the  district  of  Garioch  in  Aberdeenshire,  on  the  north  bank 
of  the  river  Don,  about  forty  miles  from  the  sea.  The  struc- 
ture stood  on  an  eminence,  one  side  of  which  is  washed  by 
the  Don,  while  two  other  sides  are  defended  by  deep  ravines. 
Located  in  an  obscure  spot  amid  scenery  wild  and  gloomy, 
it  seems  to  have  been  a  stronghold  of  the  old  royal  do- 
main of  Garvyach  or  the  Garioch,  the  appanage  of  David, 
Earl  of  Huntingdon. 

The  castle  was  built  by  Gilbert  de  Moravia,  of  the  Scottish 
Murray  family.  Bishop  of  Caithness,  in  the  time  of  King 
Alexander  II.  According  to  tradition,  originally  it  was  merely 
one  great  circular  tower  or  donjon,  having  five  floors  or  stories. 
When  the  castle  in  its  fulness  was  completed  this  formed  the 
western  comer  and  was  called  the  Snow  Tower.  It  is  said  to 
have  been  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet  high,  but  only  the  merest 
vestige  of  it  now  remains.  Subsequent  to  its  establishment 
the  fortress  was  enlarged  into  an  irregular  pentagon,  surround- 



ing  a  spacious  court  and  defended  by  six  other  towers  of  un- 
equal magnitude  and  dissimilar  in  form.  Four  of  these  pro- 
tected the  four  angles  of  the  pentagon,  while  two  others  were 
placed  in  the  western  face  or  curtain,  for  the  security  of  the 
barbican  which  occupied  the  space  between  them. 

The  intervening  buildings  connecting  the  several  towers 
seem  to  have  been  only  two  stories  high,  and  the  walls  are  not 
more  than  four  feet  thick,  of  small  irregular  stones.  The 
western  wall,  in  which  was  the  barbican  or  entrance  gate,  was 
reared  on  the  summit  of  a  regular  slope  of  no  great  acclivity, 
which  rises  from  the  river  and  seems  to  have  been  the  garden 
of  the  castle.  The  northern  side  is  protected  by  the  steep 
banks  of  a  brook  which  flows  into  the  Don. 

The  area  of  the  castle  was  nearly  four  acres.  In  addition 
to  the  site  of  a  pit-well,  a  subterranean  vault  or  passage  may 
be  traced  within  the  ruins.  This  passage  opens  to  the  bank 
on  the  northern  side  of  the  castle  and  probably  served  as  a 
sally  port.  By  means  thereof  the  wife,  daughter,  and  sisters 
of  Bruce  the  king,  with  their  escort  and  attendants,  are  said 
to  have  made  their  escape  when  they  fled  to  the  sanctuary 
of  Tain  in  Rosshire,  from  which  they  were  delivered  into  the 
hands  of  the  English  by  the  earl  of  Ross. 

In  the  middle  of  the  western  wall  the  remains  of  the  chapel 
still  may  be  distinguished  by  the  lancet  form  of  its  altar 
windows,  consisting  of  three  long  narrow  slits.  During  the 
siege  of  the  castle  this  chapel  was  used  as  a  magazine  of  forage 
for  the  horses  belonging  to  the  garrison.  The  besiegers  de- 
spaired of  success  until,   throwing  a  piece   of  red-hot   iron 



through  the  window,  they  set  fire  to  the  forage  and  hterally 
smoked  out  the  defenders. 


Lochmaben  castle  in  Dumfriesshire,  where  Robert  Bruce 
the  Competitor,  grandfather  of  King  Robert  Bruce,  lived  and 
where  he  died  and  was  buried,  was  one  of  the  hereditary 
castles  of  the  Bruce  family.  In  its  time  it  was  the  most  power- 
ful fortress  on  the  border.  The  original  structure  was  on  the 
hill  near  the  town  of  Lochmaben,  but  the  present  castle  was 
built  in  the  thirteenth  century  by  Bruce  the  Competitor. 
Commanding  the  entrance  to  the  southwest  of  Scotland,  it  was 
the  subject  of  many  contests  during  the  border  warfare.  It 
was  captured  by  King  Edward  I.  in  1298  and  he  strengthened 
its  works.  When  Robert  Bruce  fled  from  England  before 
taking  the  field  for  the  crown  of  Scotland,  he  first  sought 
refuge  there.  After  his  success  he  bestowed  it  on  Randolph, 
Earl  of  Moray.  John  Baliol  handed  it  over  to  King  Edward 
III.,  but  it  was  besieged  and  retaken  by  King  David  II.  in 
1346.  When  Archibald  Douglas,  Lord  of  Galloway,  expelled 
the  English  in  1384,  it  fell  into  the  Douglas  hands  and  re- 
mained there  until  1455,  when  it  was  sequestrated  as  a  royal 

The  castle  stands  on  a  spit  of  flat  ground  running  into 
Lochmaben.  By  a  wide  ditch  cut  across  the  neck  of  the 
peninsula  the  site  could  be  converted  into  an  island  about 
sixteen   acres   in  extent.     Three   other  ditches  protected  it. 
















Access  was  most  likely  by  boats  that  came  into  the  great  ditch 
or  moat,  which  could  be  amply  defended  from  the  battlements 
that  overlooked.  The  walls  were  high  and  solid  and  well 
provided  with  parapets  and  defences,  but  they  are  now  re- 
duced to  mere  shapeless  fragments,  having  been  used  in 
recent  generations   as   a  quarry  for  building  materials. 


Turnberry  castle  in  Carrick,  which  Marjory,  Countess  of 
Carrick,  brought  to  the  house  of  Bruce,  was  one  of  Scotland's 
most  noted  fortresses  for  several  centuries.  Turnberry  Point 
on  the  coast  of  Ayrshire,  between  Ayr  and  Girvan,  is  a  rock 
projecting  into  the  sea,  the  top  about  eighteen  feet  above 
high-water  mark.  Upon  this  rock  was  built  the  castle. 
Only  a  few  feet  high  of  the  wall  next  to  the  sea  are  now  stand- 
ing. The  length  of  the  structure  was  about  sixty  feet  and  its 
breadth  fifty-five  feet.  It  was  surrounded  by  a  ditch,  but  that 
was  filled  up  many  years  ago.  The  top  of  the  ruin,  rising 
some  forty  or  fifty  feet  above  the  water,  has  a  magnificent 
appearance  viewed  from  the  sea.  Around  the  castle  was  a 
level  plain  about  two  miles  in  extent,  forming  the  park. 

To  Turnberry  King  Robert  Bruce  longingly  looked  several 
times  during  his  troublous  career.  Once  when  he  made  a 
descent  upon  the  coast  of  Ayr  he  was,  according  to  tradition, 
able  to  gain  possession  of  the  stronghold.  Lord  Clifford 
and  Lord  Lennox  held  the  castle  for  the  English,  and  the 
Bruce,  with  his  impetuous  brother  Edward,  Lord  Douglas, 



and  other  followers,  were  waiting  an  opportunity  at  the  Isle 
of  Arran,  which  had  been  won  by  Douglas  from  Sir  John 
Hastings  in  1306.  There  he  made  ready  to  cross  to  the  main- 
land of  Carrick.  Cuthbert,  a  trusty  retainer,  was  sent  over 
into  Carrick  to  sound  the  people  and  see  if  they  were  favora- 
ble to  the  cause  of  Bruce.  If  he  found  that  they  were  willing 
to  join  the  cause  of  the  king,  it  was  arranged  that  he  should 
start  a  signal  light  on  the  shore  where  it  could  be  seen  from 
the  Isle  of  Arran.  At  nightfall  the  light  eagerly  looked  for 
gleamed  over  the  water  and  the  impatient  watchers  hastened 
to  sail  across  the  bay  to  lead  the  expected  uprising.  Upon 
landing  they  found  Cuthbert,  who  said  that  he  had  given  no 
signal  because  he  had  learned  that  the  Bruce  vassals  of  Carrick 
could  not  be  depended  upon  to  support  their  lord.  In  this 
emergency  and  threatened  with  discovery,  it  was  almost  impos- 
sible to  retreat.  Prudence  gave  way  to  the  dictates  of  valor. 
Regardless  of  the  support  of  the  people  of  the  district,  Bruce 
and  Douglas  with  their  little  band  made  an  impetuous  and 
desperate  attack  upon  the  castle  and  were  successful  in  driving 
out  its  defenders. 

The  unexpected  lights  that  appeared  around  Turnberry 
that  night,  as  though  beckoning  the  Bruce  on  to  death  or  to 
repossess  his  ancestral  home,  have  been  explained  by  prosaic 
matter-of-fact  folk  as  the  work  of  the  brush  burners  at  their 
occupation.  Sentiment  and  superstition  have  attached  to  the 
incident,  however.  Sir  Walter  Scott,  in  The  Lord  of  the  Isles, 
refers  to  the  belief  of  the  common  people  of  Ayrshire  that  the 
fires  were  really  the  work  of  supernatural  power,  unassisted 



by  any  mortal  being;  and  it  is  said  that  for  several  centuries 
the  flame  rose  yearly  at  the  same  hour  of  the  same  night  of 
the  year  that  the  king  saw  it  for  the  first  time  from  the  turrets 
of  Brodick  castle.  The  place  where  the  fire  is  said  to  have 
appeared  has  been  called  Bogie's  Brae  beyond  the  remem- 
brance of  man. 

The  description  of  Bruce's  descent  upon  Carrick  is  one  of 
the  most  beautiful  parts  of  Scott's  poem : 

"They  gain'd  the  Chase,  a  wide  domain 

Left  for  the  castle's  sylvan  reign, 
(Seek  not  the  scene — the  axe,  the  plough. 

The  boor's  dull  fence  have  marred  it  now,) 
But  then,  soft  swept  in  velvet  green, 

The  plain  with  many  a  glade  between, 
Whose  tangled  alleys  far  invade 

The  depth  of  the  brown  forest  shade. 
Here  the  tall  fern  obscures  the  lawn. 

Fair  shelter  for  the  sportive  fawn; 
There,  tufted  close  with  copsewood  green, 

Was  many  a  swelling  hillock  seen; 
And  all  around  was  verdure  meet 

For  pressure  of  the  fairies'  feet. 
The  glossy  holly  loved  the  park. 

The  yew-tree  lent  it  shadow  dark. 
And  many  an  old  oak,  worn  and  bare. 

With  all  its  shiver'd  boughs  was  there. 
Lovely,  between,  the  moonbeams  fell. 

On  lawn  and  hillock,  glade  and  dell. 
The  gallant  monarch  sigh'd  to  see 

These  glades  so  loved  in  childhood  free. 
Bethinking  that,  as  outlaw  now. 

He  ranged  beneath  the  forest  bough. 


And  from  the  donjon  tower  on  high, 
The  men  of  Carrick  may  descry 

Saint  Andrew's  cross  in  blazonry, 
Of  silver  waving  wide! 

The  Bruce  hath  won  his  father's  hall! 

'Great  God!  once  more  my  sire's  abode 

Is  mine, — behold  the  floor  I  trod, 
In  tottering  infancy! 

And  there  the  vaulted  arch  whose  ground 
Echoed  my  joyous  shout  and  bound. 

In  boyhood,  and  that  rung  around 
To  youth's  unthinking  glee.'  "* 


Robert  Chambers,  in  his  Pictures  of  Scotland,  wrote:  "The 
time  when  there  was  no  Stirling  castle  is  not  known  in  Scot- 
tish annals."  The  fortification  is  of  great  antiquity  and  the 
date  of  its  origin  is  so  remote  that  it  has  been  forgotten.  The 
ancient  inhabitants  had  a  fortress  on  Stirling  rock,  and  the  old 
chronicles  say  that  it  was  held  by  Agricola  during  the  Roman 
invasion  and  made  an  easily  defensible  headquarters  for  the 
Roman  legions.  Early  monkish  writers  called  it  Mons  Do- 
lorum,  or  Mountain  of  Grief,  and  it  was  also  named  Styreling, 
or  Hill  of  Strife,  both  appellations  clearly  indicating  its  pur- 
pose and  its  character.  After  the  Romans  had  withdrawn 
Stirling  formed  part  of  the  Pictish  province  of  Forterin  or 
Forternn.  When  Egfrid,  theAnglian  king,  overran  the  country 
in  the  seventh  century,  it  is  supposed  that  he  occupied  Stirling, 

*  The  Lord  of  the  Isles,  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Canto  VI. 


which  was  still  a  frontier  or  fortress  as  late  as  the  time  when 
Kenneth  the  Hardy  led  Jiis  followers  across  the  Scots  Water 
or  Forth  and  destroyed  it. 

After  King  Donald  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Northum- 
brians, he  yielded  the  territory  around  Stirling  as  ransom, 
and  the  Northumbrians  rebuilt  the  castle  and  strongly  gar- 
risoned it.  For  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  it  was  in  posses- 
sion of  the  North  Saxons  and  then  it  was  returned  to  the  Scots. 
In  the  tenth  century  it  was  a  rendezvous  of  the  troops  under 
King  Kenneth  III.  when  the  country  was  invaded  by  the 
Danes;  and  thence  he  marched  to  the  battle  of  Longarty. 
It  was  not  however  until  Forteviot,  Scone,  and  Abernethy 
ceased  to  be  royal  residences  or  capitals  that  Stirling  pos- 
sessed a  castle  worthy  the  name. 

In  the  reign  of  King  Alexander  I.,  there  was  a  fairly  well- 
built  fortress  on  the  rock,  and  that  king  founded  the  first 
chapel  within  its  walls.  When  the  successor  of  Alexander 
ascended  the  throne,  a  feudal  castle,  probably  a  single  square 
tower  or  keep  with  spacious  courtyard  or  enciente,  replaced 
the  earlier  buildings  of  wood  and  wattles,  rudely  fortified  by 
earthworks.  In  the  reign  of  King  William  the  Lion,  Stirling 
castle  was  one  of  the  five  principal  fortresses  of  the  kingdom. 
During  the  wars  with  England,  it  was  more  than  once  de- 
stroyed and  rebuilt,  and  it  was  the  prize  for  which  the  bat- 
tle of  Bannockburn  was  fought  by  King  Robert  Bruce  against 
the  forces  of  King  Edward  I.  of  England. 

From  the  accession  of  King  Alexander  I.  to  the  union  of 
Scotland  with  England,  Stirling  was  one  of  the  chief  centres 



of  political  activity  and  statecraft,  and  a  relation  of  its  annals 
would  involve  nearly  the  whole  of  Scottish  history.  By  the 
early  kings  of  Scotland  it  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
important  places  in  the  kingdom,  and  it  was  a  frequent  and 
favorite  residence  of  the  royal  family.  In  the  words  of  the 
poet,  it  was  "parent  of  monarchs,  nurse  of  kingly  race."  King 
Alexander  I.  died  there,  and  when  King  William  the  Lion  was 
ill  he  asked  to  be  carried  to  Stirling,  where  he  lingered  for 
several  months  before  death  closed  his  career.  The  Stewarts 
recreated  Stirling  castle  and  it  became  a  delightful  and  lux- 
urious home  for  them.  There  in  February,  1452,  King  James 
II.  stabbed  the  Earl  of  Douglas: 

"Ye  towers!  within  whose  circuit  dread 
A  Douglas  by  his  sovereign  bled."* 

Stirling  castle,  well  preserved,  is  one  of  the  most  revered 
structures  of  Scotland.  For  generations,  alike  in  its  pictur- 
esque beauty  and  noble  grandeur  and  in  its  stirring  historic 
associations,  it  has  been  the  admiration  of  all  who  have  looked 
upon  it  and  has  been  an  inspiration  to  patriotism  and  to  letters. 
Said  one  enthusiastic  writer  describing  it: 

"Who  does  not  know  Stirling's  noble  rock  rising  the  mon 
arch  of  the  landscape,  its  majestic  and  picturesque  towers, 
its  amphitheatre  of  mountain  and  the  winding  of  its  marvel- 
lous river;  and  who  that  has  once  seen  the  sun  descending 
here  in  all  the  blaze  of  its  beauty  beyond  the  purple  hills  of 
the  west  can  ever  forget  the  plains  of  Stirling,  the  endless 
charm  of  this  wonderful  scene,  the  wealth,  the  splendor,  the 
variety,  the  majesty  of  all  which  lies  between  earth  and 
heaven  ?  " 

*  Lady  of  the  Lake,  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Canto  V. 


In  close  proximity  to  Stirling  are  the  villages  of  Bannock- 
burn  and  St.  Ninian's,  ,and  the  famous  battleground  where 
Bruce  achieved  the  liberation  of  Scotland  lies  immediately 
between  them.  The  Bore-stone,  in  which  the  Scottish  king 
planted  his  standard,  is  still  preserved  and  occupies  its  origi- 
nal site  near  the  village  of  Bannockburn. 

On  the  Esplanade  of  Stirling  stands  a  monument  of 
Robert  Bruce,  of  colossal  size.  The  figure  is  nearly  eleven 
feet  high,  and  stands  looking  in  the  direction  of  the  field  of 
Bannockburn,  where  King  Robert  achieved  his  greatest  vic- 
tory over  the  English  forces.  The  king  is  represented  as  a 
knight  of  the  highest  rank,  clad  in  the  fighting  armor  of  the 
period  and  in  the  act  of  sheathing  his  sword  after  the  victory. 
On  the  front  of  the  pedestal  is  the  Scottish  [shield  with  the 
lion  rampant  in  high  relief.  On  the  western  face  of  the  ped- 
estal is  the  inscription  "King  Robert  the  Bruce;  June  24, 
1314,"  the  date  of  the  battle  of  Bannockburn.  The  statue 
was  unveiled  November  24,  1877. 

Melrose  Abbey 

Melrose  abbey  had  a  precursor  in  a  religious  house  of  the 
Culdee  brotherhood  established  in  the  seventh  century,  under 
the  patronage  of  Oswald,  King  of  Northumbria. '  That  has 
long  ago  disappeared,  and  even  the  more  modern  building 
is  in  ruins.  The  abbey  that  stood  where  ruins  now  are 
was  founded  for  the  Cistercian  monks  in  1136.  The  second 
abbot  of  the  house  was  the  famous  St.  Waltheof,  Walthen,  or 



Waldeve,  who  was  related  to  the  ancestors  of  the  Bruces.  His 
grandfather  was  Siward,  the  Saxon  count  of  Northumberland, 
who  strongly  opposed  William  the  Conqueror,  by  whom  he  was 
captured  and  beheaded.  Siward's  daughter,  the  mother  of  the 
abbot,  married  Simon,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  and  after  the  death 
of  that  noble  married  Prince  David,  who  later  became  the  king. 
In  the  wars  between  England  and  Scotland  the  abbey  suf- 
fered much  from  the  English  invaders,  who  were  at  odds  with 
the  monks  because  the  latter  avowed  the  cause  of  Bruce  and 
Scotland.  When  Edward  II.  invaded  Scotland  in  1322  he 
intended  to  rest  at  Melrose.  Douglas  was  near  by  with  a  small 
company  of  retainers  and  the  brotherhood  admitted  him  and 
his  men  to  the  abbey,  from  which  they  could  sally  forth  in  an 
attack  upon  the  English.  According  to  Barbour*  they  sent 
out  to  reconnoitre  "  a  rich  sturdy  free,  that  wes  all  stout,  derft 
and  hardy." 

"Upon  a  stalwart  horse  he  rad 
And  in  his  hand  he  had  a  sper. 
And  abaid  upon  that  manner 
Quhil  that  he  saw  them  command  near, 
And  quhen  the  fermost  passit  wer 
The  coynge — he  cryit  'Douglas,  Douglas.' 
Then  till  them  all  a  course  he  mass, 
And  bar  ane  down  delyverly. 
And  Douglas  and  his  company, 
Ischyt  upon  them  with  a  shout." 

Douglas  could  do  little  damage  to  the  big  English  army,  and 
after  he  had  fallen  back  to  the  forest  King  Edward  occu- 
pied the  place  and  took  summary  vengeance,  wrecking  the 

*  The  Bruce,  by  John  Barbour. 











building,  slaying  the  monks,  and  carrying  away  with  him  the 
silver  pix  for  holding  the  sacramental  wafer. 

King  Robert  Bruce  was  a  good  and  generous  friend  to  the 
brotherhood.  Among  the  muniments  of  the  foundation  is 
an  interesting  document  in  which  Bruce  commends  the  broth- 
erhood with  great  affection  and  warmth  of  expression  to  the 
pious  charge  of  his  son  and  successor,  David,  staling  that  he 
intends  that  the  monastery  shall  be  the  depository  of  his  heart. 

The  present  buildings,  ruined  as  they  are,  belong  to  a  date 
much  posterior  to  the  time  of  the  reigning  Bruces.  They 
are  not  older  than  the  fifteenth  century.  Few  among  the 
ruined  historic  structures  of  Scotland  are  more  picturesquely 
attractive  or  more  generally  admired. 

"If  thou  would'st  view  fair  Melrose  aright, 
Go  visit  it  by  the  pale  moonlight: 
For  the  gay  beams  of  lightsome  day 
Gild  but  to  flout  the  ruins  gray. 
When  the  broken  arches  are  black  in  night. 
And  each  shafted  oriel  glimmers  white: 
When  the  cold  light's  uncertain  shower 
Streams  on  the  ruined  central  tower; 
When  buttress  and  buttress  alternately, 
Seem  framed  of  ebon  and  ivory; 
When  silver  edges  the  imagery. 
And  the  scrolls  that  teach  thee  to  live  and  die; 
When  distant  Tweed  is  heard  to  rave. 
And  owlet  to  hoot  o'er  the  dead  man's  grave, 
Then  go — but  go  alone  the  while — 
Then  view  St.  David's  ruined  pile; 
And  home  returning,  soothly  swear. 
Was  never  scene  so  sad  and  fair."* 

*  The  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel,  by  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Canto  II. 



Clackmannan  tower,  home  of  the  Clackmannan  branch  of 
the  Bruces,  is  situated  on  the  top  of  a  hill  on  the  eastern  slope 
of  which  the  town  of  Clackmannan  stands.  In  1359,  King 
David  II.  granted  a  charter  of  this  domain  to  Robert  Bruce, 
his  nephew,  and  the  castle  was  held  by  his  descendants  in 
this  branch  of  the  Bruce  family  until  the  close  of  the  eighteenth 
century.  The  old  tower  is  remarkably  well  preserved,  being 
a  rectangular  keep,  twenty-four  feet  by  eighteen  feet  inside, 
with  walls  six  feet  thick.  In  its  prime  it  contained  a  fine 
entrance  hall  with  adjacent  rooms,  and  several  floors  above. 
A  second  tower  was  added  in  the  sixteenth  century,  and 
this  is  now  in  existence,  with  fireplace,  staircase,  pictur- 
esque belfry,  and  other  appurtenances.  In  the  adjoining 
village  there  was  long  a  relic  of  the  Bruce,  a  large  stone 
which,  having  been  broken,  was  girded  with  bands  of  iron 
and  preserved  with  devout  reverence.  On  this  stone,  says 
the  tradition,  the  king,  while  residing  in  the  tower,  accident- 
ally left  his  glove,  and,  sending  his  squire  to  fetch  it,  used 
the  two  words  clack,  a  stone,  and,  mannan,  a  glove :  from  this 
the  tower,  village,  and  county  derived  their  name. 


Rait  castle  in  Nairnshire,  the  home  of  Robert  Bruce  the 
second  baron  of  Clackmannan,  is  of  such  ancient  origin  that 
there  is  no  account  of  its  beginning.     It  is  an  interesting  and 



unique  building  about  three  miles  south  from  the  town  of 
Nairn,  and  commands  the  coast  between  Nairn  and  Moray 
Firth.  Tradition  says  that  it  belonged  to  the  Raits  of  that 
ilk  and  afterwards  to  the  Comjms.  The  ruins  show  that  the 
castle  was  an  oblong  structure  about  sixty-four  feet  by  thirty- 
three  feet,  with  walls  five  feet  thick.  At  the  southwest 
angle  was  a  round  tower  twenty-one  feet  in  diameter.  There 
were  three  stories,  but  the  upper  ones  have  disappeared.  The 
entrance  was  one  floor  from  the  ground  and  opened  upon  a 
great  hall  with  handsome  mullioned  windows. 


On  the  coast  along  the  Firth  of  Forth,  not  far  from  Dun- 
fermline, is  the  ruined  castle  of  Rosyth  which  was  the  ances- 
tral home  of  Sir  David  Stewart,  whose  daughter  Elizabeth 
Stewart  married  John  Bruce  the  fourth  Baron  of  Clackmannan. 
It  stands  high  on  a  rock  that  slopes  gently  into  the  sea  and 
that  at  full  tide  is  an  island  wholly  surrounded  by  water.  It 
consists  of  a  high  tower,  with  a  vaulted  apartment  underneath 
and  an  inner  winding  staircase  leading  to  the  upper  room  or 
floor.  Portions  of  the  north  and  west  walls  of  an  adjoining 
building  on  the  west  are  still  to  be  seen.  In  a  high  compart- 
ment over  the  gateway  is  a  defaced  armorial  bearing  sur- 
mounted by  a  crown  and  the  date  1561,  with  the  letters  M.  R. 
(Maria  Regina).  Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  whose  memory  is 
thus  perpetuated,  is  said  to  have  slept  in  this  castle,  the  first 
night  after  her  flight  from  Lochleven  on  her  way  to  Glasgow, 



near  which  in  May,  1568,  was  fought  the  fatal  battle  of  Lang- 
side.  On  the  south  side  of  the  castle,  near  the  door  was  an 
inscription  on  an  old  stone  in  Roman  capital  letters: 


The  castle  was  anciently  the  seat  of  the  Stewarts  of  Rosyth 
or  Durisdeer,  the  lineal  descendants  of  the  brother-german 
of  Walter,  the  high  steward  of  Scotland,  father  of  King 
Robert  II. 

BiRSAY  Palace 

At  the  extreme  northwest  corner  of  Orkney,  twenty  miles 
from  Kirkwall,  is  the  large  and  imposing  Birsay  palace.  It 
was  built  by  Robert  Stewart,  half-brother  of  Queen  Mary 
and  descendant  of  Robert  Bruce.  He  put  upon  the  building 
this  inscription:  "Dominus  Robertus  Stewartus,  filius  Jacobi 
Quinti  Rex  Scotorum."  It  is  said  that  this  bad  Latin  by 
which  the  title  King  of  Scots  was  made  to  pertain  to  Robert, 
even  if  he  did  not  intend  it,  had  an  influence  in  bringing  Earl 
Patrick,  son  of  Robert,  to  the  block,  when  he  was  arraigned 
on  a  charge  of  treason. 

Robert  Stewart  and  his  son.  Earl  Patrick,  ruled  Hke  kings 
in  this  far-away  part  of  Scotland,  and  Birsay  was  a  palace  be- 
fitting a  sovereign.  It  is  now  very  much  ruined,  but  it  gives 
abundant  evidence  of  its  former  grandeur.  It  is  situate  close 
to  the  seashore  and  can  be  reached  easily  both  from  the  land 
side  and    the    waterside.     It  consists  of  a  court  yard    sur- 



rounded  with  two-story  buildings   and  having  two  vaulted 
towers  at  the  angles  to  protect  the  approach. 

Earl  Patrick  Stewart  rivalled  his  father  in  the  imposing 
palace  that  he  built  near  the  cathedral  of  St.  Magnus  and  the 
Bishop's  palace  in  Kirkwall.  This  building  has  been  preserved 
almost  entire  except  the  roof.  Sir  Walter  Scott  thus  described 
the  remains  of  the  fortified  palace  of  the  earls  of  Orkney : 

"These  remains,  though  much  dilapidated,  still  exist  in  the 
neighborhood  of  the  venerable  and  massive  pile,  which  Nor- 
wegian devotion  dedicated  to  St.  Magnus  the  Martyr,  and, 
being  contiguous  to  the  Bishop's  palace,  which  is  also  ruinous, 
the  place  is  impressive  as  exhibiting  vestiges  of  the  mutations 
both  in  church  and  state  which  have  affected  Orkney,  as  well 
as  countries  more  exposed  to  such  convulsions.  The  earl's 
palace  forms  three  sides  of  an  oblong  square,  and  has  even 
in  its  ruins,  the  air  of  an  elegant  yet  massive  structure,  uniting, 
as  was  usual  in  the  residences  of  feudal  princes,  the  character 
of  a  palace  and  of  a  castle.  A  great  banqueting  hall,  com- 
municating with  several  large  rounds  or  projecting  turret 
rooms,  and  having  at  either  end  an  immense  chimney,  testi- 
fies the  ancient  Northern  hospitality  of  the  earls  of  Orkney, 
and  communicates,  almost  in  the  most  modern  fashion,  with  a 
gallery  or  withdrawing  room  of  considerable  dimensions,  and 
having,  like  the  hall,  its  projecting  turrets.  The  lordly  hall 
itself  is  lighted  by  a  fine  Gothic  window,  of  shafted  stone  at 
one  end,  and  is  entered  by  a  spacious  and  elegant  staircase, 
consisting  of  three  flights  of  stone  steps.  The  exterior  orna- 
ments and  proportions  of  the  ancient  building  are  also  very 
handsome,  but,  being  totally  unprotected,  this  remnant  of  the 
pomp  and  grandeur  of  earls  who  assumed  the  license,  as  well 
as  the  dignity,  of  petty  sovereigns  is  now  fast  crumbling  to 
decay."  * 

*  The  Pirate,  by  Sir  Walter  ScoH. 


Since  the  time  of  Scott,  this  princely  palace  has  gone  fur- 
ther to  ruin,  but  it  still  gives  plentiful  evidence  of  its  former 
stately  character.  Architecturally,  it  belongs  to  the  seven- 
teenth century. 


Muness  castle  has  been  called  "the  most  northern  specimen 
of  our  Scottish  domestic  architecture."  Lawrence  Bruce, 
its  builder,  might  well  have  said  in  the  words  of  Longfellow : 

"So  far  1  live  to  the  Northward, 
No  man  lives  North  of  Me." 

The  castle  stands  on  a  rising  moorland,  about  half  a  mile 
from  the  sea.  It  is  oblong,  seventy-four  feet  by  twenty-eight 
feet,  with  two  large  round  towers.  The  building  is  three 
stories  high  and  quite  entire.  The  entrance  doorway  is  on 
the  south  front  and  above  this  is  a  large  panel  with  an  inscrip- 
tion in  German  letters,  which  runs  thus: 

"List  ye  to  know  yis  building  quha  began.? 
Laurance  the  Bruce,  he  was  that  worthy  man, 
Quha  earnestlie  his  airis  and  oifspring  prayis. 
To  help  and  not  to  hurt  this  wark  alwayis. 
The  zier  of  God  1598." 

Above  the  inscription  is  a  panel  with  the  Bruce  arms. 





1    «l 



0^  if  t>^s  ^ 







AS  to  armorial  bearings,  in  the  early  centuries  of  the 
Ghristian  era,  either  none  were  worn,  or  they  were 
continually  changed,  says  Henry  Drummond,  the 
antiquarian.  In  some  instances  they  were  even  taken  irre- 
spective of  relationship,  and  in  other  cases  members  of  the 
same  family  varied  them  as  suited  their  respective  inclina- 
tions. Arms  of  the  Bruces  in  the  different  branches,  and  of 
the  leading  Scottish  families  that  became  allied  to  the  Bruces, 
are  given  herewith. 

Bruce — The  bearings  of  the  original  stock  of  the  Scottish 
Bruces  were :  a  lion  rampant  azure  on  a  field  argent.  Alan  de 
Brusee  had:  a  lion  rampant  gules  on  a  field  or.  The  Skelton 
line  adopted  a  lion  rampant  azure  on  a  field  argent,  and  the 
Brember  line  a  lion  or  on  a  field  azure.  Jacques  de  Breze, 
Baron  de  Brieuze,  Marshal  of  Normandy,  had:  a  lion  rampant 
azure  on  a  field  or.  After  the  Bruces  became  fully  established 
in  Scotland  many  changes  were  made  in  their  arms.  Robert 
Brusee,  Robert  Le  Meschin,  the  fourth  of  the  name,  had: 
or,  a  saltire  and  chief  gules.  Robert  Bruce,  sixth  of  the  name, 
had :  or,  a  saltire  gules,  chief  argent,  a  lion  passant.  The  same 
Robert  Bruce  used  as  a  seal  the  arms  of  the  earls  of  Hunting- 
don.    The  arms  of  King  Robert  Bruce  were :  or,  a  saltire  gules, 



on  a  chief  gules,  a  lion  passant.  Edward  Bruce  of  Blairhall 
had:  or,  a  saltire  gules,  chief  gules  charged  with  a  crescent. 
George  Bruce  of  Carnock  had:  quarterly,  first  and  second 
argent,  a  lion  rampant  azure;  second  and  third  or,  a  saltire 
and  chief  gules.  The  Bruces  of  Carrick  adopted  the  arms 
of  the  Bruces  barons  of  Annandale:  or,  a  saltire  and  chief 
gules;  in  a  later  generation  one  of  the  Ailesbury  branches  of 
the  family  used  the  same  arms  with  a  lion  rampant  azure  on 
a  canton  argent. 

Huntingdon — Nisbet  the  antiquarian,  in  his  great  work 
wherein  he  reviewed  the  heraldic  claims  and  customs  of  the 
noble  families  of  Scotland,  observed : 

"  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  brother  of  King  William  of 
Scotland,  did  not  use  the  entire  arms  of  his  grandfather, 
King  David  I.,  but  only  a  small  part  of  them;  argent,  an 
escutcheon  within  a  double  tressure  flowered  and  counter- 
flowered  gules.  He  had  the  field  of  his  arms  argent  and  not 
of  the  metal  or,  that  of  Scotland,  because  it  was  the  field  of 
arms  of  his  grandmother,  daughter  of  Waltheof,  Earl  of 
Northumberland  and  Huntingdon." 

Robert  Bruce  of  Annandale  bore  Huntingdon  arms. 

Waltheof — The  last  Saxon  earl  of  Northumberland, 
Waltheof,  ancestor  of  the  earls  of  Huntingdon,  had:  argent, 
a  lion  rampant  azure,  chief  gules. 

Orkney — The  arms  of  the  earldom  of  Orkney  were :  azure, 
a  ship  at  anchor,  oars  in  saltire  and  sails  furled  within  a  double 
tressure,  flory  and  counterflory  or. 

Caithness — The  arms  of  the  ancient  earldom  of  Caith- 
ness were :  azure,  a  ship  under  sail  or,  the  sails  or. 



Normandy — William  the  Conqueror  used  the  arms  of  his 
great  ancestor,  Rollo,  the  first  Duke  of  Normandy:  gules, 
I  two  lions  passant,  guardant  or. 

Gloucester — The  Earls  of  Gloucester — de  Clare — who 
were  the  ancestors  of  Isabel  de  Clare,  who  married  the  seventh 
Robert  Bruce,  had:  three  chevrons  or,  gules.  This  line  be- 
came extinct  in  1313. 

Warren — The  Earls  of  Warren  and  Surrey  had:  chequy, 
or  and  azure. 

De  Burgh — The  first  Earl  of  Ulster,  Richard  de  Burgh 
of  Ireland,  whose  great-granddaughter,  Elizabeth  Aylmer  de 
Burgh,  was  the  second  wife  of  King  Robert  Bruce,  had:  or, 
a  cross,  gules. 

Elgin  and  Kincardine — The  lords  of  Kinloss  and  the 
earls  of  Elgin  and  Kincardine  with  their  near  connections 
have  had  almost  exclusive  distinction  as  the  remaining  direct 
line  of  male  descendants  from  King  Robert  Bruce.  As  has 
been  genealogically  shown  on  other  pages,  they  are  derived 
from  the  Clackmannan  branch  of  the  Bruce  stock,  which  has 
been  the  one  line  most  conspicuously  preserved  in  its  ident- 
ity. The  arms  of  the  earls  of  Elgin  and  Kincardine  are ;  or, 
a  saltire  and  chief  gules,  on  a  canton  argent,  a  lion  rampant 
azure.  Crest:  a  lion  statant  azure.  Supporters;  two  sav- 
ages proper  wreathed  about  the  head  and  middle  with  laurel 
vert.     Motto ;    Fuimus. 

AiLESBURY — The  Ailesbury  branch.  Barons  Bruce  of 
Whorlton,  Yorkshire,  now  extinct,  had  these  arms  or,  a 
saltire  and  chief  gules,  on  a  canton  argent  a  lion  rampant 



azure, — the  same  as  the  Earls  of  Elgin  and  Kincardine, 
with  whom  they  were  allied.  The  arms  of  the  modern  Ailes- 
bury  family  are:  quarterly,  first  and  fourth  or,  a  saltire  and 
chief  gules,  on  a  canton  argent,  a  lion  rampant  azure,  for 
Bruce;  second  and  third  argent,  a  chevron  gules  between 
three  morions  or  steel  caps  azure,  for  Brudenell.  Crests: 
first,  a  seahorse  argent;  second,  a  lion  passant  azure.  Sup- 
porters: two  savages  proper  wreathed  around  the  loins  and 
temples  vert,  each  supporting  in  the  exterior  hand  a  flag, 
thereon  the  first  quarter  of  the  arms  for  Bruce.  Motto: 

Clackmannan — The  arms  of  Bruce  of  Clackmannan  in 
the  sixteenth  century  were:  or  a  saltire  and  chief  gules,  the 
latter  charged  with  a  mullet  argent  in  dexter  chief.  Later 
arms  of  this  branch  are:  or,  a  saltire  and  chief  gules.  Crest: 
a  hand  in  armor  proper  (including  the  upper  part  of  the 
elbow)  issuing  out  of  a  cloud,  grasping  a  sceptre,  and  signed 
on  the  point  with  a  closed  crown  or.  Supporters:  dexter, 
the  lion  of  England;  sinister,  the  royal  unicorn  of  Scotland. 
Motto:  Fuimus.  These  were  the  heraldic  ensigns  of  Henry 
Bruce,  the  last  of  the  Clackmannans.  They  were  also  car- 
ried by  David  Bruce  in  1686,  who  added  the  motto:  No  deest 
generoso  pectori  virtus. 

CuLTMALiNDiE — Robert  Bruce  of  Cultmalindie  had:  quar- 
terly, first  and  fourth,  or  a  saltire  and  chief  gules,  charged 
with  a  mullet  or;  second  and  third  gules,  a  lion  rampant 

Devonshire — The  arms  of  the   Cavendish  family,  dukes 



of  Devonshire,  to  which  the  marriage  of  Christiana  Bruce  to 
William  Cavendish  gave  added  distinction,  are:  sable,  three 
bucks'  heads,  caboshed  argent.  Crest:  a  serpent,  nowed, 
proper.  Supporters:  two  bucks  proper,  each  wreathed 
around  the  neck  with  a  chaplet  of  roses  alternately  argent 
and  azure.     Motto:   Cavendo  tutus. 

Stewart — The  arms  of  the  Stewarts  were:  or,  a  fesse 
chequy  argent  and  azure.  These  arms  were  quartered  by 
the  several  branches  of  the  family. 

Moray — The  Randolphs  who  were  Earls  of  Moray  were 
Bruces  through  Isabel,  Bruce,  sister  of  King  Robert  Bruce  I., 
who  married  Thomas  Randolph.  The  earldom  became  ex- 
tinct in  1465.  The  arms  were:  or,  three  cushions,  two  and 
one  of  a  lozenge  form,  with  a  double  tressure,  flory  and  coun- 
terflory  gules. 

Dunbar — The  arms  of  the  ancient  house  of  Dunbar  were: 
gules,  a  lion  rampant  argent,  within  a  bordure  of  the  last, 
charged  with  eight  roses  of  the  field.  The  earlier  seals  ex- 
hibit simply  the  lion  rampant,  the  bordure  of  roses  being, 
according  to  Nisbet,  the  badge  of  the  comital  office  of 
the  Patrick  Dunbar  who  was  first  designated  Earl  of 

Elphinston — The  arms  of  the  Elphinston  family  are: 
argent,  a  chevron  sable  between  three  boars'  heads,  erased 
gules,  armed  of  the  first.  Crest:  a  lady,  from  the  middle, 
richly  attired  proper,  holding  in  her  dexter  hand  a  castle 
argent,  and  in  her  sinister  hand  a  branch  of  laurel  proper. 
Supporters:   two  savages  proper  with  laurel  garlands  around 



their  heads  and  loins  and  carrying  clubs  on  their  shoulders 
proper.     Motto:   Cause  causit. 

Oliphant — The  arms  of  the  Oliphants  are:  gules,  three 
crescents  argent.  Crest:  a  unicorn's  head,  couped,  argent, 
maned  and  horned,  or.  Supporters:  two  elephants  proper. 
Motto:  A  tout  pourvoir. 

ViPONT— The  Viponts  of  Scotland  have  for  arms:  gules, 
six  mascles,  three,  two  and  one  or. 

Campbell — The  oldest  arms  of  the  Campbells  of  Lochow 
were:  gyronny  of  eight  or  and  sable.  The  arms  of  the  later 
Campbells  of  Glenlyon,  with  whom  the  Bruces  married,  are 
in  part  like  those  of  the  Earls  of  Breadalbane,  also  a  Bruce 
family.  They  are:  quarterly,  first  and  fourth,  gyronny  of 
eight  or  and  sable,  for  Campbell;  second  or,  a  fesse  chequy 
argent  and  azure,  for  Stewart;  third  argent,  a  lymphad,  her 
sails  furled  and  oars  in  action,  all  sable,  for  Lorn;  in  the 
centre  of  the  quarters  a  man's  heart  gules,  crowned  or. 
Crest:  a  demi-lion  proper  with  a  collar  gyronny  of  eight  or 
and  sable  and  holding  in  his  dexter  paw  a  heart  crowned 
as  in  the  arms.  Motto:  Quae  recta  sequer.  Campbell  of 
Barbreck,  descended  from  Sir  Colin  Campbell  of  Lochow, 
nephew  of  Sir  Robert  Bruce,  had :  quarterly,  first  and  fourth, 
gyronny  of  eight  or  and  sable ;  second  argent  a  broadsword  in 
bend  gules,  hilted  sable;  third  argent,  a  castle  triple-towered 
sable ;  on  an  escutcheon  of  pretence  sable,  a  boar's  head  erased 
or,  a  crescent  argent  in  chief.  Crest:  a  lion's  head  affront^e 
proper.     Motto :  I  bear  in  mind. 





BRUGES  IN   AMERICA  ^    j» 
SCENDANTS   J*    jt    ot    jt    ^ 






THE  ancient  Scottish  family  of  Bruce  has  been  trans- 
planted to  America  at  different  periods  of  our 
country's  history  by  various  emigrants.  These 
representatives  settled  in  several  states  and  their  descendants 
have  been  numerous  and  influential  in  many  communities. 
Pre-eminent  among  these  American  branches  are  those  es- 
tablished by  the  brothers  David  Bruce  and  George  Bruce,  the 
celebrated  typefounders,  both  whom  were  conspicuous  citi- 
zens of  New  York  in  their  generation.  The  present  memoir 
is  concerned  with  the  younger  of  these  brothers,  George  Bruce, 
his  wife,  Catherine  (Wolfe)  Bruce, — daughter  of  David  Wolfe, 
— and  their  children. 

George  Bruce,  son  of  John  and  Janet  (Gilbertson)  Bruce,* 
was  born  in  Edinburgh,  Scotland,  June  26,  1781.  His  eldest 
brother,  David  Bruce,  came  to  America  about  1790,  es- 
tablishing himself  in  the  printing  business  in  Philadelphia. 
During  the  Napoleonic  wars,  John  Bruce,  a  younger  son  of 
this  family,  lost  his  life  in  the  army  in  Egypt,  and,  the  family 

*  XXXV  pp.  104  and  105. 
21  321 


fearing  to  lose  another  of  its  members  in  the  same  way,  George 
Bruce  followed  his  brother  to  America. 

Upon  arriving  in  Philadelphia,  the  Scotch  laddie,  then  only 
fourteen  years  old,  obtained  employment  with  a  firm  of  book 
printers  and  binders.  In  1797,  he  entered  the  office  of  the 
Philadelphia  Gazette,  an  afternoon  paper  rejoicing  in  a  cir- 
culation of  some  two  thousand.  There  he  remained  about 
a  year,  when,  to  escape  the  yellow  fever  epidemic  then  raging, 
he  and  his  brother  left  the  Quaker  City.  He  was  attacked 
by  fever  on  his  way  north  and,  being  unable  to  obtain  a  place 
to  stop,  remained  in  a  shed,  being  taken  care  of  by  his  brother; 
he  always  believed  that  he  owed  his  life  to  this  enforced  fresh- 
air  treatment.  The  two  brothers  proceeded  to  New  York 
and  from  there  went  to  Albany,  where  they  were  employed 
in  the  office  of  the  Sentinel,  which  did  the  official  printing 
for  the  State  Legislature. 

In  the  spring  of  1799,  the  brothers  went  to  New  York  City, 
a  removal  which  was  destined  to  be  permanent  and  to  lead 
them  to  both  fortune  and  fame.  George  Bruce,  now  in  his 
eighteenth  year,  secured  a  position  in  the  printing  establish- 
ment of  the  Mercantile  Advertiser,  owing  to  his  youth  being 
able  to  obtain  only  three-fourths  journeyman's  wages.  Sub- 
sequently he  was  employed  on  books  in  the  offices  of  Isaac 
Collins,  James  Crane,  and  T.  &  J.  Woods.  During  this  time 
the  Franklin  Typographical  Association  was  organized  by  the 
journeyman  printers  of  the  city,  about  fifty  signing  the  con- 
stitution, and  he  was  elected  its  secretary — an  evidence  of 
the  substantial  standing  which  already  he  had  attained  in 




his  craft.  In  1802,  he  became  connected  with  the  office  of 
the  Daily  Advertiser,  of  which  he  was  made  foreman  in  the 
course  of  a  year;  later,  he  assumed  entire  responsibility  for 
the  publication  of  the  paper,  his  name  appearing  as  its  printer 
in  the  volumes  for  1803,  1804,  and  1805. 

About  the  end  of  1805  Mr.  Bruce  embarked  in  the  printing 
business  on  his  own  account,  and  among  other  works  issued 
from  his  press  were  reprints  of  various  standard  books  from 
England.  Joining  in  partnership  with  his  brother,  the  firm 
of  D.  &  G.  Bruce,  which  afterwards  attained  a  wide  celebrity, 
was  organized.  With  a  new  press  and  types  from  Phila- 
delphia, "they  established  themselves  in  the  upper  part  of  a 
house  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Wall  and  Pearl  streets.  The 
apartment,  which  they  hired  of  Miss  Rivington,  was  the  same 
which  had  been  occupied  by  her  father,  as  the  king's  printer, 
during  the  Revolutionary  War."  Marked  prosperity  at- 
tended this  venture,  and  within  a  brief  time  the  firm  had  nine 
presses  in  operation.  As  an  instance  of  their  vigorous  enter- 
prise, it  is  noteworthy  that  they  regularly  brought  out  repro- 
ductions of  the  Edinburgh,  London,  and  Quarterly  Reviews, 
the  first  American  reprints  of  those  British  periodicals. 

In  1812  was  taken  the  first  step  which  resulted  in  the  intro- 
duction by  them  of  the  art  of  stereotyping  in  America,  and, 
incidentally,  in  the  erection  of  their  great  type-founding  busi- 
ness. During  that  year  David  Bruce  made  a  visit  to  England 
to  look  into  the  merits  of  the  stereotyping  process,  then  newly 
invented  and  known  only  to  a  Mr.  Walker  of  London  and 
to  the  printers  to  the  Universities  of  Cambridge  and  Oxford. 


BOOK     OF     BRUCE 

He  obtained  by  purchase  the  rights  to  the  process,  and  in  1814 
the  Bruce  firm  issued  the  first  edition  of  the  New  Testament 
from  plates  stereotyped  in  America,  and  in  1815  the  first 
edition  of  the  Bible  thus  produced.  As  a  measure  of  econ- 
omy, to  provide  the  requisite  quantities  of  type  for  stereotyp- 
ing, a  type-foundry  was  begun,  at  first  as  a  mere  incident  of 
the  printing  business.  Owing  to  betrayal  of  trust  by  one  of 
the  workmen  of  the  establishment,  the  stereotyping  business 
did  not  continue  profitable.  On  the  other  hand  the  type- 
founding  department  speedily  grew  in  importance,  and  after 
the  retirement  of  David  Bruce  in  1822,  George  Bruce,  who 
succeeded  to  the  direction  of  the  concern,  turned  his  energies 
exclusively  to  type  manufacture. 

The  Bruce  foundry  under  his  management  promptly  took 
rank  among  the  leading  establishments  of  its  kind  in  the 
world.  The  personal  contributions  of  George  Bruce  towards 
the  perfecting  of  type  manufacture,  in  both  its  mechanical 
and  its  artistic  aspects,  were  in  the  highest  degree  noteworthy, 
leaving  a  lasting  impress  upon  the  progress  of  that  industry. 

"Aiming  to  attain  to  the  best  process  of  'punch-cutting,'  he 
was  enabled  to  produce  many  fonts  of  type  for  ordinary  use 
of  the  most  perfect  symmetry,  while  his  fancy  types  and  bor- 
ders were  of  such  variety  and  excellence  as  to  enable  the  letter- 
press printer  to  rival  the  productions  of  the  copper-plate 
presses  in  superior  execution  and  effect.  He  himself  cut 
two  fonts  of  beautiful  'script'  probably  yet  unexcelled.  He 
formed  a  new  scale  for  the  bodies  of  printing  type,  by  means 
of  which  each  body  bears  a  certain  relative  proportion  to  the 
next,  thus  leading  to  the  present  perfect  'point'  system 
adopted  by  printers  generally.     His  nephew,  David  Bruce, 



Jr.,  invented  the  only  type-casting  macliine  that  has  stood 
the  test  of  practical  work  and  is  now  in  general  use.  To  this 
he  added  some  improvements  and  bought  the  patent  from  his 

For  many  years  George  Bruce  was  president  of  the  Me- 
chanics' Institute  of  New  York  City  and  the  Type  Founders' 
Association.  He  was  a  member,  among  other  organizations, 
of  the  New  York  Historical  Society,  Saint  Andrew's  Society, 
and  the  General  Society  of  Mechanics  and  Tradesmen.  Says 
one  of  his  biographers: 

"He  was  a  man  of  great  thought,  quiet  benevolence,  of 
thorough  business  integrity  and  loyalty  to  principle,  and  of 
unusual  force  of  character.  The  success  he  achieved  was  due 
to  his  own  intelligent  foresight  and  patient  attention  to  busi- 
ness. He  never  received  financial  aid  in  his  business  or 
otherwise,  but,  always  living  within  his  income,  was  able  to 
permit  himself  the  luxury  of  assisting  others."  * 

He  died  in  New  York,  July  5,  1866. 

He  married,  in  1811,  Catherine  Wolfe,  daughter  of  David 
Wolfe  of  New  York. 


1.  Janet  (Jenet)  Bruce.  She  married  Dr.  G.  Brown  of 
Newburgh,  N.  Y.,  and  left  one  son,  G.  Bruce  Brown,  of  whom 

2.  Catherine  Wolfe  Bruce,  of  whom  below. 

3.  David  Wolfe  Bruce.  He  died  March  13,  1895,  in  his 
seventy-first  year.  He  was  named  from  his  maternal  grand- 
father. Succeeding  to  the  conduct  of  the  Bruce  type-foundry, 
he  managed  it  successfully  until  his  retirement  from  active 

*  Memorial  History  of  New  York,  Biog.  Vol.,  page  23. 


business.     Like  his  father,  he  was  a  man  of  high  business 
and  personal  standing  in  the  community. 

4.  Matilda  Wolfe  Bruce,  who  is  now  the  only  survivor  of 
this  family.     Her  home  is  in  New  York  City. 

5.  George  Wolfe  Bruce.  He  was  born  in  1828  and  died 
November  14,  1887.  He  attended  Columbia  College,  but 
before  graduation  left  to  engage  in  business,  becoming  one  of 
the  most  reputable  merchants  in  New  York. 


Catherine  Wolfe  Bruce  was  bom  in  New  York  and  died 
March  13,  1900.  She  left  an  enduring  name  in  connection 
with  the  encouragement  and  advancement  of  educational  and 
scientific  interests,  especially  in  the  department  of  astronomi- 
cal science.  From  the  early  age  of  five  years  she  loved  the 
science  of  astronomy.  Her  services  for  the  promotion  of  as- 
tronomical work  are  known  throughout  the  world,  and  were 
the  more  valuable  for  being  judiciously  directed.  During 
her  lifetime  she  gave  in  excess  of  $200,000  to  that  end.  To 
the  Harvard  Observatory  she  presented  the  splendid  Bruce 
photographic  telescope,  with  which  much  of  the  most  nota- 
ble scientific  work  of  our  times  has  been  achieved,  includ- 
ing the  discovery  of  Phcebe,  the  satellite  of  Saturn,  by  Prof. 
W.  H.  Pickering,  in  August,  1898.  This  instrument  is  in 
constant  use  for  photographing,  and  for  spectroscopic  plates 
showing  the  composition  of  stars  too  faint  to  be  studied  in 
this  way  elsewhere.  In  1897  she  established  a  fund  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Astronomical  Society  of  the  Pacific,  to  pro- 
vide for  the  award  of  a  gold  medal  annually  for  distinguished 



achievements  in  astronomy.     Her  benefactions  in  other  direc- 
tions, and  her  contributions  to  charity,  were  large. 

At  the  time  of  her  death  the  following  tribute,  signed  W.  L. 
K.,  was  published  in  the  New  York  Tribune  of  March  25, 

"Miss  Catherine  Wolfe  Bruce,  who  died  after  a  long  illness 
at  her  home,  No.  810  Fifth  Avenue,  on  the  night  of  March  13, 
deserves  more  than  the  ordinary  obituary  record,  for  she  was 
a  woman  of  the  highest  character,  and  contributed  nobly  of 
her  means  to  the  cause  of  charity,  of  education,  and  of  science. 
The  George  Bruce  Free  Library  she  built,  established,  and 
endowed,  and  it  is  to-day  one  of  the  most  flourishing  branches 
of  the  free-library  system.  Her  benefactions  in  the  cause  of 
astronomy  are  known  all  over  the  world,  and  her  name  is 
identified  with  many  important  advances  in  that  science. 
She  corresponded  with  eminent  professors  here  and  in  Europe, 
and  was  the  recipient  of  distinguished  honors  for  her  interest 
and  service.  A  gold  medal  was  presented  to  her  by  the  Grand 
Duke  of  Baden,  and  she  enjoyed  the  signal  distinction  of 
having  her  name  given  to  a  newly  discovered  asteroid.  Up- 
ward of  $200,000  has  been  her  contribution  to  the  science 
she  loved.  Her  charitable  gifts  and  those  of  private  benevo- 
lence need  not  be  mentioned  here. 

"Miss  Bruce  was  the  daughter  of  George  Bruce,  the  famous 
typefounder,  whose  work  has  stood  the  test  of  time  and  change, 
and  is  still  in  use  at  the  present  day.  Naturally  she  was  inter- 
ested in  the  art  of  printing — that  art  '  preservative  of  all  arts,' 
as  she  was  fond  of  quoting.  It  has  been  said  that  she  was 
an  accomplished  woman.  She  had  made  a  study  of  painting 
and  was  a  painter  herself.  She  knew  Latin,  German,  French, 
and  Italian,  and  was  familiar  with  the  literature  of  those  lan- 
guages. She  wrote  and  published  in  1890  a  translation  of 
the  Dies  Irse.  For  many  years  she  was  an  invalid,  and  de- 
prived of  that  society  which  her  talents  and  character  well 


BOOK     OF     BRUCE 

fitted  her  to  adorn.  She  was  always  patient  and  uncom- 
plaining, and  entirely  resigned  to  the  will  of  the  Almighty 
Disposer  of  Events.  She  has  left  a  gracious  memory  of  good 
and  generous  deeds  and  an  impressive  example  of  noble 


George  Bruce  Brown,  son  of  Dr.  George  Brown  and  his 
wife,  Janet  (Jenet)  Bruce,  married,  first,  Virginia  McKesson; 
second,  Ruth  Arabella  Loney — Mrs.  Bruce-Brown. 

Issue  (by  first  wife) : 

1.  George  IMcKesson  Brown. 

2.  Catherine  Wolfe  Brown,  who  married  Allen  Donellan 
Loney  and  had  Virginia  Bruce  Loney. 

(By  second  wife) : 

3.  Wilham  Bruce-Brown. 

4.  David  Loney  Bruce-Brown. 

In  America  four  generations  of  the  old  Lutheran  family 
Wolfe  have  been   resident   in  New  York  City. 

JoKX  David  Wolfe,  who  established  the  family  in  America, 
was  born  of  Lutheran  parents  in  Saxony,  Germany,  October 
13,  1693.  He  came  to  the  Province  of  New  York  in  the  first 
quarter  of  the  eighteenth  century,  and  died  in  1795.  He 
married,  November  !21,  1747,  the  widow  Catherine  Busch. 

David  Wolfe,  son  of  the  preceding,  was  born  in  New  York, 
August  21,  1748,  and  died  August  13,  1836.  He  married 
Catherine  Forbes. 

Catherine  Wolfe,  daughter  of  the  preceding,  married 
George  Bruce. 





In  the  preparation  of  this  book,  many  state,  parish  and  other  public  records  and  family 
papers  in  Scotland  and  England,  and  family  records  in  America  have  been  drawn  upon 
for  material.  In  addition  numerous  historical  and  genealogical  works  have  been  consulted. 
Following  is  a  list  of  the  principal  printed  authorities  that  have  thus  been  utilized: 

Abercromby,  Patrick. — ^The  Martial  Achievements  of  the  Scots  Nation.    2  vols.    Edinburgh. 

Anderson,  Joseph. — The  Oliphants  of  Scotland.     Edinburgh,  1879. 
Anderson,  Rasmus  Bjorn. — Viking  Tales  of  the  North.     Chicago,  1877. 
Anderson,  William. — The  Scottish  Nation.     3  vols.     Edinburgh,  1863. 
Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  Proceedings  of,  1851-1854. 

Bain,  Joseph. — Calendar  of  Documents  Relating  to  Scotland,     i  vols.    Edinburgh. 
Balfour,  Sir  James.— The  History  of  the  Picts.     Edinburgh,  1706. 

Banks,  T.  C. — The  Dormant  and  Extinct  Baronage  of  England.     4  vols.     London,  1807. 
Barbour,  John. — The  Bruce;  or  the  Book  of  the  Most  Excellent  and  Noble  Prince  Robert 
de  Broyss,  King  of  Scots.     Vols.  1  and  2  in  the  Scottish  Text  Society  Publications. 
Edited  by  W.  W.  Skeat,  Edinburgh,  1894. 
The  Bruce,  or  the  History  of  Robert  I.,  King  of  Scotland,  Written  in  Scottish  Verse. 
Edited  by  J.  Pinkerton.     3  vols.     London,  1790. 
Billings,  R.  W.— Antiquities  of  Scotland.     4  vols.     Edinburgh,  1845-1852. 
Boethius,  Hector. — The  History  and  Chronicles  of  Scotland,  translated  by  John  Bellenden. 

2  vols.     Edinburgh,  1821. 
British  Archteological  Association,  Journal  of.     Vol.  45.     London,  1889. 
Buchanan,  George. — The  History  of  Scotland.     4  vols.     Glasgow,  1827. 
Buchanan,  George,  and  Boece,  Hector. — Catalogus  regum  Scotise ;  in  Respublica  sive  Status 

regni  Scotise  et  Hibernise.     1627. 
Burke,  John. — Genealogical  and  Heraldic  History  of  the  Commoners  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland.     4  vols.     London,  1836. 
Heraldic  Illustrations.     3  vols.     London,  1844-1846. 
Burke,  John,  and  Burke,  Sir  John  Bernard. — The  Royal  Families  of  England,  Scotland 
and  Wales,  with  their  Descendants,  Sovereigns  and  Subjects.     2  vols.     London, 
Burke,  Sir  John  Bernard. — The  General  Armory  of  England,  Scotland,  Ireland  and  Wales. 
London,  1883. 
A  Genealogical  History  of  the  Dormant,  Abeyant,  Forfeited,  and  Extinct  Peerages 

of  the  British  Empire.     London,  1883. 
A  Genealogical   and  Heraldic  Dictionary  of   the   Peerage  and   Baronetage  of    the 

British  Empire.     8  vols.     London,  1857-1878. 
A  Genealogical  and  Heraldic  History  of  tlie  Extinct  and  Dormant  Baronetcies  of 

England,  Ireland,  and  Scotland.     London,  1844. 
A  Genealogical  and  Heraldic  History  of  the  Landed  Gentry  of  Great  Britain  and 

Ireland.     London,  1879-1894-1906. 
Royal  Descents  and  Pedigrees  of  Founders'  Kin.     London,  1864. 
Burton,  John  Hill.— The  History  of  Scotland.     8  vols.     Edinburgh  and  London,  1867-1870. 



Calder,  James  T. — Sketch  of  the  Civil  and  Traditional  History  of  Caithness.  Glasgow, 

Chalmers,  George. — Caledonia ;  or  an  Account,  Historical  and  Topographic  of  North  Brit- 
ain.    3  vols.     London,  1807-1844. 

Chalmers,  Peter. — Historical  and  Statistical  Account  of  Dunfermline,  i  vols.  Edinburgh, 

Chambers,  Robert. — The  Picture  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     Edinburgh,  1827. 

aeveland.  The  Duchess  of.— The  Battle  Abbey  Roll.     3  vols.     London,  1889. 

Cokagne,  G.  E. — Complete  Peerage  of  England,  Scotland,  Ireland,  Great  Britain  and  the 
United  Kingdom.     8  vols.     Ixjndon,  1887. 

Collins,  Arthur. — The  Peerage  of  England.  New  edition  by  Sir  Egerton  Brydges.  9  vols. 
London,  1812. 

Ciunming-Bruce,  Marj'  Elizabeth. — Family  Records  of  the  Bruces  and  the  Cumyns.  Edin- 
burgh, 1870. 

Cunningham,  Allan. — Poetical  Works  of. 

Dalrymple,  Sir  David  (Lord  Hailes). — Annals  of  Scotland.     3  vols.     Edinburgh,  1797. 

Davidson,  John. — Bruce;  A  Chronicle  Play.     London,  1894. 

Douglas,  Sir  Robert. — The  Peerage  of  Scotland.     Revised  by  John  Philip  Wood.     2  vols. 

Edinburgh,  1813. 
Drummond,  Henry. — Histories  of  Noble  British  Families.     2  vols.     Ix)ndon,  1846. 
Dugdale,  Sir  William. — The  Baronage  of  England.     2  vols.     London,  1675. 

The  Antient  Usage  in  Bearing  of  such  Ensigns  of  Honour  as  are  commonly  cali'd 

Arms.     Oxford,  1682. 
Dunbar,  Sir  Archibald  H. — Scottish  Kings.     A  Revised  Chronology  of  Scottish  History 

1005-1625.     Edinburgh,  1899. 
Duncan,  Jonathan. — The  Dukes  of  Normandy.     London,  1839. 

Ellis,  Sir  Henry. — A  General  Introduction  to  Domesday  Book.     2  vols.     London,  1833. 
Eyton,  R.  W. — Antiquities  of  Shropshire. 

Florence  of  Worcester. — Saxon  Chronicles.     London,  1856. 

Fordun,  Johannis  de.— Chronica  gentis  Scotorum.  Edited  by  W.  F.  Skene.  Vol.  1  in  His- 
torians of  Scotland.     Edinburgh,  1871. 

Freeman,  Edward  Augustus. — The  History  of  the  Norman  Conquest  of  England.  6  vols. 
Oxford,  1867-1879. 

Froissart,  Jean  de. — The  Antient  Chronicles  of  England,  France,  Spain,  Portugal,  Scotland, 
Brittany  and  Flanders.     4  vols.     London,  1814-1816. 

Genealogist,  The. — Edited  by  George  W.  Marshall.     London. 

Grant,  Francis  James. — Zetland  County  Families. 

Grant,  George. — Life  of  Robert  Bruce.     Dublin,  1849. 

Grant,  James. — The  Tartans  of  the  Clans  of  Scotland.     Edinburgh,  1886. 

Gray,  Thomas. — Poetical  Works. 

Grose,  Francis. — The  Antiquities  of   England,  Wales  and   Scotland.     10  vols.     London. 

Guthrie,  W.— A  General  History  of  Scotland.     10  vols.     London,  1767-1768. 

Harry  the  Minstrel,  or  Blind  Harry. — The  Actis  and  Deidis  of  the  Illustere  and  vailzeand 
campioun  Schir  William  Wallace,  Knicht  of  EUeislie.  Edited  by  James  Moir, 
Scottish  Text  Society  Publications.     Edinburgh,  1889. 



Henderson,  John. — Caithness  Family  History.     Edinburgh,  1884. 

Henry  the  Minstrel  or  Blind  Harry. — The  Metrical  History  of  Sir  William  Wallace,  Knight 

of  Ellerslie.     Perth,  1790. 
Herron,  Robert.— A  New  General  History  of  Scotland.     Perth,  1794-1796. 
Historians  of  Scotland,  The.     10  vols.     Edinburgh,  1871-1885. 
Hjaltlin,  J'on  A.,  and   Gilbert   Goudie. — The   Orkneyinga   Saga.    Translated   from   the 

Icelandic.     Edinburgh,  1873. 
Holinshed,  R. — Chronicles  of  Englande,  Scotlande  and  Irelande.    London. 

Icelandic  Sagas. — Great  Britain,  Public  Record  Office.     4  vols.     London,  1887. 
Irish  Archaeological  Society. — The  Miscellany.     Dublin,  1842-1868. 

Jovius,  Paulus. — Descriptio  Britaniee,  Scotise,  Hyberniee,  et  Orchadum.    Venetiis,  1548. 

Kerr,  R. — History  of  Scotland  during  the  leign  of  Robert  I.,  surnamed  the  Bruce.  2  vols. 
Edinburgh,  1811. 

Lesley,  John,  Bishop  of  Ross. — The  Histories  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     Scottish  Text  Society. 

Edinburgh,  1888-1895. 
Lorenz,  Ottokar. — Genealogisches  Handbuch  der  Staatengeschichte.     Berlin,  1895. 

McCallum,  Duncan. — The  History  of  the  Ancient  Scots.     3  vols.     Edinburgh,  1858. 

McGibbon,  David,  and  Ross,  T. — The  Castellated  and  Domestic  Architecture  of  Scotland. 
5  vols.     Edinburgh,  1887-1892. 

Mackenzie,  Sir  James  Dixon. — The  Castles  of  England;  their  Story  and  Structure.  New 
York,  1896. 

Martin,  Martin. — A  Description  of  the  Western  Islands  of  Scotland.     Glasgow,  1884. 

Maxwell,  Sir  Hubert  Eustace. — History  of  the  House  of  Douglas.     2  vols.     London,  1902. 

Memorial  History  of  the  City  of  New  York,  The. 

Millar,  A.  H. — The  Historical  Castles  and  Mansions  of  Scotland.     Paisley,  1890. 

Miscellanise  Scotiae.     4  vols.     Glasgow,  1818-1820. 

Monipennie,  John. — The  Abridgement  of  the  Summarie  of  the  Scots  Chronicles.  Edin- 
burgh, 1818. 

Nichols,  John  Gough. — The  Herald  and  Genealogist.     8  vols.     London,  1866-1874. 
Nisbet,  Alexander. — Heraldic  Plates  for  "  System  of  Heraldry."     Edinburgh,  1892. 

O'Donovan,  John. — Annals  of  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland ;  by  the  four  masters,  Michael  O'Clery, 
Conare  O'Clery,  Cucogry  O'Clery,  and  Fearfeasa  O'Mulconroy.     Dublin,  1851. 

O'Hart,  John. — Irish  Pedigrees  or  the  Origin  and  Stem  of  the  Irish  Nation.     Dublin,  1881. 

Origines  Parochiales  Scotia;. — Edited  by  Cosmo  Innes.  Bannatyne  Club.  3  vols.  Edin- 
burgh, 1851-1855. 

Palgrave,  Sir  Francis. — Documents  and  Records  Illustrating  the  Hisjtory  of  Scotland.     1837. 
Pinkerton,  John. — Iconographia  Scotica.     London,  1797. 

The  History  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     London,  1797. 

An  Inquiry  into  the  History  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     Edinburgh,  1814. 
Playfair,  James. — A  Geographical  and  Statistical  Description  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     Edin- 
burgh, 1819. 
Proctor,  Robert,  Translator. — Laxdsela  Saga.     London,  1903. 

Ragman  Rolls.     Edited  by  Thomas  Thomson.     Bannatyne  Club.    Edinburgh,  1834. 



Ridpath,  George. — The  Border  History  of  Scotland  and  England.     London,  1776. 
Ritson,  Joseph. — Annals  of  the  Caledonians,  Picts,  and  Scots.     2  vols.     Edinburgh,  1828. 
Robertson,  E.  W. — Scotland  under  her  early  Kings.     2  vols.     Edinburgh,  1862. 
Rowlands,  Richard. — History  of  the  Lives  and  Reigns  of  the  Kings  of  Scotland,  from  Fer- 
gus the  first  King  to  1707.     Dublin,  1722. 

Saga  Library,  The.— London,  1893-1905. 

Scott,  Sir  Walter.— History  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     London,  1829-1830. 

Prose  and  Poetical  Works. 
Skene,  William  Forbes. — The  Highlanders  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     London,  1837. 
Slezer,  John. — Theatrum  Scotiae.     London,  1693.     Edition  of  1814. 
Stephen,  Leslie,  and  Lee,  Sydney. — Dictionary  of  National  Biography.     London,  1885- 

Stewart,  King  James  I. — The  Kingis  Quaire. 
Stewart,  William. — The  Buik  of  the  Croniclis  of  Scotland,  or  a  Metrical  Version  of  the 

History  of  Hector  Boethius.     Edited  by  W.  B.  Tumbull.     3  vols.     London,  1858. 
Stokvis,  A.  M.  H.  J. — Manuel  d'Histoire,  de  Genealogie  et  de  Chronologie  de  tous  les  Etats 

du  Globe.     5  vols.     Leide,  1890-1893. 
Sturlason,  Snorri. — Heiraskringla  (the  Roimd  World).     Translated  by  William  Morris  and 

Erikr  Magnusson.     The  Saga  Library.     4  vols.     London,  1893-1905. 
Suhne,  History  Critique  de  Denmark. 

Taylor,  James. — The  Great  Historical  Families  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     London,  1887. 

The  Pictorial  History  of  Scotland.     2  vols.     London,  1859. 
Torfeson,  Thormod. — Orcades,  sen  rerum  Orcadiensium  Historise.     1697. 
Turner,  Dawson. — Account  of  a  Tour  in  Normandy.     2  vols.     London,  1820. 

Vigfusson,  Gudbrand,  and  Powell,  Frederick  York. — Origines  Islandicse.     2  vols.     Ox- 
ford, 1905. 

Wheater,  W. — Some  Historic   Mansions  of    Yorkshire  and  Their    Associations.     2  vols. 

Leeds,  1888-1889. 
WiflFen,  Jeremiah  Holme. — Historical  Memoirs  of  the  House  of  Russell.     2  vols.     London, 

Wyntoun,  Andrew  of. — De  Orygynale  Cronykil  of  Scotland.     Edited  by  D.  Macpherson. 

2  vols.     London,  1795. 
De  Orygynale  Cronykil  of  Scotland.     Edited  by  David  Laing.     Vols.  2,  3,  and  9  in 

The  Historians  of  Scotland.     Edinburgh,  1872-1879. 





Ada,  daughter  of  Henry,  Earl  of    Hunting- 
don, 205 
daughter  of  King  William  of  Scotland, 

(deWarenne)  wife  of   Henry,  Earl    of 
Huntingdon,  204,  261 
Adela,  wife  of  William,  Duke  of  Normandy, 
daughter  of  King  Edward  the  Elder,  216 
daughter  of  King  Robert  I.  of  France 

wife  of  Baldwin  V.,  Count  of  Flanders, 
234,  242 
Aelfaed,  wife  of  King  Edward  the  Elder,  215 
Aelfred,  son  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready, 

Aelfthryth,  wife   of   Baldwin  the    Bold,  of 

Flanders,  233 
Aelina,  wife  of  Waldere,  Fifth  Earl  of  Dun- 
bar, 253 
Aella,  King  of  Sussex,  209 
iEneas  Fort,  King  of  Dalriada,  188 
^neas  Tuirmeach-Teamrach,  188 
Aelfred,  Saxon  King  of  England,  213 
Aethelred,  Abbot  of  Dunkeld,  203 
Aethelstan,  King  of  Kent,  212 
Africa,  daughter  of  Somerlid,  44 
Agatha,  Queen  of  King  Edward  the  Outlaw, 

Agnes  of  Annandale,  62 
Aidan,  Scottish  King,  194 
Ailesbury  Arms,  315 
Ainbhcealach,  Scottish  King,  196 
Airth,  Bruces  of,  99 
Alain,  Earl  of  Brittany,  56 
Alan  of  Brittany,  155 
de  la  Brusee,  56 
Family  (see  Fitz  Alan) 
Flaald,  156 
of  Galloway,  267 
son  of  Walter,  155 
Alexander  I.,  King  of  Scotland,  203,  291 
II.,  King  of  Scotland,  205 
HI.,  King  of  Scotland,  291 

Alexander,  son  of  King  Alexander  III.,  292 
Alfhilda,  Queen  of  Sigurd  of  Sweden,  32 
Alfred,  Saxon  King  of  England,  213 
Alfritha,  wife  of  Baldwin  the  Bold,  233 

daughter  of  King  Alfred,  215 
Algita,   Queen  of  King  Edmund  Ironside, 

Algitha,  wife  of  Crinan  of  Dunbar,  252 
Alice,  Princess  of  Scotland,  48,  201 

wife  of  Arnulf  the  Great,  233 
Alisa,  wife  of  Arnulf  the  Great,  233 
Alof  Arbot,   daughter   of   King   Harald  of 

Norway,  37 
Alpaida,  wife  of  Pepin  of  Herstal  235 
Alpin,  Scottish  King,  197 
Altorf,  Count  Welphus  of,  239 
Amergin,  son  of  Milesius,  185 
Amicia  (de  Clare)  of  Gloucester,  261,  264 
Angus,  Beatrix  of,  157 

Gilchrist  of,  157 

of  Isla,  82 
Annandale,  77 

Agnes  of,  62 
Anne,  Queen  of  England,  25 
Anseghis,  son  of  Arnulf,  Bishop  of  Metz,  236 
Aodh-Fin,  Scottish  King,  196 
Aquitaine,  Dukes  of,  227 

Eblus  of,  216 
Archaius,  Scottish  King,  197 
Archis,  Ivetha  de,  62 

Juletta  de,  62 

William  de,  62 
Arensdorf  Family,  135 
Aries,  King  Lewis  of,  216 
Arlogia,  daughter  of  Rognvald  of  Norway, 

wife  of  Rognvald  of  Norway,  52 
Arnfinn,  son  of  Thorfinn  Hausklifr,  Earl  of 

Orkney,  43 
Amkel,  son  of  Torf  Einar,  Earl  of  Orkney,  40 
Arnulf  U.,  Count  of  Flanders,  233 

the  Great,  Count  of  Flanders,  233 
Ascrida,  daughter  of  Rognvald  of  Norway, 

Athelstan,  Saxon  King  of  England,  215 



Athol,  Isabel  (Bruce)  of,  71 

Atholl,  Earl  of,  83 

Auchmoutie,  Elizabeth,  134 

Auda  Diuphaudza,  31 

Aud  Deep-rich,  wife  of  Olaf  Hviti,  King  of 

Dublin,  34,  40,  41 
Audna,  wife  of  Hlodver,  Earl  of  Orkney,  43 


Baldwin,  Count  of  Flanders,  215,  232,  233, 

234,  240,  242 
Baliol,  Bernard  de,  60 

Dervorgilla,  206,  267 

Edward,  93 

John,  66,  206,  267 
Bannockburn,  Battle  of,  70,  86,  161 
Banquo,  154,  155 
Barbour,  Janet,  101 

John,  101 
Barley,  John,  144 
Barlow,  Ehzabeth,  271 
Beatrice,  Princess  of  Scotland,  200 
Beatrix  of  Vermandois,  241 
Beaufort,  Joanna,  167 

John,  167 
Bellomonte,  Emiengarde  de,  205 
Beorhtric,  King  of  Wessex,  211 
Beorn  Buna  of  Norway,  41 
Beranger  II.,  King  of  Provence,  233 
Berwick  Peace  Treaty,  94 
Bcthoc,  Princess  of  Scotland,  200 
Billung,  Herman.  233 

Matilda,  233 
Birsay  Palace,  308 
Blackadder,  Janet,  110 

Patrick,  110 
Bohun,  Humphrey  de,  205 
Boidhe,  son  of  King  Kenneth  III.,  200 
Borselen,  Mary  (Stewart)  van,  169 

Wolfram  van,  169 
Borlhwick,  William,  274 
Bossu,  Robert,  Earl  of  Leicester,  260 
Bostock,  Edmund,  143 

Margaret,  143 
Boughton,  Edward,  144 

Ehzabeth,  144 
Boulogne,  Count  Eustace  de,  203 
Bovinus,  Count  Aldemir  Waldi,  240 
Boyle,  Charles,  115 

Juliana,  115 

Brath,  King  of  Libya,  183 
Breoghan,  King  of  Galicia,  182 
Breschin,  David  de,  72 

Margery  (Bruce)  de,  72 
Bretagne,  Duke  Conan  IV.,  205 
Brewse,  William  de,  140 
Breze,  Jacques  de,  313 
Brian  Boroimhe,  Irish  King,  45 
Brigus,  King  of  Galicia,  185 
Brown,  Catherine  Wolfe,  328 

David  Loney  Bruce,  328 

George,  325,  328 

George  Bruce,  325,  328 

George  McKesson,  328 

Janet  (Bruce),  325,  328 

Ruth  Arabella  (Loney),  328 

Virginia  (McKesson),  328 

William  Bruce,  328 
Bruce,  Adam  of  Wallown,  134 

Agnes  (de  Erth),  129 

Agnes  (Livingstone),  129 

Alexander,  71,  99,  102.  103,  130 

Alexander  (of  Airth),  131,  132 

Alexander,  Second  Earl  of  Kincardine, 
116,  117 

Alexander,  Third  Earl  of  Kincardine, 

Alexander,  Fourth  Earl  of  Kincardine, 

Alexander  of  Cultmalindie,  276 

Alison  (Reid),  110 

Alosia,  67 

Andrew,  102 

Anna  (Sutherland),  104 

Anne  (Chichester),  114 

Arms,  313 

Arms  of  Ailesbury  Branch,  315 

Arms  of  Clackmannan  Branch,  316 

Arms  of  Elgin  Branch,  315 

Arms  of  Kincardine  Branch,  315 

Arms  of  Kinloss  Branch,  315 

Barbara,  103 

Bernard,  67 

Caroline  (Campbell),  116 

Catherine  Wolfe,  321,  325.  326,  328 

Charles,  135 

Charles,  Fourth  Earl  of  Elgin,  115 

Charles,  Fifth  Earl  of  Elgin,  116,  119 

Charles  Lennox  Cumming,  123 

Charlotte  (of  Sannu),  115 



Bruce,  Charlotte  Maria,  127 

Cliristiana,  C7,  72,  118,  250,  254 
Christiana,    Countess    of    Devonshire, 

113,  139,  145,  317 
Christiana  (de  Ireby),  67 
Count  Charles  Hector  de,  134 
Count  Louis  Daniel  de,  134 
Count  Robert,  of  Russia,  136 
David,  93,  100,  101,  106 
David  of  Clackmannan,  109 
David  of  New  York,  321,  325 
Da\'id  Wolfe,  325 
Diana  (Grey),  114 
Diana  (Vere),  114 
Edward,  70,  99,  129 
Edward,  First  Earl  of  Kincardine,  116 
Edward,  Second  Lord  of  Kinloss,  112 
Edward  of  Blairhall,  110,  118,  139,  314 
Elizabeth,  72,  94,  103,  106,  273 
Elizabeth  Aylmer  (de  Burgh),  93,  268, 

291,  315 
Elizabeth  Catherine  (Detring),  135 
Elizabeth  (Gray),  102 
Elizabeth  Mary,  123 
Elizabeth  (Menteith),  131 
Elizabeth  (Oswald),  122 
Elizabeth  (Seymoiu-),  115 
Elizabeth  (Stewart),  101,  109,  307 
Euphame  (Elphinston),  101 
Euphemia  (Montgomery),  132 
Eve  Marie  (de  Hermant),  134 
Fanny  (de  Chamont),  134 
Frederick  William  Adolphus,  123 
Gehs  (Wardlaw),  101 
George,  103,  104,  110 
George  of  Carnock,  116,  118,  314 
George  of  New  York,  98,  106, 109,321, 

George  Wolfe,  326 
Harriette  Dieudonnee  (de   Montaigue), 

Hector,  101 
Helen,  99,  103,  131 
Helen  (Kennedy),  102 
Helen  (Skene),  118 
Helen  (Vipont),  99 
Henry,  102 

Henry  of  Clackmannan,  316 
Isabel,  71,  317 
Isabel  (de  Clare),  67,  232,  261,  264,  315 

Bruce,  Isabel  (of  Huntingdon),  64,  206,  261, 

262,  270 
Isabel  (of  Mar).  93 
Isabel  (Sinclair),  102 
Isabel  (Stewart),  99 
Isabel,  wife  of  King  Robert  I.,  248,  250 
James,  99,  100,  102,  135 
James,  Eighth  Earl  of  Elgin,  122 
Jane,  94 

Jane  (Saville),  115 
Janet,  106,  131,  325,  328 
Janet  (Barbour),  101 
Janet  (Blackadder),  110 
Janet  (Forester),  132 
Janet  (Gilbertson).  104,  321 
Janet   (Roberton),  119 
Janet  (Stirling).  101 
Janet  (Sutherland).  104 
Jean,  103,  104,  133 
Jean  (Oliphant)  103,  276 
Jean  (Stewart),  100 
Jenet,  325,  328 
Joan  (Clopton),  142 
John,  94,  98,  100,  101,  104,  106,  131, 

135,  321 
John  of  Airth,  134 
John  of  Clackmannan,  109,  307 
John  of  Cultmalindie,  271 
Joneta  (Livingstone),  130 
Julianna  (Boyle),  115 
King  David  H.,  98 
King  Robert  I.,  70,  75,  109,  248,  268, 

277,  291,  313,  315 
King  Robert  at  Turnberry  Castle,  298 
King  Robert,  Statue  at  Stirling  Castle, 

King  Robert,  Tomb  of,  292 
King  Robert  III.,  165 
Laurence,  98 

Lawrence,  102,  103,  104,  310 
Louisa  Mary  (Lampton),  123 
Magdalen  (Clark),  112 
Margaret,  72,"  94,  103,  104 
Bruce,    Margaret    (Campbell-Stewart), 

Margaret  (Elphinston),  132 
Margaret  (Forrester),  130 
Margaret  (Logic),  94 
Margery,  72 
Marie,  99 



Bruce,  Marion  (Herries-Stewart),  101 

Marjory,  93,  103,  153,  154,  266 

Marjory  (of  Carrick),  69,  297 

Martha  (White),  119 

Mary,  71,  277 

Mary  (Nisbet).  121 

Mary  (Preston),  116 

Matilda,  72 

Matilda  Wolfe,  326 

Matildis,  94 

Neil,  71 

Nigel,  71,  83.  94 

Patrick.  100 

Peter  Henry,  134,  135 

Rachel  (Pauncefort),  118 

Richard,  65 

Robert  (6th),  63,  206,  313 

Robert  (7tli),  65,  159,  232.  264.  316 

Robert  (8tli),  67,  266 

Robert  (9th),  70,  75 

Robert  (10th),  94,  98 

Robert  (11th).  99 

Robert  (12lh),  99,  100 

Robert  (13th),  101 

Robert  (14th).  102 

Robert  (15th),  104 

Robert.  Baron  of  Skelton,  113 

Robert  of  Airth,  129.  131 

Robert  of  Blairhall.  118 

Robert  of  Broomliall,  118 

Robert  of  Clackmannan.  129 

Robert  of  Cultinalindie,  316.  257 

Robert  of  Stauehouse,  132 

Robert,  Second  Earl  of  Elgin,  114 

Thomas,  71,  100,  131 

Thomas,  First  Earl  of  Elgin,  1 13, 1 14, 120 

Thomas,  Seventh  Earl  of  Kincardine.  118 

Thomas  of  Labertsheilles,  134 

Veronica  (Van  Sommelsdyck).  117 

Walter,  94 

Wilhelmina,  106 

William.  67,  100,  130 

William,  Eighth  Earl  of  Kincardine,  118 

William  Robert,  Sixth  Earl  of  Elgin.  120 
Bruce-Brown  David  Loney,  328 
Bruce-Brown  Ruth  Arabella  (Loney).  328 
Bruce-Brown,  William,  328 
Bnices  of  Airth.  99 

of  Earlshall.  99 

of  Garbot,  99 

Bruces  of  Stenhouse.  99 
Brucie,  Peter,  23 
Brusee,  Adam  de,  57,  62 

Adelme  de,  57 

Agatlia  de,  62 

Agnes  (of  Annandale).  62 

Agnes  (Pagnel),  62 

Alain  de  la,  56 

Amicia  de,  57 

Castle,  55,  56 

Duncan  de,  58 

Earl  of  Cathanes,  49 

Emma  de,  56 

Euphemia  de,  63 

Hortoliana  de,  57 

Isabella  de,  63 

John  de,  63 

Judith  (de  Lancaster),  63 

Juletta  (de  Archis).  62 

Pagan  de,  62 

Philena  de.  57 

Robert  de,  1st  son  of  Rognvald  of  Nor- 
way, 52,  55 

Rolx>rt  de  (2d),  56 

Robert  de  (3d),  58 

Robert  de  (4th),  62 

Robert  de  (5th),  63 

Robert  de  (6th),  63 

Rosselina,  58 

William  de,  57,  58,  63 
Brusi,  Earl  of  Cathanes.  49 

son  of  Rognvald  of  Norway,  52,  55 
Buchan.  Isabella  of,  80 
Burgh,  Agnes  (O'Conor)  de,  267 

Arms  of  Richard  de,  315 

Elizabeth  Aylmer  de,  93,  268,  315 

Margaret  (de  Burgo)  de,  268 

Maud  (de  Laci)  de,  268 

Richard  de,  93,  267,  268,  315 

William  Fitz  Adelm  de.  267 

Walter  de,  267 
Burgo,  John  de,  268 

Margaret  de,  268 
Burhred,  King  of  Mersia,  213 
Busch,  Catherine,  328 

Cadwallader-ap-Griffith,  263 
Caithness,  98 

Earls'  Arms  of,  314 



Caithness,  Earls  of,  51 

Isabel  of.  34 
CampbeU.  Archibald  277 

Arms.  318 

Caroline.  116 

Cohn,  274,  275,  276,  877 

Duncan.  276,  277 

Elizabeth,  274 

Family.  276 

Finetta  (Fraser),  277 

Gillespick.  276.  277 

John,  116,  277 

Margaret,  103 

Mary  (Bruce),  71.  277 

Neil   71 

Robert,  103 
Canute  of  England.  228 
Capet,  Hugh,  King  of  France,  234,  241 

Robert,  King  of  France,  234,  242 
Capetian  Dynasty,  240 
Carbry  Riada.  First  King  of  Dalriada, 
Cardross  Castle,  87 
Carham,  Battle  of,  200 
Carlovingian  Kings,  234 
Carlyle,  Margaret  (Bruce).  72 

William.  72 
Carrick,  Earls  of,  264 

Margaret  (Fitz  Alan),  159 

Countess  Marjory  of,  69,  159,  266, 

Neil,  Earl  of,  69,  159 
Carrickfergus,  Battle  of,  71 
Carron,  Alexander,  256 
Cathal  Crobbdearg,  267 
Cavendish,  Alice  (de  Odyngseles),  142 

Alice  (Smith),  143 

Andrew,  142 

Anne  (Keighley),  144 

Charles,  146,  148 

Christiana  (Bruce),  113,  145,  317 

Ehzabeth  (Boughton),  144 

Elizabeth  (Cecil).  149 

Ehzabeth  (Conyngsby),  144 

Elizabeth  (Hardwicke),  144 

George,  143 

Joan  (Staventon),  143 

John,  140,  141,  142 

Katherine  (Scudamore),  143 

Margaret  (Bostock),  143 

Mary  (Ormonde),  150 

Thomas,  143 

Cavendish,  William,  113,  139,  142,  143,  144, 

148,  149,  155 
Cearbhal,  King  of  Dublin,  44 
Cecil,  Elizabeth,  149 

William,  149 
Cerdic,  King  of  the  West  Saxons.  209 
Cetil  Flat-neb,  son  of  Beorn  Buna  of  Nor- 
way, 41 
Chamont,  Fanny  de,  134 
Charlemagne,  Emperor,  211,  237 
Charles  le  Chauve,  King  of  France,  240 
Charles  the  Simple,  King  of  France,  216 
Charles  I.,  King  of  England,  25 
Charles  11.,  King  of  England,  25 
Charles  Martel,  235 
Chateau  d'Adam,  55 
Chester,  Maud  of,  205 
Cheyne,  John,  103 

Marjory  (Bruce),  103 
Chichester,  Anne,  114 
188  Robert,  114 

Christiana,  daughter  of  King  Edward  the 
Outlaw,  220 

of  Galloway,  267 
Clackmannan  Arms,  316 

Castle,  97,  99,  100,  306 
Claire  Family,  262 

Richard  de,  262 
297  Rohesia  (Gifford)  de,  262 

Clan-na-Gael,  183 
Clan-na-Mile,  185 
Clare,  Adeliza  de,  263 

Alice  de,  263 

Alicia  de,  67 

Amicia  de,  261,  264 

Family,  262 

Gilbert  de,  67,  263,  264 

Isabel  de,  67,  232,  261,  315 

Isabel  (Mareschal)  de,  264 

Maud  (de  St.  Hillary)  de,  264 

Ralph  de,  232 

Richard  de,  261.  262,  263,  264 

Robert  de,  263 

Roger  de.  Third  Earl  of  Hartford,  263 
Claricia,  daughter  of  King  David  I.  of  Scot- 
land, 204 
Clark,  Alexander,  112 

Magdalen,  112 
Clontarf,  Battle  of,  45,  200 
Clopton,  Joan,  142 


aopton,  William,  142 

Clovis,  234 

Columba,  Saint,  282 

Comal,  Irish  King,  188 

Comgal,  Scottish  King,  194 

Comyn,  John,  79,  206 

Conaire,  MacMogha  Lainne,  King  of  Dal- 

riada,  188 
Conal,  Scottish  Kong,  194 
Conan  IV.,  Duke  de  Brctagne,  205 
Conn,  188 
Constance,  wife  of  King  Robert  I.  of  France, 

Constantin,  King  of  Scotland,  198 

King  of  the  Picts,  197 
Conyngsby,  Elizalx-tli,  144 

Thomas,  144 
Corbeil,  Count  Robert  of,  227 
Coronation  Stone,  The,  285 
Cospatric,  Earl  of  Dunbar,  252,  253 
Crinau  of  Dunbar,  252 

the  Thane,  200 
Crispina,  daughter  of  Rollo,  Duke  of  Nor- 
mandy, 227 
Cultmalindie,  97,  101,  102,  103 
Cultmalindie  Bruces,  Arms  of,  316 
Cumming-Bruce,  Charles  Lennox,  123 
Curayn,  Alexander,  255 

Elizabeth.  249 

Marjory.  255 

WiUiam.  249 

Dagobert,  235 

Dalriada,  188,  192 

Damietta,  Battle  of.  254 

Darnley,  Lord,  174 

David  I.,  King  of  Scotland,  59,  203 

David  n.,  Iving  of  Scotland,  291 

David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  262 

son  of  King  Alexander  III.,  292 
Dawstane,  Battle  of,  194 
De  Burg  Family,  267 
De  Clare  (Claire)  Family   262 
Derder,  wife  of  Cospatric,  Fourth  Earl  of 

Dunbar,  253 
Dervorgill  of  Galloway,  267 
Detring,  Elizabeth  Catherine,  135 
Devonsliire,  Arms  of  Dukes  of,  316 

Countess  Christiana  (Bruce)  of,  147,  317 

Devonshire,  Dukes  of,  144,  150 
Dishington,  Elizabeth  (Bruce),  72 

William,  72 
Domangart,  Scottish  King,  193,  196 
Donada,  Princess  of  Scotland,  200 
Donal  Breac,  Scottish  King,  195 
Donal  IV..  King  of  Scotland,  198 
Donald  Bane,  King  of  Scots,  201 

Earl  of  Mar,  248.  249,  250 

son  of  King  Malcolm  III.,  of  Scotland, 
Douglas,  Archibald,  173 

Elizabeth  (Fitz  Alan),  158 

James,  169 

Joan  (Stewart),  169 

Mary,  270 

Wilham,  158 
Drogo,  son  of  Rognvald  of  Norway.  37 
Drummoiid,  Annabella,  166,  292 

John,  166 
Drury,  Elizabeth,  114 
Dumfries  Church,  79 
Dunbar,  Ada,  253 

Arms,  317 

Castle,  255 

Cecilia,  160 

Christina,  253 

Christiana  (Bruce),  254 

Earls  of,  252 

Eupheme,  254 

Family.  266 

Marjory  (Comyn),  255 

Patrick,  67,  160,  253,  254,  256 

Patricius,  253 
Duncan,  Earl  of  Carrick,  265 

Earl  of  Mar,  249 

King  of  Scots.  201,  203 

son  of  William,  Ninth  Earl  of  Mar,  249 
Dundalk,  Battle  of,  71 
Dunfermline,  202,  288 

Abbey,  88,  290 

Abbey.  Destruction  of,  293 
Dungal,  Scottish  King,  197 
Dupplin,  Battle  of,  93,  99 
Durham,  Battle  of,  94,  162,  255 

Eadgar,  son  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready,219 
Eadgifu,    daughter    of    King    Edward    the 
Elder,  216 



Eadgifu.  Queen  of  King  Edward  the  Elder, 

Eadgyth,  daughter  of  King  Edward  the  El- 
der,  215.  216 
daughter  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready, 

daughter  of  King   Edgar   the  Peaceful. 
Badger  I.,  King  of  Scots,  203 
Eadhild,    daughter    of    King    Edward    the 

Elder,  216 
Eadmund,  Sa.\on  King  of  England,  219 
son  of  King  Malcolm  III.  of  Scotland, 
Eadred.  son  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready 

Eadward  the  Elder,  King,  214,  215 
the  Confessor,  King,  219 
Saxon  King  of  England,  215 
son  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready    219 
son  of  King  Malcolm  III.,  of  Scotland, 
Eadwig,  son  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready 
Saxon  King  of  England,  216 
Ealdgyth.  Queen  of  King  Edmund  Ironside 

Ealhmimd,  Saxon  King  of  England,  211 
Ealhswith.  Saxon  Queen  of  England,  214 

wife  of  Earl  Ethelhelm,  215 
Earc,  King  of  Dalriada,  188 
Earlshall.  Bruces  of,  99 
East  Anglia.  Ulfcytel  of,  219 
Eblus  of  Aquitaine,  216 
Ecgberht,  Saxon  King  of  England,  211 

son  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unreadj'.  219 
Ecgwyn,  Saxon  Queen  of  England,  215 
Edburga.  daughter  of  King  Edward  the  El- 
der, 216 
Edgar  the  Peaceful,  Saxon  King  of  England, 
son  of  King  Edward  the  Outlaw,  220 
Edgiva,  Queen  of  King  Edward  the  Elder, 
daughter  of  King  Edward  the  Elder,  216 
Edith,  daughter  of  King  Edgar  the  Peaceful, 

Editha,  daughter  of  King  Edward  the  Elder, 
215,  216 
daughter  of  King  Egbert,  212 

Edmund,  Sa.xon  King  of  England,  216 
son  of  King  Edmund  ironside,  220 
II.,  Ironside,  Saxon  King   of   England, 

son  of  King  Edgar  the  Peaceful,  218 
Edred,  Saxon  King  of  England,  216 
Edward  the   Outlaw,  Saxon  King   of   Eng- 
land, 220 
son  of  King  Edward  the  Elder,  215 
son  of  King  Malcolm  III.,  291 
Saxon  King  of  England,  215 
the   Martyr,  Saxon  King  of  England, 
Edwin,  son  of  King  Edward  the  Elder,  215 
Edwy,  Saxon  King  of  England,  216 
Egbert,  Saxon  King  of  England,  211 
Egvina,  daughter  of  Edward  the  Elder,  216 
Egwina,  Saxon  Queen  of  England,  215 
Einar,  Earl  of  Orkney,  21,  37,  224 

Wrongmouth,   son  of  Sigurd,   Earl  of 
Orkney   49,  50 
Einsiedlen,  Abbot  Gregory  of,  216 
Eleanor,  daughter  of  Richard  II.,  Duke  of 
Normandy,  234 
Duchess  of  Aquitaine,  227 
Elena,  daughter  of  Alan  of  Galloway,  267 
Elfgifu,  daughter  of  Ethelred  the  Unready, 
daughter  of  King  Edward  the  Elder,  216 
Queen  of  Edmund  the  Elder,  216 
Queen  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready, 
Elfleda,  Queen  of  King  Edgar  the  Peaceful, 
Queen  of  King  Edgar  the  Peaceful,  218 
Elfreda,  Queen  of  King  Edward,  215 
Elfthryth,  daughter  of  King  Alfred,  215 

Queen  of  King  Edgar  the  Peaceful,  218 
Elgin  Arms,  315 
Earls  of,  113 
Elgiva,  Queen  of  Edmund  the  Elder,  216 
dauglitet  of  King  Ethelbert  of  England, 

Queen  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready, 
Elizabeth,  daughter  of  King  Henry  I.,  of 
England,  264 
of  Bohemia,  25 
Queen  of  England,  25 
Ellen,  daughter  of  Sigurd,  Earl  of  Orkney,  49 


Elphinston,  Agnes  (de  Erthberg),  270 

Alexander,  101,  132,  270,  271 

Andrew,  271 

Arms,  317 

Elizaljeth,  271 

Elizabeth  (Barlow),  271 

Euphame,  101,  271 

Family,  270 

Henry,  270 

James,  271 

Jean  (Brvice).  133 

John,  271 

Margaret,  132 

Mary  (Douglas),  270 

Richard,  133 

William  de,  270 
Elsfeda,  daughter  of  Edward  the  Elder,  216 
Emma,  Queen  of  King  Ethelred  the  Un- 
ready, 219,228 

wife  of  Robert  de  Brusee,  56 
Eocha-Annuine,  Scottish  King,  197 
Eocha-Bui,  Scottish  King,  195 
Eocha  III.,  Scottish  King,  190 
Eocha-Rineval,  Scottish  King,  196 
Eochy  Fortamail,  King  of  Dalriada,  188 
Eochy  Mun-reamhar,  King  of  Dalriada,  188 
Erland,  son  of  Torf  Einar,  Earl  of  Orkney,  40 
Ermina,  wife  of  HroUaugur  of  Normandy,  37 
Erskine,  Alice,  161 

John,  161 

Mary  273 

Robert,  273 
Erth,  Agnes  de   129 

William  de,  129 
Erthberg,  Agnes  de,  270 
Estrith,  wife  of  Richard  II.,  Duke  of  Nor- 
mandy. 229 
Ethelbald,  King  of  the  West  Saxons.  213 
Ethelbert,  King  of  Kent,  213 
Ethelda,  daughter  of  King  Edward  tlie  Elder, 

Ethelflaed  Queen  of  King  Edgar  the  Peace- 
ful, 217 
Ethelflaid,  Queen  of  Edmund  the  Elder,  216 
Ethelfleda,  daughter  of  King  Alfred,  214 
Ethelgiva,  daughter  of  King  Alfred.  215 
Ethelhelm,  Earl,  215 
Ethelhild,    daughter   of   King   Edward   the 

Elder,  216 
Ethelred,  Duke  of  Mercia,  214 

Ethelred,  King  of  Wessex,  213 

II.,  Saxon  King,  218 
Ethelstan,  King  of  Kent,  213 

son  of  King  Ethelred  the  Unready,  219 
Ethelswith,   daughter  of  Ethelwulf,   Saxon 

King  of  England,  213 
Ethelwulf,  Saxon  King  of  England,  211,  240 
Eupheme,    daughter    of    Walter   the    High 

Steward,  254 
Euslin  Glumra,  34 
Eva,  daughter  of  Suan,  157 
Eversham,  Battle  of,  65 
Exeter,  William,  Earl  of,  114 
Eystein  Glumra,  King  of  Trondheim  32  34 
Eystein,  King  of  Trondheim,  32 

Fedhar\'in,  Battle  of,  195 

Felicia,  wife  of  Rognvald  of  Norway   52 

Felim  Lamh-foidh,  King  of  Dalriada,  188 

Felira,  son  of  Neill,  King  of  Ireland,  282 

Fenius  Farsa,  King  of  Scjihia,  183 

Ferchar,  Scottish  King,  195 

Ferchar-Fada,  Scottish  King,  196 

Fergus,  Lord  of  Galloway  264 

Fergus  Mor  Mac  Earca,  185,  192 

Fergus,  Scottish  King,  192, 196 

Fergus  Ullach,  King  of  Dalriada,  188 

Fetteressoe,  Battle  of,  199 

Fiacha  Firmara,  188 

Fife,  Earl  of,  80 

Finlaec  of  Moray,  200 

Finn  Arnason,  Earl,  49 

Fitz  Alan,  Adelina  (de  Hesdinges),  156 

Alan,  157 

Alesta  (of  Mar),  157 

Alexander,  157,  158 

Beatrbk  (of  Angus),  157 

Elizabeth,  158 

Eschina  (de  Londoniis),  156 

Eva,  157 

James,  158,  159 

Jean  (Macrory),  158 

John,  157 

Margaret,  158 

Walter,  155,  156,  157 

William,  157 
Fitz-Hamon,  Mabel,  232,  259 

Matilda,  232,  259 

Richard,  259 



Fitz-Hamon,  Robert,  232,  259 

Sybil,  232,  259 
Flanders,  Count  Baldwin  Bras  de  Fer  of,  240 

Count  Baldwin  of,  215, 229, '232, 234, 242 

Leonora  of,  229 

Matilda  of,  215,  229,  231 
Fleance,  son  of  Banquo,  155 
Fleming,  Helen  (Bruce),  103 

Malcolm,  103 
Flodden  Field,  Battle  of,  172,  271,  275 
Forbes,  Catherine,  328 
Fordyce,  Alexander,  103 
Forester,  Janet,  132 

Malcolm,  130 

Margaret,  130 

Walter,  132 
Francis  II.,  King  of  France,  174 
Fraser,  Alexander,  71 

Finetta,  277 

John,  277 

Mary  (Bruce),  71 
Frode  III.,  Bang  of  Lethra,  31 

Gainesborough,  Battle  of,  146,  148 
Galloway,  Alan  of,  206 

Battle  of,  70,  71 

Dervorgilla  of,  206 

Lords  of,  265 

Margaret  of,  206 
Gandella,  daughter  of  Vitellan  of  Ballenstedt, 

Gaodhal  of  Scj'thia,  183 
Garbot,  Bruces  of,  99 
Gatelus  of  Scythia,  183 
Gauran,  Scottish  King,  194 
Gelderland,  Arnold,  170 

Mary,  170 
Geoffrey  of  Normandy,  262 
Gerleota,  wife  of  Baldwin  Clapham,  44 
Gerletta,  daughter  of  Rollo,  Duke  of  Nor- 
mandy, 227 
Gernon,  Eleanor  de,  140 

Hodierna  (Sackville)  de   140 

Matthew  de,  140 

Ralph  de,  140 

Robert,  140 

Roger  de,  140 

William  de,  140 
Gilford,  Rohesia,  262 

Gifiord,  Walter,  262 
Gilbert,  Earl  of  Auci,  262 

Earl  of  Mar,  248 

Family,  105 

Hugh,  105 

of  Fontenelle,  105 

of  Galloway,  265 

of  Normandy,  104 

William,  105 
Gilbertson  Family,  104 

Janet,  104,  321 

William,  104,  105 
Gilchrist,  Earl  of  Mar,  249 
Gillocher,  Earl  of  Mar,  248 
Giselbert,  Crispin,  Earl  of  Brion,  262 
Giselle,  wife  of  Rollo  of   Normandy,  216, 

Glamis  Castle,  200,  287 
Glen,  Margaret  (Bruce),  94 

Robert,  94 
Glenmoreson,  Battle  of,  195 
Glentool,  Battle  of,  85 
Gloucester,  Amicia  of,  232 

Earls  of,  232,  258,  260,  264 

Earls,  Arms  of,  315 

Mabel  (Fitz-Hammon)  of,  232 

Sybil  (Fitz-Hammon)  of,  232 
Godgifu,  daughter  of  King  Ethelred  the  Un- 
ready 219 
Gonnor,  wife  of  Richard  I.,  Duke  of  Nor- 
mandy, 228 
Gordon,  Annabella  (Stewart),  169 

George,  169 
Graham,  Isabel,  162 

Nigel,  67 

John,  162 

Robert,  169 
Gratnach,  Earl  of  Mar,  248 
Gratney,  Eleventli  Earl  of  Mar,  250 
Gregory  Abbot  of  Einsiedlen,  216 
Greiland,  daughter  of  Dungad  of    Catha- 

nes,  40 
Grelota,  daughter  of  Dungad  of  Cathanes,  40 
Grey,  Diana,  114 

EUzabeth,  102 

Henry  Earl  Stamford,  114 

Patrick,  102 
Griffith  ap  Lewellin,  155 
Grimaldus  I.,  Prince  of  Monaco,  227 
Groa,  daughter  of  Thorstein  Rauda,  40 



Groa,  daughter  o(  Wrymund,  King  of  Trond- 
heim,  37 

Gudrod  Gleam,  39 

Kiny  of  Norway,  32 
King  of  Scandia,  31 

Guinolda,  wife  of  Uchtred  of  Galloway,  266 

Guisburn  Abbey,  58 

Guise,  Mary  of,  173 

Gundred,    daughter   of   William   the   Con- 
queror, 208 

Haavad,  son  of  Thorfinn  Hausklifr,  43 
Halfdan  II.,  King  of  Lethra,  31 

ni.,  Sniale,  31 

High-leg,  39 

King  of  Trondheim,  32 

the  Aged,  32,  33 
HaUdon,  Battle  of,  162 
Halladur,  son  of  Rognvald,  37,  38 
Hamilliana,  daughter  of  Rognvald  of  Nor- 
way, 52 
Harald  Hilditur,  32 
Hardicanute,  of  England,  228 
Hardwicke,  Elizabeth,  139,  144 

John,  144 
Harlaw,  Battle  of,  100,  257 
Harlebec,  Count  Lyderic  of,  232 
Hastings,  Battle  of,  231 
Hawse,   wife  of  William,   Second   Earl  of 

Gloucester,  260 
Hay,  George,  276 

Isabel,  274 

Margaret,  276 

William,  274 
Heber  Donn,  son  of  Milesius,  185 
Hedwiga,  daughter  of  Henry  I.,  Emperor  of 

Germany,  241 
Helinda,  daughter  of  Rognvald,  37 

daughter  of  Rolf  Nefia,  37 
Hengist,  209 
Henry,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  261 

I.,  King  of  England,  231 

U.,  Emperor  of  Germany,  220 

n..  King  of  England,  227 

the  Fowler,  King  of  Germany,  241 
Hepbiu'n,  James,  174 
Heremon,  son  of  Milesius,  185 
Heribert  I.,  Count  of  Vermandois,  241 
Hermant,  Eve  Marie  de,  134 

Herries,  Marion,  101 

Robert,  101 
Hesdinges,  Adelina  [Avelina]  de,  156 

Ernulf  de,  156 
Her-ware,  daughter  of  Thorgerde,  41 
Hilda,  wife  of  Rognvald,  Earl  of  North  Mere, 

37,  224 
Hildegarde  of  Swabia,  239 
Hlodver,  son  of  Thorfinn  Hausklifr,  Earl  of 

Orkney,  43 
Hodierna,   daughter  of  King  David   I.   of 

Scotland.  204 
Hoerk,  King  of  Trondheim,  32 
Holgi,  son  of  Beorn  Buna  of  Norway,  41 
Holland,  Count  Florence  of,  205 
Holmcultran  Abbey,  68 
Home,  Thomas,  274 
Horsa,  209 

Hrapp,  son  of  Beorn  Buna  of  Norway,  41 
Hrollaugur,  son  of  Rognvald,  37 
Hubert,  Count  of  Senhs,  227 
Hugh  Capet,  241 
Hugh,  Earl  of  Chester,  262 
Hugh  the  Great,  Count  of  Paris,  216,  241 
Hundi  the  Wlielp,  45,  49 
Hunthiof,  King  of  North  Mere,  34,  36 
Huntingdon  Arms,  314 

Earl  Da\'id  of,  205,  267 

Family,  261 

Henry,  Prince  of,  204,  205,  270 

Isabel  of,  64,  270,  294 

John  le  Scot,  Eari  of,  205 

Lady  Maud  of,  205 

Margaret  of,  267 

Matilda  of,  204 

Waltheof  of,  204 

Icohnkill,  282 

Ingiald,  King  of  Sweden,  31 

son  of  Helgi,  34 
Ingibiorg,  Queen  of   King  Malcolm  III.  of 
Scotland,  202 

wife  of  Thorfinn,  Earl  of  Orkney,  49, 51 
Ingreda,  daughter  of  Brusi,  51 
lona,  281 
Ireby,  Clu-istiana  de,  67 

William  de,  67 
Isaac,  Matildis  (Bruce),  94 

Thomas,  94 



Isabel  of  Huntingdon,  64,  206 

Isabella,  wife  of  Duncan,  Earl  of  Mar,  249 

Ivar,  Earl  of  Upland,  32,  33 

son  of  Rognvald,  Earl  of  Orkney,  37 

the  Boneless,  44 

Vidfami  of  Roeskilde,  31 

James,  King  of  Scotland,  25 
II.,  King  of  England,  25 
son  of  Morgund,  Earl  of  Mar,  249 

Joanna,  Princess  of  England,  87,  94 

Jocunda,  daughter  of  Hunthiof,  34 
daughter  of  Olaf  Hviti,  34 

Judith  the  Fair,  239 

Saxon  Queen  of  England,  213,  233,  240 
wife  of  Richard  II.,  of  Normandy,  229 
wife  of  Waltheof,  Earl  of  Northumber- 
land, 261, 


Kalf  Skurva,  38 
Keighley,  Anne,  144 

Henry,  144 
Keith,  EHzabeth,  275 

William,  275 
Kennedy,  Alexander,  102 

Helen,  102 
Kenneth-Cear,  Scottish  King,  195 

m..  King  of  Alban,  200 

King  of  Scotland,  199 

McAlpin,  King  of  Scotland,  22,  192,  197 
Kiarval,  King  of  Ireland,  43 
Kilconcath,  Adam  de,  69 

Marjory  (Carrick)  de,  69,  266 
Kildrummie  Castle,  65,  83,  294 
Kincardine  Arms,  315 

Earls  of,  116 
Kinloss  Aims,  315 
Kintyre,  191 
Kionga,  King  of  Dalriada,  188 

Laci,  Hugh  de,  268 

Maud  de,  268 
Lambton,  Louisa  Mary,  123 
Lancaster,  Judith  de,  63 

William  de,  63 
Largs,  Battle  of,  *158 
Latherisk,  Lord  William  of,  249 

Leicester,  Robert,  Earl  of,  260 

Lenox,  Earl  of,  82 

Leonore,  daughter  of  Richard  II.,  Duke  of 

Normandy,  229 
Lewis,  King  of  Aries,  216 
Lia  Fail,  285 

Liot,  son  of  Thorfinn  Hausklifr,  43 
Livingstone,  Agnes,  129 

Alexander,  129,  130 

Janet  (Bruce),  131 

Joneta,  130 

William,  131 
Loarn,  King  of  Dalriada,  188,  192,  193 
Lochmaben  Castle,  66,  67,  296 
Logic,  John,  94 

Margaret,  94 
Loudoniis,  Eschina  de,  156 

Thomas  de,  156 
Loney,  Allen  Donellan,  328 

Catherine  Wolfe  (Brown),  328 

Ruth  Arabella,  328 

Virginia  Bruce,  328 
Lodver,  son  of  Thorfinn  Hausklifr,  43 
Loro,  Battle  of,  194 
Lorraine,  Claude  de,  173 
Loudon  Hill,  Battle  of,  85 
Louis,  King  of  France,  169,  216,  227 
Louis  le  Debonnaire,  239 
Luncarty,  Battle  of,  199 
Lyderic,  Count  of  Harlebec,  232 


Macbeth,  King  of  Scots,  201 
Lady,  200 

Macrory,  Angus,  158 
James,  158 
Jean,  158 

Madeline,  Princess  of  France,  178 

Magnus,  Earl  of  Orkney,  34 

Maitland,  Egidia  (Scrimgeour),  257 
James,  257 
Robert,  257 

Malcolm,  Earl  of  Atholl,  292 
I.,  King  of  Scotland,  199 
U.,  Kuig  of  Scotland,  21,  48,  200 
HI.  (Canmore),  King  of  Scots,  22,  201 
IV.,  King  of  Scotland,  205,  291 
son  of  King  Da\'id  I.,  of  Scotland,  204 
son  of  KingMalcohn  HI.,  203 
son  of  Morgund,  Earl  of  Mar,  249 



Maldred  of  Dunbar,  252 
Mar,  Alesta  of,  157 

Christiana  (Bruce)  of,  72,  250 

Donald  of,  93 

Eari  Gratney  of,  72 

Earls  of,  248 

Isabel  of,  93 

Isabel  (Stewart),  251 

Lady  Mary  of,  250 

Morgimd  of,  157 
March,  Arms  of  Earls  of,  317 
Mareschal,  Isabel,  264 

William,  264 
Margaret,  daughter  of  Brusi,  Earl  of    Ca- 
thanes,  51 

of  Huntingdon,  206 

daughter  of  lienry  of  Huntingdon,  205 

daughter  of  Walter  the  Steward,  266 

Princess  of  Denmark,  171 

Queen  of  King  Alexander  III.,  291 

Queen  of  King  Louis  XI.  of  France,  109 

Queen  of  King  Malcolm  IH.  of  Scotland 
203,  220,  289,  290 

wife  of  Alan  of  Galloway,  267 
Marjory,  Countess  of  Carrick,  297 
Marmaduke,  John  Fitz,  67 
Martacus,  Earl  of  Mar,  248 
Mary,  daughter  of  King  Malcolm  UI.,  203 

Queen  of  Scots,  25,  173 
Matilda,  Queen  of  Henry  of  Germany,  232 

Queen  of  King  Henry  I.,  203,  232 

Queen  of  David,  King  of  Scotland,  261 

wife  of  W'illiam  the  Conqueror,  203,  234, 
240,  242 
Mathildis,  daughter  of  King  Robert  Bruce, 

Maud,  Queen  of  David  of  Scotland,  261 
Mclnroy,  Malcolm,  103 

Marjory  (Bruce),  103 
McKesson,  Virginia,  328 
Melbrigd  Tonn,  Scottish  Eari,  35 
Melmare,  son  of  Duncan,  King  of  Scots,  201 
Melrose  Abbey,  88,  89,  303 
Menteith,  Elizabeth,  131 

Helen  (Bruce),  131 

John,  250 

William,  131 
Merovingian  Dynasty,  234 
Merowig,  234 
Middlehara,  Ralph  of,  62 

Milesius  of  Spain,  184 

Monaco,  Prince  Grimaldus  I.  of,  227 

Mongievaird,  Battle  of,  200 

Montaigu,  Harriette  Dieudonnee  de,  134 

Montfort,  Agnes,  56 

Count  Francis  of,  169 

Countess  Elizabeth  (Stewart),  169 

Simon,  56 
Montgomery,  Alexander,  132 

Euphemia,  132 

Sybil  of,  260 
Moravia,  Gilljert  de,  294 
Moray,  Andrew,  72 

Arms  of  Earls  of,  317 

Christiana  (Bruce),  72 

Countess  Euphemia  of,  165 

Helen  (Bruce),  103 

Robert,  103 
Moreville,  Walter,  58 
Morgund,  Earl  of  Mar,  248 
Morleyn,  Constance  de,  67 
Morville,  Elena,  266 

Richard,  266 
Mo.selle,  Count  Frederick  of,  234 
Moyrath,  Battle  of,  195 
Muness  Castle,  102,  310 
Mure,  Adam,  164 

Elizabeth,  164 


Neill,  King  of  Ireland,  282 

Nesta,  daughter  of  Griffith  ap  Lewellin,  155 

Niel,  Eari  of  Carrick,  265 

Nisbet,  Mary,  121 
William  H.,  121 

Niul  of  Scythia,  183 

Normandy  Didces.  21,  224,  227.  228.  229,268 
Adela.  wife  of  Duke  William  of,  227 
Crispina,  daughter  of  Duke  RoUo  of,  227 
Duke  William  of,  215,  227,  229,  230 
Dukes,  Arms  of,  315 
Eleonor,  daughter  of  Duke  Richard  of, 

Estrith,  wife  of  Duke  Richard  of,  229 
Gerietta,  daughter  of  Duke  Rollo  of,  227 
Giselle,  wife  of  Duke  Rollo  of,  216,  226 
Gonnor,  wife  of  Duke  Richard  of,  228 
Judith,  wife  of  Duke  Richard  of,  229 
Leonore,  daughter  of  Duke  Richard  of, 



Normandy,  Matilda,  wife  of  Duke  William      Origina,   daughter  of  Frederick,   Count  of 

of,  234 
Papia,  wife  of  Duke  Richard  of,  229 
Papia,  wife  of  Duke  Rollo  of,  226 
Robert,  son  of  Duke  William  of,  231 

Northallerton,  Battle  of,  59,  65 

Northampton  Peace  Treaty,  87 

Northumberland,  Earls  of,  261 
Earl  Uchtred  of,  252 

O'Conor,  Agnes,  267 

Hugh,  267 

Una,  267 
Odin,  30 
O'Dwbin,  Diarmed,  276 

Family,  276 

Paul,  276 
Odyngseles,  Alice  de,  142 

John  de,  142 
Offa,  King  of  Mercia,  211 
Ogilvj-,  Isabel,  274 

Walter,  274 
Olaf,  son  of  Brusi,  Earl  of  Cathanes,  51 

H\'iti,  King  of  Dublin,  34,  41 

of  Norway,  34 

of  Rurik,  31,  33 

Tryggvison,  King  of  Norway,  44 
Olaus,  King  of  Norway,  34,  50 
Olifard,  Family,  272 
Oliphant  Arms,  318 

Elizabeth  (Bruce),  94,  273 

Elizabeth  (Campbell),  274 

Elizabeth  (Keith),  275 

Family,  272 

Isabel  (Hay),  274 

Isabel  (Ogilvy)   274 

Isabel  (Stewart)   274 

Jean,  103,  276 

John,  273,  274 

Laurence,  274,  275 

Lawrence,  103 

Margaret  (Hay),  276 

Margaret  (Sandilands),  275 

Mary  (Erskine),  273 

Walter,  94,  273 

William,  273,  274 
Olith,  Princess  of  Scotland,  21,  48 
Ordgar  of  Devonshire,  218 
Ordmar  of  East  Anglia,  217 

Moselle,  234 
Orkney,  98 

Earls,  21,  34,  37,  41,  43,  49, 98,  201,  224 

Earls,  Arms  of,  314 
Ormonde,  James,  150 

Mary,  150 
Osburgha   Saxon  Queen  of  England,  213 
Oslac  the  Thane,  213 

Ostrida,  wife  of  Brusi,  Earl  of  Cathanes,  51 
Oswald,  Elizabeth,  122 

James  T.,  122 
Otho,  Duke  of  Saxony,  241 
Ottala  the  Brisk  of  Russia,  52 
Otto,  Emperor  of  Germany,  216 

Pagnel,  Agnes,  62 

Fulk,  62 
Papia,  wife  of  Richard  of  Normandy,  229 

wife  of  Rollo,  Duke  of  Normandy,  226 
Patton,  John,  140 
Pauncefort,  Rachel,  118 

Robert,  118 
Pepin  of  Herstal,  235 

of  Landen,  235 

II.,  le  Breuf,  237 
Perth,  Siege  of,  273 

Phoeniusa  Farsaidh,  King  of  Scythia,  183 
Plantagenet,  John,  167 
Preston,  John,  116 

Mary,  116 
Primrose,  Archibald,  116 

Margaret,  116 
Provence,  King  Beranger  of,  233 

Quincey,  Elena  de,  267 
Roger  de,  267 

Raclu-in  Island,  83 

Radbard,  King  of  Holmgard,  32 

Ragnhild,  daughter  of  King  Eric, ' 

Ragnor  Lodbrok,  44 

Rait  Castle,  100,  306 

Ramsay,  Emma,  58 

William,  58 
Randolph,  Agnes,  255 

Euphemia,  165 




Randolph,  Isabel  (Bruce),  71, 

John,  165 

Thomas,  71,  255 
Randver,  King  of  Holmgard,  32 
Rathlin  Island,  83 

Redburga,  Saxon  Queen  of  England,  212 
Regenwald  Wolfson,  Earl  of  Gothland,  51 
Reid,  .\lison,  110 

Bishop  Robert,  110 

WiUiam,  110 
Reuda,  192 
Riada,  192 
Richard  I.,  Duke  of  Normandy,  227,  262 

n.,  Duke  of  Normandy,  228 

UI.,  Duke  of  Normandy,  229 
Richilda,  Queen  of  Charles  le  Chauve,  240 
Robert  I.,  King  of  France,  234,  242 

Count  of  Corbeil,  227 

Duke  of  Normandy,  229 

Earl  of  Gloucester,  258 

King  of  Holmgard,  32 

son  of  David,  Earl  of  Huntingdon,  205 

son  of  Robert  the  Strong  of  France,  241 

son  of  William,  Duke  of  Normandy,  231 

the  Strong  of  France,  240 
Roberton,  James,  119 

Janet,  119 
Rognvaid  Earl  of  North  Mere,  224 

of  Norway,  34 

second  Earl  of  Orkney,  35 

son  of  Brusi,  Earl  of  Cathanes,  51 
Roland  of  Galloway,  266 
Rolf  Nefia  (Rollo)  of  Normandy,  21, 37, 224 
Rosala,  wife  of  Arnulf  II.,  233 
Rosl)-th  Castle,  99 
Ross,  David,  99 

Earl  Hugh  of,  72  161,  165 

Earl  of,  98 

Helen  (Bruce),  99 

Jean  (Stewart),  161 

Matilda  (Bruce)  of,  72 

Vv'illiam  of,  98 
Rosyth  Castle,  99,  101,  307 

Sackville,  Clementina.  112 
Edward,  112 
Herbron  de,  140 
Hodierna,  140 
WiUiam,  140 

St.  Aylmer  de  Tom's,  57 
St.  Ciair,  Agnes,  57 

Walderne,  57 

William,  57 
St.  Hillar}',  James  de,  264 

Maud  de,  264 
Saltre  Abbey,  64 
Sandilands,  James,  275 

Margaret,  275 
Sannu,  Charlotte,  Countess  of,  115 
Santo  Claro,  Walderne  of,  57 

William  de,  57 
Sarad,  daughter  of  Conn,  188 
Saucliie,  Battle  of,  171 
SaWlle,  Jane,  115 

William,  115 
Scone,  80,  284 

Battle  of,  202 
Scota,  daughter  of  Pharaoh,  183 

daughter  of  Pharaoh  Nectonibus,   184 
Scrimgeour,  Alexander,  99,  256 

Egidia,  257 

Family,  255 

James,  100,  257 

John,  100,  257 

Marie  (Bruce),  99 

Nicoll,  256 
Scudamore,  Katherine,  143 
Senlis,  Counts  of,  227 
Seton,  Christiana  (Bruce),  72 

Christopher,  72 
SejTnour,  Elizabetli,  115 

Henry,  115 
Shetland,  98 

Shrewsbury,  Battle  of,  99 
Sigarith,  wife  of  Waldeve  of  Dunbar,  266 
Sigelline,  Earl,  215 
Sightric,  King  of  Northumbria,  215 
Sigismund,  Arch-Duke  of  Austria,  169 
Sigurd,  Earl  of  Orkney,  21,  34,  44,  201 

Hringr,  King  of  Sweden,  32 

Rice,  son  of  King  Harold  of  Norway,  37 
Sinclair,  Adam,  103 

Helen  (Bruce),  103 

Hemy,  Earl  of  Orkney,  34 

Hugh,  103 

Isabel,  102 

Jean  (Bruce),  103 

Malcolm,  102 
Siward,  Earl  of  Northumberland,  201,  204 



Skene,  Helen,  118 

James,  118 
Skid  Myre,  Battle  of,  43 
Skioldr,  son  of  Odin,  30 
Skuli,  son  of  Thorfinn  Hausklifr,  43 
SkjTmeschour  Family,  256 
Smith,  Alice,  143 

Barbara  (Bruce),  103 
David,  103 
John,  143 
Solskel,  Battle  of,  36 
Solway,  Battle  of,  173,  275 
Somereld,  son  of  Sigurd,  Earl  of  Orkney, 
Somerlid,  Prince  of  Argyle,  44 
Somerville,  David,  271 

Elizabeth  (Elphinston),  271 

William  de,  277 
Standard,  Battle  of,  60,  204 
Staventon,  Joan,  143 
Stenhouse,  Bruces  of,  99 
Steward  of  Scotland,  93 
Steward,  Walter,  93 
Stewart,  Alexander,  251 

Alice  (Erskine),  161 

Annabella,  169 

Annabella  (Drummond),  166,  292 

Arms,  317 

Cecilia  (Dunbar),  160 

David,  101,  109,  307 

Earl  Patrick,  308 

Eleanor,  169 

Elizabeth,  101,  109,  169,  307 

Elizabeth  (Miu-e),  164 

Eupheme  (Elphinston),  271 

Euphemia  (Ross-Moray),  165 

Family,  25,  93,  153 

Henry,  174 

Isabel,  99,  169,  251,  274 

Isabel  (Graham),  162 

James,  159 

Janet,  169 

Jean,  100,  161 

Joan,  169 

Joanna  (Beaufort),  167 

John,  100,  158,  165,  274 

King  James  I.,  166 

King  James  II.,  169 

King  James  IH.,  170 

King  James  IV.,  171 

King  James  V.,  172,  271 

Stewart,  King  James  VI.,  174 
Iving  Robert  H.,  162 
King  Robert  HI.,  165 
Margaret,  of  France,  169 
Margaret  (Campbell),  103 
Margaret,  Queen  of  King  James,  171 
Margaret  (Tudor),  172 
Marion  (Herries),  101 
Marjory  (Bruce),  93,  153,  154,  162,  266 
Mary,  169,  173 
Mary  (Gelderland),  170 
Mary  (of  Guise),  173 
49  Matthew,  174 

of  Bonkyl,  158 
of  Rosyth,  308 

Robert,  98,  99,  102,  103,  271,  308 
Walter,  93,  153,  154,  160,  266 
Stirling  Castle,  86,  300 

Siege  of,  273 
Stirling,  Janet,  101 

William,  101 
Stone  of  Destiny,  The,  285 
Straigh-Cairmaic,  Battle  of,  195 
Strathearn,  Cliristiana  of,  272 
Streona,  Eadric,  219 
Strikathro,  Battle  of,  203 
Suan,  son  of  Thor,  157 
Sully,  Elizabeth  de,  67 

Raymond  de,  67 
Sumerlid  [Sumarlis],  son  of  Sigurd,  49 
Sutherland,  Anna,  104 
Earl  of,  94 
George,  104 
Janet,  104 

Kenneth,  Earl  of,  205 
Margaret  (Bruce),  94 
Mary  of,  250 
WiUiam,  94 
Sveide  of  Upland,  32,  33 
Swene,  King  of  Denmark,  229 

Talbot,  Elizabeth    (Hardwick-Cavendish), 
George,  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  144 
Taymouth,  92 
Theba,  Battle  of,  89 
Thebotau,  Duke  of  Sleswig,  32 
Thomas,  Thirteenth  Earl  of  Mar,  251 



Thora,  Princess  of  Scotland,  48,  201 

Thored,  Earl,  219 

Thorfinn,  Earl  of  Orkney,  40,  49,  50,  51,  201 

Thorgerde,  daughter  of  Ey-laug,  41 

Thorir,  son  of  Rognvald,  Earl  of  Orkney,  37 

Thorir  Wood-beard,  38 

Thorstein  Rauda,  40,  42 

Thrond,  King  of  I'rondheim,  32 

Thurbrandthe  Bald  of  Denmark,  51 

Thurid,  wife  of  Thorstein  Rauda,  42 

Thurstan  du  Beck,  52 

Thurston,  Archbishop  of  York,  59,  61 

Tora,  daughter  of  Find,  37 

Torf  Einar,  Earl  of  Orkney,  37 

Toulouse,  Constance  of,  242 

Count  William  of,  242 
Tours,  St.  Aylmer  de,  57 
Tuatha-de-Danan,  185 
Tudor,  Margaret,  172 

Mary,  115 
Turbrand  of  Norway,  51 
Tumberry  Castle,  84,  297 


Uchtred,  Earl  of  Northumberiand,  252 

of  Galloway,  265,  266 
Uhtred,  Earl,  219 
Ulfcytel  of  East  Anglia,  219 
Ulster,  Earl  of,  95 
Und  Deep-rich,  40,  41 
Ungas,  King  of  the  Picts,  197 
Unst  Island,  102 
Urgusia,  Scottish  Queen,  197 

Van  Sommelsdyck,  Corneille  Van  Arson,  117 

Veronica,  117 
Vere,  Diana,  114 

Henry,  114 
Vermandois,  Beatrix  of,  241 

Count  Heribert  of,  233,  241 

Counts  of,  241 

Isabel  of,  270 
Vermund,  King,  36 
Vipont,  Allan,  99 

Arms,  318 

Helen,  99 

Vitellan,  Lord  of  Ballenstedt,  32 


Waldamar  of  Russia,  52 

Waldere,  Fifth  Earl  of  Dunbar,  253 

Waldeve  of  Dunbar,  266 

Walter,  son  of  Fleance,  155 

Waltheof,  Earl  of  Northumberiand,  261 

of  Huntingdon,  204 

of  Northumberland,  Arms  of,  314 
Wardlaw,  Gelis,  101 

John,  101 
Warren,  Ada  de,  204,  261 
Warren  and  Surrey  Arms,  315 
Warrenne,  Adeline  de,  270 

Earls  of,  268 

Eari  William  of,  204 

Gundred  de,  268 

Isabel  de,  269 
Watten,  98,  104 

We-laug,  wife  of  Beom  Buna  of  Norway,  41 
Welphus  I.,  Count  of  Altorf,  239 
Werther-grim  of  Sogn,  41 
White,  Martha,  119 

Thomas,  119 
William,  Duke  of  Aquitaine,  227 

Duke  of  Normandy,  215,  227,  229,  230 

Eari  of  Gloucester,  264 

King  of  Scotland,  63,  205 

Lord  of  Latherisk,  249 

Ninth  Earl  of  Mar,  249 

of  Orange,  25 

Rufus,  King  of  England,  231 

Second  Earl  of  Gloucester,  260 
Wolfe,  Catherine,  321,  325,  328 

Catherine  (Busch),  328 

Catherine  (Forbes),  328 
Wolfe,  Da^^d,  321,  325,  328 

John  David,  328 
Wolstan,  Lord  of  Paston,  57 
Wulfhild,  daughter  of  King  Ethelred,  219 
Wulfrid,  Queen  of  King  Edgar,  217 
Wortley,  Richard,  144 
Wulfthryth,  Queen  of  King  Edgar,  217 

Yngwayild,  wife  of   Cetil    Flat-neb,  41 



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